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Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 46288

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, Russia
Interests: additive manufacturing; combinatorial design of advanced materials; functional graded materials and devices; MMC & PMC
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Design, manufacturing and the definition of new applications for metal and polymer matrix composites are high perspectives for modern materials science. The great potential of these materials (their unique combination of properties) and their advantages over monolithic materials attract the attention of researchers in various fields of knowledge.

The proposed Special Issue will cover all areas related to theory and methodology, science, technology, and applications of functional and structural metal and polymer matrix composites that can operate in wide temperature and pressure ranges in various multifunctional devices.

MMC and PMC materials have unique advantages over monolithic materials, such as high strength, high stiffness, long fatigue life, low density, and adaptability to the intended function of the structure. Significant advances have been made in their design, advanced manufacturing and applications. The development of continuous fiber composites and particulate composites for critical applications continues to be researched. To obtain metal, ceramics and polymer matrix composites, it is necessary to solve important fundamental problems concerning the evolution of the hierarchical structure of materials during advanced technological processing. An important role in the process of material creation concerns the simulation of structural and functional properties by designing structures at atomic and molecular levels.

Hot topics to be covered by the Special Issue:

  • Composite materials on the basis of metals and alloys
  • Composite materials with polymer matrixes
  • Composite materials on the basis of ceramics
  • Advanced technologies of composite materials manufacturing including 3D printing
  • Testing of composites, peculiarities of new methods
  • Organic spintronics
  • Various applications of advanced MMC and PMC materials

Assoc. Prof. Igor V. Shishkovsky
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metal matrix composites (MMC)
  • polymer matrix composites (PMC)
  • ceramic matrix composites (CMC)
  • combinatorial design and prototyping of composites, multilevel relationship between properties (e.g., between microstructure, chemical composition, processing and volume properties)
  • relationship between the experimental testing and predictive modeling of MMC/PMC/CMC

Published Papers (13 papers)

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26 pages, 19156 KiB  
Article
Investigations on Melt Flow Rate and Tensile Behaviour of Single, Double and Triple-Sized Copper Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites
by Balwant Singh, Raman Kumar, Jasgurpreet Singh Chohan, Sunpreet Singh, Catalin Iulian Pruncu, Maria Luminita Scutaru and Radu Muntean
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3504; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133504 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Thermoplastic composite materials are emerging rapidly due to the flexibility of attaining customized mechanical and melt flow properties. Due to high ductility, toughness, recyclability, and thermal and electrical conductivity, there is ample scope of using copper particles in thermoplastics for 3d printing applications. [...] Read more.
Thermoplastic composite materials are emerging rapidly due to the flexibility of attaining customized mechanical and melt flow properties. Due to high ductility, toughness, recyclability, and thermal and electrical conductivity, there is ample scope of using copper particles in thermoplastics for 3d printing applications. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the Melt Flow Index (MFI), tensile strength, and electrical and thermal conductivity of nylon 6 and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) thermoplastics reinforced with copper particles. Thus, the experiments were conducted by adding different-sized copper particles (100 mesh, 200 mesh, and 400 mesh) in variable compositions (0% to 10%) to ABS and nylon 6 matrix. The impact of single, double, and triple particle-sized copper particles on MFI was experimentally investigated followed by FTIR and SEM analysis. Also, the tensile, electrical, and thermal conductivity testing were done on filament made by different compositions. In general, higher fluidity and mechanical strength were obtained while using smaller particles even with higher concentrations (up to 8%) due to improved bonding strength and adhesion between the molecular chains. Moreover, thermal and electrical conductivity was improved with an increase in concentration of copper particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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19 pages, 37570 KiB  
Article
Predictive Optimization of Electrical Conductivity of Polycarbonate Composites at Different Concentrations of Carbon Nanotubes: A Valorization of Conductive Nanocomposite Theoretical Models
by Lakhdar Sidi Salah, Nassira Ouslimani, Mohamed Chouai, Yann Danlée, Isabelle Huynen and Hammouche Aksas
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071687 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4010
Abstract
Polycarbonate—carbon nanotube (PC-CNT) conductive composites containing CNT concentration covering 0.25–4.5 wt.% were prepared by melt blending extrusion. The alternating current (AC) conductivity of the composites has been investigated. The percolation threshold of the PC-CNT composites was theoretically determined using the classical theory of [...] Read more.
