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Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced and Functional Ceramics and Glasses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 20452

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
"Nello Carrara" Institute of Applied Physics—National Research Council (IFAC-CNR), I-50019 Firenze, Italy
Interests: glassy and nanostructured materials; integrated optics; optical microresonators; photonic devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Glassy materials are ubiquitous in the scientific field and in everyday life. Their enormous importance is also testified by the fact that the General Assembly of the United Nations has declared 2022 as International Year of Glass. This group of materials not only includes conventional glasses, but other structures as well in a broad range of solids including many polymers, metallic glasses, “soft” colloidal glasses, and granular media. Each of these is characterized by a glass-transition temperature or by a behavior very similar to the glass-forming process.

Despite the many works and the many results achieved, the physics of glasses and disordered solids remains one of the puzzling fields in today’s condensed-matter physics and chemistry. I firmly believe that the physics of glassy materials is much more challenging than the physics of crystalline solids, and there is a strong interest in these materials with the aim of developing an accurate and comprehensive general theory of the amorphous state.

On the other hand, their practical importance is enormous in many engineering applications, from the construction industry to the packaging and container industry, to eyewear industry, and to photovoltaics, to end up with the most advanced frontiers of microelectronics and photonics. It is also possible to say that the internet era could not have taken its first steps without the development of glass optical fibers and glass optical components.

This Special Issue aims to present a collection of original and review papers which can shed light on the most significant results achieved with reference to both the basic properties of this class of material and their countless applications, in addition to highlighting the most recent advances and the future perspectives in the field. Special focus will be placed on glasses. Contributions concerning the synthesis and microfabrication processes of glassy materials are equally welcome.

It is therefore my pleasure to invite you to submit research articles and review papers on glassy materials, their design and fabrication processes, and their applications to this Special Issue. Full papers and short communications are both welcome.

Given your activity in this area, I would like, as the Guest Editor of this Special Issue, to invite you and your co-workers to submit an article to Materials. Original research articles, reviews, and short reports would all be welcome. I am sure that your contribution to this SI would be of great interest.

Take this opportunity to spread the information on your research activity in the frame of the 2022 International Year of Glass!

Dr. Giancarlo C. Righini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fundamental properties of glasses
  • glassy polymers and other glassy materials
  • soft colloidal glasses
  • new ideas for understanding the glass transition
  • structural characterization, mechanical and thermal properties
  • optical properties
  • oxide and non-oxide glasses
  • glassy physics in biological systems (single molecules, networks)
  • fabrication processes and characterization or testing tools
  • direct writing of optical structures in glasses and polymers
  • glass (polymer) optical components and systems
  • glasses and polymers for microelectronics and photonics
  • glass/polymer hybrid microdevices
  • nanostructured glassy materials
  • ultra-thin glasses
  • applications of glassy materials in (construction industry, packaging and container industry, eyewear industry, biomedicine, optical communications, photovoltaics, sensing devices)

