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Special Issue "Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Carbon Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2019.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yuri Svirko

University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Photonics, Joensuu, FI-80100 Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: carbon nanomaterials; nonlinear optics; nonlinear optical spectroscopy; nanophotonics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Overcrowding of the spectral bands allocated for different communication channels has made Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) crucial, especially for satellite and airplane communication systems, in which footprint and weight are critical issues. Our Special Issue requires the development of novel coatings, shields, and filters that prevent the degradation of system performance in densely-populated EM environment.

Materials to be used for EM protective coating in future communication and nanoelectronic devices must have a high electrical conductivity for a good electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Moreover, in order to avoid microwave pollution due to radiation reflected from the protective coating, SE should be provided by absorption rather than reflection losses. It is worth noting also that protection of the future nanodevices require submicron thick shields, making useless conventional conductive coatings capable to produce an EM attenuation of up to 3 dB/mm.

The challenging problem of the EMI protection at the nanoscale may be resolved if one exploits low sheet resistance, ultra-small thickness and ultra-light weight of graphene, which is an excellent candidate for designing functional materials for EM applications. Compared to conventional metal-based EMI shielding materials, using carbon-based conducting composites is advantageous for satellite applications because of their low weight, small thickness, and flexibility. These include polymer composites containing exfoliated graphite, graphene nanoplatelets, carbon black, carbon fibers and nanofibers, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and carbon onions.

This Special Issue will address the physics and technology of the carbon-based microwave and THz shields, problems related to interaction of the EM waves graphene, CNT and relevant composites, and also physical mechanisms responsible for attenuation of the EM waves in carbon-based materials.

It is my pleasure to invite you to submit communications, full papers and reviews to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Yuri Svirko
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • electromagnetic interference (EMI), shielding effectiveness (SE), graphene, CNT, carbon-polymer composites
  • carbon functional material
  • microwave absorption
  • THz radiation