Polycarbonate—carbon nanotube (PC-CNT) conductive composites containing CNT concentration covering 0.25–4.5 wt.% were prepared by melt blending extrusion. The alternating current (AC) conductivity of the composites has been investigated. The percolation threshold of the PC-CNT composites was theoretically determined using the classical theory of percolation followed by numerical analysis, quantifying the conductivity of PC-CNT at the critical volume CNT concentration. Different theoretical models like Bueche, McCullough and Mamunya have been applied to predict the AC conductivity of the composites using a hyperparameter optimization method. Through multiple series of the hyperparameter optimization process, it was found that McCullough and Mamunya theoretical models for electrical conductivity fit remarkably with our experimental results; the degree of chain branching and the aspect ratio are estimated to be 0.91 and 167 according to these models. The development of a new model based on a modified Sohi model is in good agreement with our data, with a coefficient of determination R2=0.922 for an optimized design model. The conductivity is correlated to the electromagnetic absorption (EM) index showing a fine fit with Steffen–Boltzmann (SB) model, indicating the ultimate CNTs volume concentration for microwave absorption at the studied frequency range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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15 pages, 1970 KiB  
Article
Reinforcement Efficiency of Cellulose Microfibers for the Tensile Stiffness and Strength of Rigid Low-Density Polyurethane Foams
by Jānis Andersons, Mikelis Kirpluks and Ugis Cabulis
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122725 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
Rigid low-density closed-cell polyurethane (PU) foams are widely used in both thermal insulation and structural applications. The sustainability of PU foam production can be increased by using bio-based components and fillers that ensure both enhanced mechanical properties and higher renewable material content. Such [...] Read more.
Rigid low-density closed-cell polyurethane (PU) foams are widely used in both thermal insulation and structural applications. The sustainability of PU foam production can be increased by using bio-based components and fillers that ensure both enhanced mechanical properties and higher renewable material content. Such bio-based foams were produced using polyols derived from rapeseed oil and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) fibers as filler. The effect of MCC fiber loading of up to 10 wt % on the morphology, tensile stiffness, and strength of foams has been evaluated. For estimation of the mechanical reinforcement efficiency of foams, a model allowing for the partial alignment of filler fibers in foam struts was developed and validated against test results. It is shown that although applying MCC fibers leads to modest gains in the mechanical properties of PU foams compared with cellulose nanocrystal reinforcement, it may provide a higher content of renewable material in the foams. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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18 pages, 5586 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites
by Zainab Al-Maqdasi, Guan Gong, Birgitha Nyström, Nazanin Emami and Roberts Joffe
Materials 2020, 13(9), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13092089 - 1 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2689
Abstract
This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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13 pages, 7212 KiB  
Article
Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology Based Analysis on Solid Particle Erosion Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites
by Sundeep Kumar Antil, Parvesh Antil, Sarbjit Singh, Anil Kumar and Catalin Iulian Pruncu
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061381 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2696
Abstract
Polymer-based fibrous composites are gaining popularity in marine and sports industries because of their prominent features like easy to process, better strength to weight ratio, durability and cost-effectiveness. Still, erosive behavior of composites under cyclic abrasive impact is a significant concern for the [...] Read more.
Polymer-based fibrous composites are gaining popularity in marine and sports industries because of their prominent features like easy to process, better strength to weight ratio, durability and cost-effectiveness. Still, erosive behavior of composites under cyclic abrasive impact is a significant concern for the research fraternity. In this paper, the S type woven glass fibers reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) are used to analyze the bonding behavior of reinforcement and matrix against the natural abrasive slurry. The response surface methodology is adopted to analyze the effect of various erosion parameters on the erosion resistance. The slurry pressure, impingement angle and nozzle diameter, were used as erosion parameters whereas erosion loss, i.e., weight loss during an erosion phenomenon was considered as a response parameter. The artificial neural network model was used to validate the attained outcomes for an optimum solution. The comparative analysis of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models shows good agreement with the erosion behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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16 pages, 6443 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Tensile Stress-Compressive Stress Behavior of Thermoplastic Matrix Composite Materials Reinforced with Continuous Fiber for Automotive Damping and Anti-Vibration Structural Elements
by D. Tobalina-Baldeon, F. Sanz-Adan, M.A. Martinez-Calvo and J. Santamaría-Pena
Materials 2020, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010005 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2666
Abstract
Continuous Fibers-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites (CFRTP) are presented as light materials, capable of offering a short production time with the possibility of being recycled. These properties make them ideal for automotive applications, aiming to reduce the consumption and emission of polluting gases. This article [...] Read more.