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 6199 KiB  
Article
Porous Lithium Disilicate Glass–Ceramics Prepared by Cold Sintering Process Associated with Post-Annealing Technique
by Xigeng Lyu, Yeongjun Seo, Do Hyung Han, Sunghun Cho, Yoshifumi Kondo, Tomoyo Goto and Tohru Sekino
Materials 2024, 17(2), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020381 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Using melt-derived LD glass powders and 5–20 M NaOH solutions, porous lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5, LD) glass–ceramics were prepared by the cold sintering process (CSP) associated with the post-annealing technique. In this novel technique, H2O vapor [...] Read more.
Using melt-derived LD glass powders and 5–20 M NaOH solutions, porous lithium disilicate (Li2Si2O5, LD) glass–ceramics were prepared by the cold sintering process (CSP) associated with the post-annealing technique. In this novel technique, H2O vapor originating from condensation reactions between residual Si–OH groups in cold-sintered LD glasses played the role of a foaming agent. With the increasing concentration of NaOH solutions, many more residual Si–OH groups appeared, and then rising trends in number as well as size were found for spherical pores formed in the resultant porous LD glass–ceramics. Correspondingly, the total porosities and average pore sizes varied from 25.6 ± 1.3% to 48.6 ± 1.9% and from 1.89 ± 0.68 μm to 13.40 ± 10.27 μm, respectively. Meanwhile, both the volume fractions and average aspect ratios of precipitated LD crystals within their pore walls presented progressively increasing tendencies, ranging from 55.75% to 76.85% and from 4.18 to 6.53, respectively. Young’s modulus and the hardness of pore walls for resultant porous LD glass–ceramics presented remarkable enhancement from 56.9 ± 2.5 GPa to 79.1 ± 2.1 GPa and from 4.6 ± 0.9 GPa to 8.1 ± 0.8 GPa, whereas their biaxial flexural strengths dropped from 152.0 ± 6.8 MPa to 77.4 ± 5.4 MPa. Using H2O vapor as a foaming agent, this work reveals that CSP associated with the post-annealing technique is a feasible and eco-friendly methodology by which to prepare porous glass–ceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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12 pages, 2865 KiB  
Article
Effect of P2O5 and Na2O on the Solubility of Molybdenum and Structural Features in Borosilicate Glass
by Hao Liu, Yongchang Zhu, Jichuan Huo, Zhu Cui, Xingquan Zhang, Qin Jiang, Debo Yang and Baojian Meng
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155464 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of doping phosphorus in a borosilicate glass matrix to improve the solubility of Mo was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the effectiveness of Na content on P species inhibiting [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of doping phosphorus in a borosilicate glass matrix to improve the solubility of Mo was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and the effectiveness of Na content on P species inhibiting the growth of the crystallization of Mo was assessed. The results indicate that phosphate-doped borosilicate glass can host 4 mol% of Mo, and that such a borosilicate glass matrix could only accommodate 1 mol% of Mo without phosphate doping. The effectiveness of phosphorus may be correlated with the Na content in borosilicate glass, and a high Na content borosilicate glass matrix requires more P doping to accommodate Mo. In addition, incorporating large amounts of P can compromise the aqueous durability of the glass matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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12 pages, 4684 KiB  
Article
Divalent Yb-Doped Silica Glass and Fiber with High Quantum Efficiency for White Light Source
by Changming Xia, Jiantao Liu, Zhiyun Hou and Guiyao Zhou
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093148 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2119
Abstract
The 4f135d–4f14 energy transition of Yb2+ ions can cover the whole white light wavelength, Yb2+-doped materials have thus been a hot research field. In order to obtain a white light source, many kinds of Yb2+-doped [...] Read more.
The 4f135d–4f14 energy transition of Yb2+ ions can cover the whole white light wavelength, Yb2+-doped materials have thus been a hot research field. In order to obtain a white light source, many kinds of Yb2+-doped materials have been prepared. In this study, divalent Yb2+-doped silica fiber was fabricated using rod-in-tube technology. The fiber core of Yb2+-doped silica glass was prepared with high-temperature melting technology under vacuum conditions. The spectroscopic properties of the Yb2+-doped glass and fiber were studied. The experiments indicate that divalent Yb2+-doped glass has a high quantum efficiency and super-broadband fluorescence in the visible region with an excitation wavelength of 405 nm. In addition, the results suggest that Yb2+-doped fiber has a potential for application in visible fiber lasers and fiber amplification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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15 pages, 3507 KiB  
Article
Role of Eu2+ and Dy3+ Concentration in the Persistent Luminescence of Sr2MgSi2O7 Glass-Ceramics
by Laura Fernández-Rodríguez, Rolindes Balda, Joaquín Fernández, Alicia Durán and María Jesús Pascual
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3068; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093068 - 23 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
In this study, glass-ceramics based on Sr2MgSi2O7 phosphor co-doped with Eu/Dy were obtained from the sintering and crystallisation of glass powders. The glasses were melted in a gas furnace to simulate an industrial process, and the dopant concentration [...] Read more.
In this study, glass-ceramics based on Sr2MgSi2O7 phosphor co-doped with Eu/Dy were obtained from the sintering and crystallisation of glass powders. The glasses were melted in a gas furnace to simulate an industrial process, and the dopant concentration was varied to optimise the luminescence persistence times. The doped parent glasses showed red emission under UV light excitation due to the doping of Eu3+ ions, while the corresponding glass-ceramics showed persistent blue emission corresponding to the presence of Eu2+ in the crystalline environment. The dopant concentration had a strong impact on the sintering/crystallisation kinetics affecting the final glass-ceramic microstructure. The microstructures and morphology of the crystals responsible for the blue emission were observed by scanning electron microscopy–cathodoluminescence. The composition of the crystallised phases and the distribution of rare-earth (RE) ions in the crystals and in the residual glassy phase were determined by X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The emission and persistence of phosphorescence were studied by photoluminescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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7 pages, 1417 KiB  
Article
Net Optical Gain Coefficients of Cu+ and Tm3+ Single-Doped and Co-Doped Germanate Glasses