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Angle-Insensitive and Tunable Dual-Band THz Absorber Using Periodic Cross-Shaped Graphene Arrays
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132063
Received: 29 May 2019 / Revised: 23 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
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Abstract
A dual-band terahertz (THz) absorber using the periodic cross-shaped graphene arrays is presented. It is shown that the dual-band light absorption enhancement of graphene results from the edge graphene plasmon (EGP) resonance, and the locations of the two absorption peaks can be precisely [...] Read more.
A dual-band terahertz (THz) absorber using the periodic cross-shaped graphene arrays is presented. It is shown that the dual-band light absorption enhancement of graphene results from the edge graphene plasmon (EGP) resonance, and the locations of the two absorption peaks can be precisely estimated by using the Fabry-Pérot (F-P) cavity model. Slight residual reflection remains at the two absorption peaks because the input impedance of the cross-arm cannot be perfectly matched with the free space impedance. In addition, the locations of the two absorption bands can be simultaneously tuned by changing the Fermi level of graphene, and they can be independently tuned by changing the width or the length of the cross-arm of graphene. Excellent angle-insensitivity dual-band absorption enhancement of graphene can be maintained for both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessArticle
Percolative Composites with Carbon Nanohorns: Low-Frequency and Ultra-High Frequency Response
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111848
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
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Abstract
We systematically studied the electromagnetic properties of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) and polystyrene composites filled with CNHs in static regime, low frequency and microwave regions. CNHs were synthesized using the direct current arc-discharge method using solid graphite rods and graphite rods filled by melamine [...] Read more.
We systematically studied the electromagnetic properties of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) and polystyrene composites filled with CNHs in static regime, low frequency and microwave regions. CNHs were synthesized using the direct current arc-discharge method using solid graphite rods and graphite rods filled by melamine mixed with graphite powder. Transmission electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis showed that CNH agglomerates are the main product, while the addition of melamine promotes the formation of graphite balls. Graphitic contamination causes the internal leakage of inter-agglomerate capacity, lowering the permittivity and enhancing the conductivity of composites. The permittivity of CNH/polystyrene composites increases with the filler fraction, and near the dielectric threshold electromagnetic characteristics of the composites exhibit critical behaviour. Our results suggest that CNHs with relatively high values of permittivity and contact resistance could be used as high-k materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Improved Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Properties Through the Use of Segregate Carbon Nanotube Networks
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091395
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract
We report the enhanced electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT) composites consisting of more than two kinds of fillers through the use of segregate conducting networks. An excluded volume was created by micro-sized silica particles that concentrate the CNT [...] Read more.
We report the enhanced electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of hybrid carbon nanotube (CNT) composites consisting of more than two kinds of fillers through the use of segregate conducting networks. An excluded volume was created by micro-sized silica particles that concentrate the CNT network, resulting in improved electrical conductivity and microwave properties. To achieve the optimal dispersion of CNTs and silica particles, high shear force was applied to the pre-cured composite mixture via three-roll milling. Depending on the micro-silica content ratio, we observed improved electrical conductivity and EMI shielding properties. For a quantitative comparison to observe the excluded-volume effects, a CNT composite without micro-silica was measured in parallel with the other sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Ultra-Light Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Aerogel/Foam Absorber of Microwave Radiation
Materials 2019, 12(2), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020213
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 4 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We present the polarization-dependent highly absorptive in Ka-band composition of conventional polyurethane foam filled with in situ synthesized aerogel coated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO-based aerogel was in situ prepared into the open-cell polyurethane foam (PUF) skeleton through a bidirectional freeze-drying [...] Read more.
We present the polarization-dependent highly absorptive in Ka-band composition of conventional polyurethane foam filled with in situ synthesized aerogel coated by reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO-based aerogel was in situ prepared into the open-cell polyurethane foam (PUF) skeleton through a bidirectional freeze-drying process. The aerogel is composed of the flat lamellas stacks, possessing the anisotropic structure and unique electromagnetic properties. Further improvement of the electromagnetic shielding ability was possible by the rGO coating introduction as a coupling layer between PUF and rGO-based aerogel. This enhances the overall conductivity of the resulting composites: 1.41 + 3.33i S/m vs. 0.9 + 2.45i S/m for PUF loaded with in situ synthesized aerogel without rGO coating.With this mechanically robust plane easy to process coating one could achieve −20 dB by power with the record light structure (0.0462 g/cm2). That could compete in view of the weight per cm2 even with graphene-based absorbers comprising either dielectric matching elements or back metal reflectors, or both. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessArticle
Tunable Perfect THz Absorber Based on a Stretchable Ultrathin Carbon-Polymer Bilayer
Materials 2019, 12(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010143
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 4 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By exploring the Salisbury screen approach, we propose and demonstrate a thin film absorber of terahertz (THz) radiation. The absorber is comprised of a less than 100 nm thick layer of pyrolytic carbon deposited on a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film followed by the [...] Read more.
By exploring the Salisbury screen approach, we propose and demonstrate a thin film absorber of terahertz (THz) radiation. The absorber is comprised of a less than 100 nm thick layer of pyrolytic carbon deposited on a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film followed by the metal film. We demonstrate that being overall less than 200 microns thick, such a sandwich structure absorbs resonantly up to 99.9%of the incident THz radiation, and that the absorption resonance is determined by the polymer thickness, which can be adjusted by stretching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessArticle
Graphene Based Controllable Broadband Terahertz Metamaterial Absorber with Transmission Band
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122409