Continuous Fibers-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites (CFRTP) are presented as light materials, capable of offering a short production time with the possibility of being recycled. These properties make them ideal for automotive applications, aiming to reduce the consumption and emission of polluting gases. This article analyzed the dynamic tensile stress-compressive stress behavior of CFRTP in structural elements of the car with anti-vibration and damping functions. The data available in the literature on the reliable and usual compliance of the properties required for CFRTP, to be applied in the automotive structural elements, is scarce and insufficient. In order to analyze whether CFRTP feeds the demanding requirements of car manufacturers and if they provide advantages over the metal materials currently used, this article developed a method of reliable verification of their dynamic tensile and compression behavior. The methodology developed could be used as a guide to characterizing any combination of vulcanized rubber adhesive joints with CFRTP, regardless of the materials and additives used. The results obtained showed that there exists CFRTP that fits the requirements of the car manufacturers for this type of component and also offers dynamic advantages over the materials currently used as anti-vibration elements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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11 pages, 6274 KiB  
Article
Flexible Polycaprolactone and Polycaprolactone/Graphene Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
by Stanislav Evlashin, Pavel Dyakonov, Mikhail Tarkhov, Sarkis Dagesyan, Sergey Rodionov, Anastasia Shpichka, Mikhail Kostenko, Stepan Konev, Ivan Sergeichev, Petr Timashev and Iskander Akhatov
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182991 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3392
Abstract
Developing bone scaffolds can greatly improve the patient’s quality of life by accelerating the rehabilitation process. In this paper, we studied the process of composite polycaprolactone supercritical foaming for tissue engineering. The influence of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on the foaming [...] Read more.
Developing bone scaffolds can greatly improve the patient’s quality of life by accelerating the rehabilitation process. In this paper, we studied the process of composite polycaprolactone supercritical foaming for tissue engineering. The influence of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on the foaming parameters was studied. The structural and mechanical properties were studied. The scaffolds demonstrated mechanical flexibility and endurance. The co-culturing and live/dead tests demonstrated that the obtained scaffolds are biocompatible. Different composite scaffolds induced various surface cell behaviors. The experimental data demonstrate that composite foams are promising candidates for in vivo medical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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9 pages, 3139 KiB  
Article
Basalt Short Fibers Dispersion and Fabric Impregnation with Magnesium Alloy (AZ63): First Results
by Danilo Marini and Marco Valente
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182960 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Magnesium is one of the lightest structural metals used in different industrial sectors and many works in the literature have studied its reinforcement by filler addition. Basalt fibers are natural fillers that have good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to high temperatures, and lower [...] Read more.
