Special Issue "Malignant and Potentially Malignant Disorders of the Oral Cavity: Updates from Pathogenesis to Therapy"

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 March 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lia Rimondini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale “UPO”, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; dental materials; tissue regeneration; tissue engineering; oral medicine; bacterial biofilm; anti-iinfective technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Elena Maria Varoni
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Interests: Oral diseases; Oral health; Bioactive Phytochemicals; Biomaterials; Nanomaterials; Drug delivery systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, “Malignant and Potentially Malignant Disorders of the Oral Cavity: Updates from Pathogenesis to Therapy”, will focus on pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of malignant and potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity, but not limited to only these aspects.

It is open to both clinical and pre-clinical research, in a multi-disciplinary approach, and covers both original articles and reviews.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents the most frequent malignant tumor of the oral cavity with an estimated annual incidence of 529,000 new cases (including the oral cavity and pharynx), and more than 300,000 deaths. Recent trends highlight an increasing incidence in young women. Alcohol and smoking habits are still the main risk factors, although the role of Human Papilloma Virus has been recently debated. At advanced stages, the five-year survival is about 50%, so prevention is strongly recommended. New trends in therapy of advanced stages have been also introduced in the last few years, including immunotherapy.

Often, OSCC derives from oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), which include those mucosal lesions with greater chance to transform in cancer, e.g., oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, palatal lesions in reverse smokers, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, actinic keratosis, and discoid lupus erythematous. No reliable prognostic factor nor treatment is currently available to avoid their risk of malignant transformation, and the need for clarifying the process of “field cancerization” is still demanding.

Oral conditions and their associations with other systemic malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases will be considered as well.

Prof. Dr. Lia Rimondini
Dr. Elena Maria Varoni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Biomedicines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • leukoplakia
  • erythroplakia
  • immunotherapy
  • smoking
  • Human Papilloma Virus
  • field cancerization
  • oral microbiome

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Periodontitis Stage III–IV, Grade C and Correlated Factors: A Histomorphometric Study
Biomedicines 2019, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020043 - 12 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background: Periodontitis is a disease that leads to serious functional and esthetic dysfunctions. Periodontitis exists in different forms, and its etiology is related to multiple component causes. Two key processes involved in the evolution of this pathology are angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltrate. The [...] Read more.
Background: Periodontitis is a disease that leads to serious functional and esthetic dysfunctions. Periodontitis exists in different forms, and its etiology is related to multiple component causes. Two key processes involved in the evolution of this pathology are angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltrate. The aim of this study was to understand if important factors such as smoking, gender, age, plaque, pus, and probing pocket depth could influence the histomorphological pattern of generalized stage III–IV, grade C periodontitis (GPIII–IVC), which is a particular form of periodontitis. Methods: Eighteen subjects with GPIII–IVC were enrolled in this study. The percentage of inflammatory cells and the vascular area were measured and evaluated in relation to each periodontal disease-associated factor. Results: Females showed a significant increase in the percentage of inflammatory cells compared to males (6.29% vs. 2.28%, p-value = 0.020) and it was higher in non-smokers than in smokers (4.56% vs. 3.14%, p-value = 0.048). Young patients showed a significant increase in vascular area percentage compared to older patients (0.60% vs. 0.46%, p-value = 0.0006) and this percentage was also higher in non-smokers compared to smokers (0.41% vs. 0.55%, p-value = 0.0008). The vascular area was also more than halved in subjects with residual plaque on tooth surfaces (0.74% vs. 0.36%, p-value = 0.0005). Conclusions: These results suggested that even if these factors are commonly related to the worsening of periodontal status, some of them (pus and periodontal probing depth (PPD)) do not affect the inflammatory and vascular patterns. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Oral and Psychological Alterations in Haemophiliac Patients
Biomedicines 2019, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7020033 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 11
Abstract
Haemophiliacs are hereditary coagulopathies whose basic anomaly consists of the quantitative or qualitative alteration of one or more plasma proteins in the coagulation system. The objective of this review is to analyse all risk factors, predispositions and alterations to the oral-maxillofacial district in [...] Read more.
Haemophiliacs are hereditary coagulopathies whose basic anomaly consists of the quantitative or qualitative alteration of one or more plasma proteins in the coagulation system. The objective of this review is to analyse all risk factors, predispositions and alterations to the oral-maxillofacial district in patients with haemophilia. The broader assessment also includes the psychological aspects that could affect the treatment and maintenance of oral conditions. The study takes into consideration all the works in the literature in the last 10 years. Works that present oral, dental and psychological changes in haemophilia patients have been combined. A total of 16 studies were analysed carefully evaluating and explaining all the alterations and risk factors that this disease provides. The aim of the review is to report all the anomalies reported in the literature for these patients, and to direct and update the clinician in the treatment of haemophilia patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Oral Dysbiosis in Pancreatic Cancer and Liver Cirrhosis: A Review of the Literature
Biomedicines 2018, 6(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040115 - 11 Dec 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
The human body is naturally colonized by a huge number of different commensal microbial species, in a relatively stable equilibrium. When this microbial community undergoes dysbiosis at any part of the body, it interacts with the innate immune system and results in a [...] Read more.
The human body is naturally colonized by a huge number of different commensal microbial species, in a relatively stable equilibrium. When this microbial community undergoes dysbiosis at any part of the body, it interacts with the innate immune system and results in a poor health status, locally or systemically. Research studies show that bacteria are capable of significantly influencing specific cells of the immune system, resulting in many diseases, including a neoplastic response. Amongst the multiple different types of diseases, pancreatic cancer and liver cirrhosis were significantly considered in this paper, as they are major fatal diseases. Recently, these two diseases were shown to be associated with increased or decreased numbers of certain oral bacterial species. These findings open the way for a broader perception and more specific investigative studies, to better understand the possible future treatment and prevention. This review aims to describe the correlation between oral dysbiosis and both pancreatic cancer and liver cirrhotic diseases, as well as demonstrating the possible diagnostic and treatment modalities, relying on the oral microbiota, itself, as prospective, simple, applicable non-invasive approaches to patients, by focusing on the state of the art. PubMed was electronically searched, using the following key words: “oral microbiota” and “pancreatic cancer” (PC), “liver cirrhosis”, “systemic involvement”, and “inflammatory mediators”. Oral dysbiosis is a common problem related to poor oral or systemic health conditions. Oral pathogens can disseminate to distant body organs via the local, oral blood circulation, or pass through the gastrointestinal tract and enter the systemic circulation. Once oral pathogens reach an organ, they modify the immune response and stimulate the release of the inflammatory mediators, this results in a disease. Recent studies have reported a correlation between oral dysbiosis and the increased risk of pancreatic and liver diseases and provided evidence of the presence of oral pathogens in diseased organs. The profound impact that microbial communities have on human health, provides a wide domain towards precisely investigating and clearly understanding the mechanism of many diseases, including cancer. Oral microbiota is an essential contributor to health status and imbalance in this community was correlated to oral and systemic diseases. The presence of elevated numbers of certain oral bacteria, particularly P. gingivalis, as well as elevated levels of blood serum antibodies, against this bacterial species, was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer and liver cirrhosis incidence. Attempts are increasingly directed towards investigating the composition of oral microbiome as a simple diagnostic approach in multiple diseases, including pancreatic and liver pathosis. Moreover, treatment efforts are concerned in the recruitment of microbiota, for remedial purposes of the aforementioned and other different diseases. Further investigation is required to confirm and clarify the role of oral microbiota in enhancing pancreatic and liver diseases. Improving the treatment modalities requires an exertion of more effort, especially, concerning the microbiome engineering and oral microbiota transplantation. Full article

Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Use of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF)-Based Autologous Membranes for Tooth Extraction in Patients under Bisphosphonate Therapy: A Case Report
Biomedicines 2019, 7(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7040089 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Tooth extraction in patients treated with bisphosphonates (BPs) for osteoporosis or cancer exposes the patient to the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. An autologous membrane using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an innovative technique to promote wound healing, which allows obtaining a hermetic [...] Read more.
Tooth extraction in patients treated with bisphosphonates (BPs) for osteoporosis or cancer exposes the patient to the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. An autologous membrane using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an innovative technique to promote wound healing, which allows obtaining a hermetic closure of the post-extractive surgical site without the need of mucoperiosteal flaps or periosteal releasing incisions. Here, we report the case of a 70-year-old woman, in therapy with alendronate for 12 years, requiring the upper right premolar extraction because of a crown fracture. After the tooth extraction performed under antiseptic and antibiotic coverage, the PRF autologous membrane was placed on the surgical wound to close completely the post-extraction site. Follow-up visits were carried out after one, two, four weeks and two months from the intervention. The complete re-epithelization of the wound was observed without signs of infection. The use of PRF for the closure of post-extraction sockets in patients taking BPs appears to be a promising alternative to the more invasive surgical procedures. Future clinical trials will be pivotal in elucidating the effectiveness of PRF to prevent BP-related osteonecrosis after tooth extraction. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Zimmermann-Laband-1 Syndrome: Clinical, Histological, and Proteomic Findings of a 3-Year-Old Patient with Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis
Biomedicines 2019, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7030048 - 29 Jun 2019
Abstract
Background: Zimmermann-Laband-1 syndrome (ZLS-1; OMIM# 135500) is a rare genetic disorder whose oral pathognomonic sign is the development of progressive, diffuse, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Most children with abnormally gingival hyperplasia may also present multiple unerupted teeth and skeletal deformities of maxillary arches [...] Read more.
Background: Zimmermann-Laband-1 syndrome (ZLS-1; OMIM# 135500) is a rare genetic disorder whose oral pathognomonic sign is the development of progressive, diffuse, and severe gingival hypertrophy. Most children with abnormally gingival hyperplasia may also present multiple unerupted teeth and skeletal deformities of maxillary arches (i.e., skeletal anterior open bite). Despite phenotypic variability of the clinical spectrum, gingival fibromatosis is the hallmark of ZLS-1. Method: In this study, we report a 3-year-old male patient with a ZLS-1-related gingival overgrowth and failure of eruption of the deciduous teeth in the molar area. Surgical excision was performed under general anesthesia. Results: At three weeks follow-up, esthetics was significantly improved in terms of gingival appearance, and teeth eruption allowed an adequate masticatory function. Conclusion: In severe cases, surgical removal of the hyperplasic fibrous tissue may be required to expose unerupted teeth and establish a proper gingival contour. Surgical excision under general anesthesia is an elective procedure for patients with special needs, mental disability, as well as young and adult patients with dental anxiety type II and IV associated with poor oral health. Full article
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