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 22 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A graphene-based controllable broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber with transmission band is presented in this paper. It consists of a graphene-SiO2-frequency selective surface (FSS) sandwich structure. The sinusoidal graphene layer supports continuous plasmonic resonances, forming a broad electric-tuning absorbing band. Bandpass FSS [...] Read more.
A graphene-based controllable broadband terahertz metamaterial absorber with transmission band is presented in this paper. It consists of a graphene-SiO2-frequency selective surface (FSS) sandwich structure. The sinusoidal graphene layer supports continuous plasmonic resonances, forming a broad electric-tuning absorbing band. Bandpass FSS constructs a transmission window outside the absorbing band. The simulation results indicate that the absorption from 0.5 THz to 1 THz can be tuned continuously from 0.4 to 0.9 with angle and polarization independence. A transparent window peaking at 1.65 THz maintains high transmittance over 0.7. The metamaterial absorber has potential applications for detection, stealth, filtering, and electromagnetic compatibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of the Carbon Fiber-Carbon Microcoil Hybrid Formation on the Effectiveness of Electromagnetic Wave Shielding on Carbon Fibers-Based Fabrics
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122344
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon fiber-carbon microcoil (CF-CMC) hybrids were formed on carbon fiber (CF)-based fabric. The morphologies of CF-based fabrics and CF-CMC hybridized fabrics were investigated. The electrical conductivities of the CF-CMC hybridized fabrics were examined and compared with those of native CF-based fabrics. Furthermore, the [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber-carbon microcoil (CF-CMC) hybrids were formed on carbon fiber (CF)-based fabric. The morphologies of CF-based fabrics and CF-CMC hybridized fabrics were investigated. The electrical conductivities of the CF-CMC hybridized fabrics were examined and compared with those of native CF-based fabrics. Furthermore, the electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness (SE) of the CF-CMC hybridized fabrics was investigated across operating frequencies in the 8.0–12.0 GHz range, and the results were compared with those for native CF-based fabrics. For the CF-based nonwoven fabrics, the SE values were improved by the CF-CMC hybridization reaction, although the electrical conductivities of the nonwoven fabric were reduced by the CF-CMC hybrid formation. For the CF-based woven fabrics, the SE values were improved by more than twofold throughout the entire range of frequencies, owing to the CF-CMC hybrid formation. This dramatic improvement was partly ascribed to the enhanced electrical conductivity, particularly in the transverse direction to the individual CFs. Owing to the increased thickness of the woven or nonwoven fabrics after the CF-CMC hybrid formation and the intrinsic characteristics of CMCs, the absorption mechanism for the SE was determined for the main factor that contributed to the improvement of the SE values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessArticle
Gamma Irradiation-Induced Preparation of Graphene–Ni Nanocomposites with Efficient Electromagnetic Wave Absorption
Materials 2018, 11(11), 2145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11112145
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
A facile and environmentally friendly method is proposed to prepare reduced graphene oxide–nickel (RGO–Ni) nanocomposites using γ-ray irradiation. Graphene oxide (GO) and Ni2+ are reduced by the electrons which originated from the gamma radiolysis of H2O. The structure and morphology [...] Read more.
A facile and environmentally friendly method is proposed to prepare reduced graphene oxide–nickel (RGO–Ni) nanocomposites using γ-ray irradiation. Graphene oxide (GO) and Ni2+ are reduced by the electrons which originated from the gamma radiolysis of H2O. The structure and morphology of the obtained RGO–Ni nanocomposites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that Ni nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the surface of the RGO nanosheets. As expected, the combination of RGO nanosheets and Ni nanoparticles improved the electromagnetic wave absorption because of the better impedance matching. RGO–Ni nanocomposites exhibited efficient electromagnetic wave absorption performance. The minimum reflection loss (RL) of RGO–Ni reached −24.8 dB, and the highest effective absorption bandwidth was up to 6.9 GHz (RL < −10 dB) with a layer thickness of 9 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Open AccessArticle
Decorating MOF-Derived Nanoporous Co/C in Chain-Like Polypyrrole (PPy) Aerogel: A Lightweight Material with Excellent Electromagnetic Absorption
Materials 2018, 11(5), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11050781
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
To clear away the harmful effects of the increment of electromagnetic pollution, high performance absorbers with appropriate impedance matching and strong attenuation capacity are strongly desired. In this study, a chain-like PPy aerogel decorated with MOF-derived nanoporous Co/C (Co/[email protected]) has been successfully prepared [...] Read more.
To clear away the harmful effects of the increment of electromagnetic pollution, high performance absorbers with appropriate impedance matching and strong attenuation capacity are strongly desired. In this study, a chain-like PPy aerogel decorated with MOF-derived nanoporous Co/C (Co/[email protected]) has been successfully prepared by a self-assembled polymerization method. With a filler loading ratio of 10 wt %, the composite of Co/[email protected] could achieve a promising electromagnetic absorption performance both in intensity and bandwidth. An optimal reflection loss value of −44.76 dB is achieved, and the effective bandwidth (reflection loss lower than −10 dB) is as large as 6.56 GHz. Furthermore, a composite only loaded with 5 wt % Co/[email protected] also achieves an effective bandwidth of 5.20 GHz, which is even better than numerous reported electromagnetic absorption (EA) materials. The result reveals that the as-fabricated Co/[email protected]—with high absorption intensity, broad bandwidth, and light weight properties—can be utilized as a competitive absorber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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Other

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Open AccessLetter
A New Broadband and Strong Absorption Performance FeCO3/RGO Microwave Absorption Nanocomposites
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132206
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
PDF Full-text (1729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel composite of FeCO3 nanoparticles, which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated using a facile one-spot solvothermal method. The composite consists of a substrate of RGO and FeCO3 nanoparticles that are embedded in the RGO layers. The [...] Read more.
A novel composite of FeCO3 nanoparticles, which are wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), is fabricated using a facile one-spot solvothermal method. The composite consists of a substrate of RGO and FeCO3 nanoparticles that are embedded in the RGO layers. The experimental results for the FeCO3/RGO composite reveal a minimum refection loss (−44.5 dB) at 11.9 GHz when the thickness reaches 2.4 mm. The effective bandwidth is 7.9 GHz between 10.1 and 18 GHz when the refection loss was below −10 dB. Compared to GO and RGO, this type of composite shows better microwave absorption thanks to improved impedance matching. Overall, this thin and lightweight FeCO3/RGO composite is a promising candidate for absorbers that require both strong and broad absorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Based Functional Microwave Shields)
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