by Yuhang Zhang, Baojiu Chen, Xizhen Zhang, Jinsu Zhang, Sai Xu, Xiangping Li, Yichao Wang, Yongze Cao, Lei Li, Hongquan Yu, Xin Wang, Duan Gao, Xuzhu Sha and Li Wang
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2134; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062134 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Broadband tunable solid-state lasers continue to present challenges to scientists today. The gain medium is significant for realizing broadband tunable solid-state lasers. In this investigation, the optical gain performance for Tm3+ and Cu+ single-doped and co-doped germanate glasses with broadband emissions [...] Read more.
Broadband tunable solid-state lasers continue to present challenges to scientists today. The gain medium is significant for realizing broadband tunable solid-state lasers. In this investigation, the optical gain performance for Tm3+ and Cu+ single-doped and co-doped germanate glasses with broadband emissions was studied via an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) technique. It was found that the net optical gain coefficients (NOGCs) of Tm3+ single-doped glass were larger than those for Cu+ single-doped glass. When Tm3+ was introduced, the emission broadband width of Cu+-doped glass was effectively extended. Moreover, it was found that for the co-doped glass the NOGCs at the wavelengths for Tm3+ and Cu+ emissions were larger than those of Tm3+ and Cu+ single-doped glasses at the same wavelengths. In addition, the NOGC values of Tm3+ and Cu+ co-doped germanate glasses were of the same order of magnitude, and were maintained in a stable range at different wavelengths. These results indicate that the Tm3+ and Cu+ co-doped glasses studied may be a good candidate medium for broadband tunable solid-state lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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11 pages, 2441 KiB  
Article
Effect of Glass Composition on Luminescence and Structure of CsPbBr3 Quantum Dots in an Amorphous Matrix
by Ruilin Zheng, Jumpei Ueda, Kenji Shinozaki and Setsuhisa Tanabe
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051678 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2520
Abstract
Glass matrix embedding is an efficient way to improve the chemical and thermal stability of the halide perovskite QDs. However, CsPbX3 QDs exhibit distinct optical properties in different glass matrixes, including photoluminescence (PL) peak position, PL peak width, and optical band gap. [...] Read more.
Glass matrix embedding is an efficient way to improve the chemical and thermal stability of the halide perovskite QDs. However, CsPbX3 QDs exhibit distinct optical properties in different glass matrixes, including photoluminescence (PL) peak position, PL peak width, and optical band gap. In this work, the temperature-dependent PL spectra, absorption spectra, high-energy X-ray structure factor S(Q), and pair distribution function (PDF) were integrated to analyze the structural evolution of CsPbBr3 QDs in different glass matrixes. The results show that the lattice parameters and atomic spacing of CsPbBr3 QDs are affected by the glass composition in which they are embedded. The most possibility can be attributed to the thermal expansion mismatch between CsPbBr3 QDs and the glass matrix. The results may provide a new way to understand the effect of the glass composition on the optical properties of CsPbBr3 QDs in a glass matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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17 pages, 4950 KiB  
Article
Early-Stage Dissolution Kinetics of Silicate-Based Bioactive Glass under Dynamic Conditions: Critical Evaluation
by Dagmar Galusková, Hana Kaňková, Anna Švančárková and Dušan Galusek
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123384 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2410
Abstract
This manuscript presents a systematic and detailed study of ion release from 45S5 bioactive glass to develop a methodology to directly monitor dissolved ions in a simulated fluid via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For the kinetic study, two dynamic [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents a systematic and detailed study of ion release from 45S5 bioactive glass to develop a methodology to directly monitor dissolved ions in a simulated fluid via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). For the kinetic study, two dynamic tests, an inline ICP test and a flow-through test, are performed with the same flow rate, temperature, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and sample surface to leaching solution volume ratio. The flow-through test allows for the measurement of an initial dissolution rate, as well the maximum amount of any species released from the surface of the glass. In addition, the data from the inline ICP test are obtained by immediate and direct monitoring of ions from the first minutes of contact of the glass with aqueous fluids with pH values of 4 and 7.4. The overall dissolution rates of the tested commercial bioactive glass in simulated body fluid (SBF) (pH 7.4) were significantly lower compared to the initial rate acquired. The methodology developed in this study can be applied to monitor the controlled release of ions with additional therapeutic functionalities, where the amount of ions released in the first minutes can be critical for the resulting biological performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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7 pages, 928 KiB  
Article
Quantification of Carbonic Contamination of Fused Silica Surfaces at Different Stages of Classical Optics Manufacturing
by Robert Köhler, Domenico Hellrung, Daniel Tasche and Christoph Gerhard
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071620 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
The chemical composition of ground and polished fused silica glass surfaces plays a decisive role in different applications of optics. In particular, a high level of carbon impurities is often undesirable for further processing and especially for gluing or cementing where adhesion failure [...] Read more.
The chemical composition of ground and polished fused silica glass surfaces plays a decisive role in different applications of optics. In particular, a high level of carbon impurities is often undesirable for further processing and especially for gluing or cementing where adhesion failure may be attributed to carbonic surface-adherent contaminants. In this study, the surface carbon content at different stages of classical optics manufacturing was thus investigated. Two different standard processes—grinding and lapping with two final polishing processes using both polyurethane and pitch pads—were considered. After each process step, the chemical composition and roughness of the surface were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. An obvious correlation between surface roughness and effective surface area, respectively, and the proportion of carbon contamination was observed. The lowest carbon contamination was found in case of lapped and pitch polished surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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Review

