Special Issue "Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lia Rimondini
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Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale “UPO”, Vercelli, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; dental materials; tissue regeneration; tissue engineering; oral medicine; bacterial biofilm; anti-iinfective technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Andrea Cochis
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Alessandria-Novara- Vervelli, Italy
Interests: oral implants; biomaterials; tissue regeneration
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Tissue regeneration is an attractive approach to restore and replace diseased or defective tissues for organs rehabilitation. It involves the use of proper scaffolds mimicking the extracellular matrix and able to support pivotal regenerative steps such cells signalling, recruitment, adhesion, proliferation and specific function. Accordingly, Scaffolds, signalling and cells are the magic Triad for regeneration.

In this scenario, Biomaterials take the challenge to reconstruct a suitable environment for cells function and, at the same time, to provide a mechanically robust three-dimensional structures protecting the healing process when clinically applied.

They should differently orchestrate the biological response in order i) to foster the growth of different types of tissues, and ii) to avoid infections during and after healing.

In addition, they should offer the possibility to monitoring the heling process and properly modify their properties in relation to the clinical needs.

The scope of this Special Issue, entitled “The Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration” is to provide the state-of-the-art of the research on the properties, the production, the characterization and the applications of biomaterials with contextual different properties addressed to optimize and monitor tissues regeneration.

This Special Issue aims at collecting experimental or theoretical review articles and leading-edge research papers dealing with biomaterials, stem cells biology, microbiology, in-vitro modeling for regenerative medicine applications

Prof. Dr. Lia Rimondini
Dr. Andrea Cochis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Multifunctional materials
  • biomaterials
  • scaffolds
  • implants
  • regenerative medicine
  • anti-infective materials
  • stem cells
  • organoids
  • organ-on-chip

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Electron Beam Structuring of Ti6Al4V: New Insights on the Metal Surface Properties Influencing the Bacterial Adhesion
Materials 2020, 13(2), 409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020409 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
Soft tissue adhesion and infection prevention are currently challenging for dental transmucosal or percutaneous orthopedic implants. It has previously been shown that aligned micro-grooves obtained by Electron Beam (EB) can drive fibroblast alignment for improved soft tissue adhesion. In this work, evidence is [...] Read more.
Soft tissue adhesion and infection prevention are currently challenging for dental transmucosal or percutaneous orthopedic implants. It has previously been shown that aligned micro-grooves obtained by Electron Beam (EB) can drive fibroblast alignment for improved soft tissue adhesion. In this work, evidence is presented that the same technique can also be effective for a reduction of the infection risk. Grooves 10–30 µm wide and around 0.2 µm deep were obtained on Ti6Al4V by EB. EB treatment changes the crystalline structure and microstructure in a surface layer that is thicker than the groove depth. Unexpectedly, a significant bacterial reduction was observed. The surfaces were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, confocal microscopy, contact profilometry, wettability and bacterial adhesion tests. The influence of surface topography, microstructure and crystallography on bacterial adhesion was systematically investigated: it was evidenced that the bacterial reduction after EB surface treatment is not correlated with the grooves, but with the microstructure induced by the EB treatment, with a significant bacterial reduction when the surface microstructure has a high density of grain boundaries. This correlation between microstructure and bacterial adhesion was reported for the first time for Ti alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration)
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Article
Cell-Free Demineralized Bone Matrix for Mesenchymal Stem Cells Survival and Colonization
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1360; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091360 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Decellularized bone matrix is receiving much attention as biological scaffolds and implantable biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a cell-free demineralized bone matrix on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation in vitro. The seeding of human umbilical [...] Read more.
Decellularized bone matrix is receiving much attention as biological scaffolds and implantable biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a cell-free demineralized bone matrix on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) survival and differentiation in vitro. The seeding of human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUC-SCs) on decellularized bone matrices up to 14 days was exploited, assessing their capability of scaffold colonization and evaluating gene expression of bone markers. Light and Scanning Electron Microscopies were used. The obtained cell-free decalcified structures showed elastic moduli attributable to both topology and biochemical composition. Morphological observation evidenced an almost complete colonization of the scaffolds after 14 days of culture. Moreover, in hUC-SCs cultured on decalcified scaffolds, without the addition of any osteoinductive media, there was an upregulation of Collagen Type I (COL1) and osteonectin (ON) gene expression, especially on day 14. Modifications in the expression of genes engaged in stemness were also detected. In conclusion, the proposed decellularized bone matrix can induce the in vitro hUC-SCs differentiation and has the potential to be tested for in in vivo tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration)
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Article
Influence of Porous Dressings Based on Butyric-Acetic Chitin Co-Polymer on Biological Processes In Vitro and In Vivo
Materials 2019, 12(6), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060970 - 23 Mar 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1034
Abstract
In spite of intensively conducted research allowing for the development of more and more advanced wound dressing materials, there is still a need for dressings that stimulate not only reparative and regenerative processes, but also have a positive effect on infected and/or difficult-to-heal [...] Read more.
In spite of intensively conducted research allowing for the development of more and more advanced wound dressing materials, there is still a need for dressings that stimulate not only reparative and regenerative processes, but also have a positive effect on infected and/or difficult-to-heal wounds. Porous dressing materials based on butyric-acetic chitin co-polyester containing 90% of butyryl and 10% of acetyl groups (BAC 90/10) can also be included in the group mentioned above. Two types of dressings were obtained by the salt leaching method, i.e. a porous sponge Medisorb R and Medisorb Ag with an antibacterial additive. The aim of the study was to evaluate biological effects of porous Medisorb R and Medisorb Ag dressings under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In an in vitro biodegradation test, no mass loss of Medisorb R dressing was observed within 14 days of incubation in physiological fluids at 37 °C. However, on the basis of the FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) tests, surface degradation of Medisorb R dressing was observed. Additionally, the antibacterial activity of the porous Medisorb Ag dressing containing microsilver as an antibacterial additive was confirmed. The in vivo studies included inflammatory activity, skin irritation and sensitisation tests, as well an assessment of local effect after contact with subcutaneous tissue up to 6 months and skin wounds up to 21 days. In the in vivo tests, the dressings exhibited neither effects of skin irritation nor sensitisation. Under macroscopic examination, in full thickness defects of subcutaneous tissue and skin, the dressings caused wound healing with no inflammation, undergoing the most gradual biodegradation between weeks 4 and 8, and the observed differences were statistically significant. In the histological assessment, a weakened, limited inflammatory process associated with degradation of the material has been observed. The process of skin wound healing under Medisorb R dressing in the early period was accelerated compared to that observed in the control group with a gauze dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration)
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Review

