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PMMA-Based Bone Cements and the Problem of Joint Arthroplasty Infections: Status and New Perspectives

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AO Citta’ della Salute e della Scienza. CTO Hospital, Department of Orthopedics. Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Turin, Italy
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IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Department of Surgical Sciences and Integrated Diagnostics, University of Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova, Italy
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Department of Applied Science and Technology, PolitoBIOMed Lab, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca Degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(23), 4002; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12234002
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 14 November 2019 / Accepted: 25 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multifunctional Materials in Tissue Regeneration)
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement is a biomaterial that has been used over the last 50 years to stabilize hip and knee implants or as a bone filler. Although PMMA-based bone cement is widely used and allows a fast-primary fixation to the bone, it does not guarantee a mechanically and biologically stable interface with bone, and most of all it is prone to bacteria adhesion and infection development. In the 1970s, antibiotic-loaded bone cements were introduced to reduce the infection rate in arthroplasty; however, the efficiency of antibiotic-containing bone cement is still a debated issue. For these reasons, in recent years, the scientific community has investigated new approaches to impart antibacterial properties to PMMA bone cement. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status regarding antibiotic-loaded PMMA-based bone cements, fill the gap regarding the lack of data on antibacterial bone cement, and explore the progress of antibacterial bone cement formulations, focusing attention on the new perspectives. In particular, this review highlights the innovative study of composite bone cements containing inorganic antibacterial and bioactive phases, which are a fascinating alternative that can impart both osteointegration and antibacterial properties to PMMA-based bone cement. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymethyl methacrylate-based bone cement; additives; antibiotics; antibacterial; bioactive polymethyl methacrylate-based bone cement; additives; antibiotics; antibacterial; bioactive
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Bistolfi, A.; Ferracini, R.; Albanese, C.; Vernè, E.; Miola, M. PMMA-Based Bone Cements and the Problem of Joint Arthroplasty Infections: Status and New Perspectives. Materials 2019, 12, 4002.

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