Jump to: Research

22 pages, 8107 KiB  
Review
Sol–Gel Photonic Glasses: From Material to Application
by Giancarlo C. Righini, Cristina Armellini, Maurizio Ferrari, Alice Carlotto, Alessandro Carpentiero, Andrea Chiappini, Alessandro Chiasera, Anna Lukowiak, Thi Ngoc Lam Tran and Stefano Varas
Materials 2023, 16(7), 2724; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072724 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
In this review, we present a short overview of the development of sol–gel glasses for application in the field of photonics, with a focus on some of the most interesting results obtained by our group and collaborators in that area. Our main attention [...] Read more.
In this review, we present a short overview of the development of sol–gel glasses for application in the field of photonics, with a focus on some of the most interesting results obtained by our group and collaborators in that area. Our main attention is devoted to silicate glasses of different compositions, which are characterized by specific optical and spectroscopic properties for various applications, ranging from luminescent systems to light-confining structures and memristors. In particular, the roles of rare-earth doping, matrix composition, the densification process and the fabrication protocol on the structural, optical and spectroscopic properties of the developed photonic systems are discussed through appropriate examples. Some achievements in the fabrication of oxide sol–gel optical waveguides and of micro- and nanostructures for the confinement of light are also briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glassy Materials: From Preparation to Application)
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