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Review
Nanotechnology Scaffolds for Alveolar Bone Regeneration
Materials 2020, 13(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010201 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
In oral biology, tissue engineering aims at regenerating functional tissues through a series of key events that occur during alveolar/periodontal tissue formation and growth, by means of scaffolds that deliver signaling molecules and cells. Due to their excellent physicochemical properties and biomimetic features, [...] Read more.
In oral biology, tissue engineering aims at regenerating functional tissues through a series of key events that occur during alveolar/periodontal tissue formation and growth, by means of scaffolds that deliver signaling molecules and cells. Due to their excellent physicochemical properties and biomimetic features, nanomaterials are attractive alternatives offering many advantages for stimulating cell growth and promoting tissue regeneration through tissue engineering. The main aim of this article was to review the currently available literature to provide an overview of the different nano-scale scaffolds as key factors of tissue engineering for alveolar bone regeneration procedures. In this narrative review, PubMed, Medline, Scopus and Cochrane electronic databases were searched using key words like “tissue engineering”, “regenerative medicine”, “alveolar bone defects”, “alveolar bone regeneration”, “nanomaterials”, “scaffolds”, “nanospheres” and “nanofibrous scaffolds”. No limitation regarding language, publication date and study design was set. Hand-searching of the reference list of identified articles was also undertaken. The aim of this article was to give a brief introduction to review the role of different nanoscaffolds for bone regeneration and the main focus was set to underline their role for alveolar bone regeneration procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration)
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Review
PMMA-Based Bone Cements and the Problem of Joint Arthroplasty Infections: Status and New Perspectives
Materials 2019, 12(23), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12234002 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement is a biomaterial that has been used over the last 50 years to stabilize hip and knee implants or as a bone filler. Although PMMA-based bone cement is widely used and allows a fast-primary fixation to the bone, [...] Read more.
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement is a biomaterial that has been used over the last 50 years to stabilize hip and knee implants or as a bone filler. Although PMMA-based bone cement is widely used and allows a fast-primary fixation to the bone, it does not guarantee a mechanically and biologically stable interface with bone, and most of all it is prone to bacteria adhesion and infection development. In the 1970s, antibiotic-loaded bone cements were introduced to reduce the infection rate in arthroplasty; however, the efficiency of antibiotic-containing bone cement is still a debated issue. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has investigated new approaches to impart antibacterial properties to PMMA bone cement. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status regarding antibiotic-loaded PMMA-based bone cements, fill the gap regarding the lack of data on antibacterial bone cement, and explore the progress of antibacterial bone cement formulations, focusing attention on the new perspectives. In particular, this review highlights the innovative study of composite bone cements containing inorganic antibacterial and bioactive phases, which are a fascinating alternative that can impart both osteointegration and antibacterial properties to PMMA-based bone cement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration)
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