Magnesium is one of the lightest structural metals used in different industrial sectors and many works in the literature have studied its reinforcement by filler addition. Basalt fibers are natural fillers that have good mechanical properties, excellent resistance to high temperatures, and lower cost than carbon fibers. Considering this, in recent years, they have been increasingly used in the production of composite materials with polymeric matrices. However, very little information is available in the literature about the use of basalt fibers as reinforcement in metal matrix composite materials. It is well known that the impregnation of fiber reinforcement affects the mechanical behavior of the composite materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the impregnation and the behavior of basalt fibers in a magnesium alloy composite material manufactured by a centrifugal casting technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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18 pages, 11459 KiB  
Article
Boehmite Nanofillers in Epoxy Oligosiloxane Resins: Influencing the Curing Process by Complex Physical and Chemical Interactions
by Ievgeniia Topolniak, Vasile-Dan Hodoroaba, Dietmar Pfeifer, Ulrike Braun and Heinz Sturm
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091513 - 9 May 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
In this work, a novel boehmite (BA)-embedded organic/inorganic nanocomposite coating based on cycloaliphatic epoxy oligosiloxane (CEOS) resin was fabricated applying UV-induced cationic polymerization. The main changes of the material behavior caused by the nanofiller were investigated with regard to its photocuring kinetics, thermal [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel boehmite (BA)-embedded organic/inorganic nanocomposite coating based on cycloaliphatic epoxy oligosiloxane (CEOS) resin was fabricated applying UV-induced cationic polymerization. The main changes of the material behavior caused by the nanofiller were investigated with regard to its photocuring kinetics, thermal stability, and glass transition. The role of the particle surface was of particular interest, thus, unmodified nanoparticles (HP14) and particles modified with p-toluenesulfonic acid (OS1) were incorporated into a CEOS matrix in the concentration range of 1–10 wt.%. Resulting nanocomposites exhibited improved thermal properties, with the glass transition temperature (Tg) being shifted from 30 °C for unfilled CEOS to 54 °C (2 wt.% HP14) and 73 °C (2 wt.% OS1) for filled CEOS. Additionally, TGA analysis showed increased thermal stability of samples filled with nanoparticles. An attractive interaction between boehmite and CEOS matrix influenced the curing. Real-time infrared spectroscopy (RT-IR) experiments demonstrated that the epoxide conversion rate of nanocomposites was slightly increased compared to neat resin. The beneficial role of the BA can be explained by the participation of hydroxyl groups at the particle surface in photopolymerization processes and by the complementary contribution of p-toluenesulfonic acid surface modifier and water molecules introduced into the system with nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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18 pages, 5666 KiB  
Article
Improved Mechanical and Moisture-Resistant Properties of Woven Hybrid Epoxy Composites by Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNP)
by Jesuarockiam Naveen, Mohammad Jawaid, Edi Syams Zainudin, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan and Ridwan Yahaya
Materials 2019, 12(8), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12081249 - 16 Apr 2019
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 3326
Abstract
This research investigated the effect of adding different wt.% (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) of GNP (graphene nanoplatelets) to improve the mechanical and moisture resistant properties of Kevlar (K)/cocos nucifera sheath (CS)/epoxy hybrid composites. The laminates were fabricated with different K/CS weight ratios [...] Read more.
This research investigated the effect of adding different wt.% (0, 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75) of GNP (graphene nanoplatelets) to improve the mechanical and moisture resistant properties of Kevlar (K)/cocos nucifera sheath (CS)/epoxy hybrid composites. The laminates were fabricated with different K/CS weight ratios such as 100/0 (S1), 75/25 (S2), 50/50 (S3), 25/75 (S4), and 0/100 (S5). The results revealed that the addition of GNP improved the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of laminated composites. However, the optimal wt.% of GNP varies with different laminates. A moisture diffusion analysis showed that the laminates with a 0.25 wt.% of GNP content efficiently hindered water uptake by closing all the unoccupied pores inside the laminate. Morphological investigations (SEM and FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope)) proved that the addition of GNP improved the interfacial adhesion and dispersion. Structural (XRD and FTIR) analyses reveals that at 0.25 wt.% of GNP, all the hybrid composites showed a better crystallinity index and the functional groups presents in the GNP can form strong interactions with the fibers and matrix. A statistical analysis was performed using One-way ANOVA, and it corroborates that the mechanical properties of different laminates showed a statistically significant difference. Hence, these GNP-modified epoxy hybrid composites can be efficiently utilized in load-bearing structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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12 pages, 5425 KiB  
Article
An Approach to the Uniform Dispersion of Graphene Nanosheets in Powder Metallurgy Nickel-Based Superalloy
by Yu-Xi Gao, Jin-Wen Zou, Xiao-Feng Wang, Jie Yang, Zhuo Li, Yan-Yan Zhu and Hua-Ming Wang
Materials 2019, 12(6), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060974 - 24 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3443
Abstract
In this paper, a wet-chemical based method was adopted to acquire the uniform dispersion of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) in a powder metallurgy nickel-based superalloy (FGH96) to fabricate a new GNSs reinforced FGH96 metal matrix composite. The surface of the FGH96 powder was modified [...] Read more.
In this paper, a wet-chemical based method was adopted to acquire the uniform dispersion of graphene nanosheets (GNSs) in a powder metallurgy nickel-based superalloy (FGH96) to fabricate a new GNSs reinforced FGH96 metal matrix composite. The surface of the FGH96 powder was modified using a hydrophilic surfactant named polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), which has good wettability and strong hydrogen bonding between the –OH groups of PVA and oxygen groups of GNSs such as –COOH, –CHO, and –OH. It was shown that the GNSs displayed much better dispersion uniformity on the PVA modified FGH96 powder than the unmodified one. The existence of PVA improved the adsorptive capacity of the GNSs attached on the powder surface and prevented the agglomeration in the following thermal preparation process. Consequently, the micro-hardness of PVA modified composite with 0.1 wt.% GNSs reached 497.9 HV, 3.4% higher than the unmodified FGH96 alloy. Therefore, this preparation process could act as the foundation of a common strategy for the fabrication of GNSs in metal matrix composites with good dispersion uniformity, which may have great potential application in aerospace applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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15 pages, 5057 KiB  
Article
Thermoplastic Reaction Injection Pultrusion for Continuous Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide-6 Composites
by Ke Chen, Mingyin Jia, Hua Sun and Ping Xue
Materials 2019, 12(3), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030463 - 2 Feb 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 7037
Abstract
In this paper, glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composites with up to 70 wt% fiber contents were successfully manufactured using a pultrusion process, utilizing the anionic polymerization of caprolactam (a monomer of PA-6). A novel thermoplastic reaction injection pultrusion test line was developed with [...] Read more.
In this paper, glass fiber-reinforced polyamide-6 (PA-6) composites with up to 70 wt% fiber contents were successfully manufactured using a pultrusion process, utilizing the anionic polymerization of caprolactam (a monomer of PA-6). A novel thermoplastic reaction injection pultrusion test line was developed with a specifically designed injection chamber to achieve complete impregnation of fiber bundles and high speed pultrusion. Process parameters like temperature of injection chamber, temperature of pultrusion die, and pultrusion speed were studied and optimized. The effects of die temperature on the crystallinity, melting point, and mechanical properties of the pultruded composites were also evaluated. The pultruded composites exhibited the highest flexural strength and flexural modulus, reaching 1061 MPa and 38,384 MPa, respectively. Then, effects of fiber contents on the density, heat distortion temperature, and mechanical properties of the composites were analyzed. The scanning electron microscope analysis showed the great interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix at 180 °C, which greatly improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The thermoplastic reaction injection pultrusion in this paper provided an alternative for the preparation of thermoplastic composites with high fiber content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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13 pages, 4004 KiB  
Technical Note
Flammability, Smoke, Mechanical Behaviours and Morphology of Flame Retarded Natural Fibre/Elium® Composite
by Pooria Khalili, Brina Blinzler, Roland Kádár, Roeland Bisschop, Michael Försth and Per Blomqvist
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172648 - 21 Aug 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3560
Abstract
The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The [...] Read more.
The work involves fabrication of natural fibre/Elium® composites using resin infusion technique. The jute fabrics were treated using phosphorus-carbon based flame retardant (FR) agent, a phosphonate solution and graphene nano-platelet (GnP), followed by resin infusion, to produce FR and graphene-based composites. The properties of these composites were compared with those of the Control (jute fabric/Elium®). As obtained from the cone calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the peak heat release rate reduced significantly after the FR and GnP treatments of fabrics whereas total smoke release and quantity of carbon monoxide increased with the incorporation of FR. The addition of GnP had almost no effect on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide yield. Dynamic mechanical analysis demonstrated that coating jute fabrics with GnP particles led to an enhanced glass transition temperature by 14%. Scanning electron microscopy showed fibre pull-out locations in the tensile fracture surface of the laminates after incorporation of both fillers, which resulted in reduced tensile properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites: Processing and Applications)
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