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Special Issue "Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 January 2023 | Viewed by 6921

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Zhou Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Center on Nanoenergy Research, School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530000, China
2. CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China
3. School of Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China
Interests: bioelectronics; medical electronics; biosensors; nanogenerators; cell mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Bojing Shi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Interests: biosensors; nanogenerators; self-powered biosystems; wearable bioelectronics; implantable bioelectronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past decade, the impact of functional materials on biomedical engineering has seen a dramatic increase. Attributed to the efforts of materials scientists, various promising materials and devices that possess unique biological properties and functions have been developed, such as piezoelectric materials, pyroelectric materials, triboelectric materials, bionic materials, self-healing materials, biodegradable materials, hydrogels, stretchable/flexible devices, and electronic skin. These functional materials have been widely studied and used in energy harvesting from organisms, blood glucose sensing, pulse sensing, human motion detection, cardiac pacing, nerve stimulation, electrocardiographic monitoring, electroencephalogram monitoring, electrophysiological monitoring, wireless monitoring of vital signs, etc. The continuous development of functional materials enables scientists and technicians in biomedical engineering to yield more and more valuable achievements for human health and life sciences. Meanwhile, due to advances in nanotechnology and electrical science, wearable/implantable bioelectronics and biosensors have evolved to become miniaturized, multifunctional, soft, and smart, creating new demands for functional materials.

This Special Issue aims to highlight recent achievements in the development of functional materials for bioelectronics and biosensors. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit your work in the form of either preliminary communications, original research articles or reviews.

Prof. Dr. Zhou Li
Prof. Dr. Bojing Shi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biosensors
  • Wearable bioelectronics
  • Implantable bioelectronics
  • Energy harvesting from organisms
  • Soft biocompatible materials
  • Electronic skin
  • Nanogenerators
  • Self-powered biosensors and biosystems
  • 3D printing
  • Biochips
  • Hydrogels
  • Electrocardiograph
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Electromyography
  • Blood glucose sensing
  • Human motion detection
  • Biomechanical sensing
  • Biomolecular detection
  • Surface & Interface
  • MEMS
  • Self-healing
  • Biodegradable
  • Bionic
  • Cardiovascular sensing
  • Respiratory sensing
  • Biophysical
  • Biochemical

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Self-Powered Electrical Impulse Chemotherapy for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062060 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common oral cancer of the head and neck, which causes tremendous physical and mental pain to people. Traditional chemotherapy usually results in drug resistance and side effects, affecting the therapy process. In this study, a self-powered [...] Read more.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common oral cancer of the head and neck, which causes tremendous physical and mental pain to people. Traditional chemotherapy usually results in drug resistance and side effects, affecting the therapy process. In this study, a self-powered electrical impulse chemotherapy (EIC) method based on a portable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was established for OSCC therapy. A common chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was used in the experiment. The TENG designed with zigzag structure had a small size of 6 cm × 6 cm, which could controllably generate the fixed output of 200 V, 400 V and 600 V. The electrical impulses generated by the TENG increased the cell endocytosis of DOX remarkably. Besides, a simply and ingeniously designed microneedle electrode increased the intensity of electric field (EF) between two adjacent microneedle tips compared with the most used planar interdigital electrode at the same height, which was more suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cells or tissues. Based on the TENG, microneedle electrode and DOX, the self-powered EIC system demonstrated a maximal apoptotic cell ratio of 22.47% and a minimum relative 3D multicellular tumor sphere (MCTS) volume of 160% with the drug dosage of 1 μg mL−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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Article
A Robust and Wearable Triboelectric Tactile Patch as Intelligent Human-Machine Interface
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216366 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
The human–machine interface plays an important role in the diversified interactions between humans and machines, especially by swaping information exchange between human and machine operations. Considering the high wearable compatibility and self-powered capability, triboelectric-based interfaces have attracted increasing attention. Herein, this work developed [...] Read more.
The human–machine interface plays an important role in the diversified interactions between humans and machines, especially by swaping information exchange between human and machine operations. Considering the high wearable compatibility and self-powered capability, triboelectric-based interfaces have attracted increasing attention. Herein, this work developed a minimalist and stable interacting patch with the function of sensing and robot controlling based on triboelectric nanogenerator. This robust and wearable patch is composed of several flexible materials, namely polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), nylon, hydrogels electrode, and silicone rubber substrate. A signal-processing circuit was used in this patch to convert the sensor signal into a more stable signal (the deviation within 0.1 V), which provides a more effective method for sensing and robot control in a wireless way. Thus, the device can be used to control the movement of robots in real-time and exhibits a good stable performance. A specific algorithm was used in this patch to convert the 1D serial number into a 2D coordinate system, so that the click of the finger can be converted into a sliding track, so as to achieve the trajectory generation of a robot in a wireless way. It is believed that the device-based human–machine interaction with minimalist design has great potential in applications for contact perception, 2D control, robotics, and wearable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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Article
The Emission Mechanism of Gold Nanoclusters Capped with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic Acid, and the Detection of Methanol in Adulterated Wine Model
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216342 - 23 Oct 2021
Viewed by 663
Abstract
The absorption and emission mechanisms of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have yet to be understood. In this article, 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) capped AuNCs ([email protected]) were synthesized using the chemical etching method. Compared with MUA, [email protected] had three obvious absorption peaks at 280 nm, 360 [...] Read more.
The absorption and emission mechanisms of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have yet to be understood. In this article, 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) capped AuNCs ([email protected]) were synthesized using the chemical etching method. Compared with MUA, [email protected] had three obvious absorption peaks at 280 nm, 360 nm, and 390 nm; its photoluminescence excitation (PLE) peak and photoluminescence (PL) peak were located at 285 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The [email protected] was hardly emissive when 360 nm and 390 nm were chosen as excitation wavelengths. The extremely large stokes-shift (>300 nm), and the mismatch between the excitation peaks and absorption peaks of [email protected], make it a particularly suitable model for studying the emission mechanism. When the ligands were partially removed by a small amount of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution, the absorption peak showed a remarkable rise at 288 nm and declines at 360 nm and 390 nm. These experimental results illustrated that the absorption peak at 288 nm was mainly from metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT), while the absorption peaks at 360 nm and 390 nm were mainly from ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). The PLE peak coincided with the former absorption peak, which implied that the emission of the [email protected] was originally from MMCT. It was also interesting that the emission mechanism could be switched to LMCT from MMCT by decreasing the size of the nanoclusters using 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA), which possesses a stronger etching ability. Moreover, due to the different PL intensities of [email protected] in methanol, ethanol, and water, it has been successfully applied in detecting methanol in adulterated wine models (methanol-ethanol-water mixtures). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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Article
A Stretchable, Self-Healable Triboelectric Nanogenerator as Electronic Skin for Energy Harvesting and Tactile Sensing
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071689 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1485
Abstract
Electronic skin that is deformable, self-healable, and self-powered has high competitiveness for next-generation energy/sense/robotic applications. Herein, we fabricated a stretchable, self-healable triboelectric nanogenerator (SH-TENG) as electronic skin for energy harvesting and tactile sensing. The elongation of SH-TENG can achieve 800% (uniaxial strain) and [...] Read more.
Electronic skin that is deformable, self-healable, and self-powered has high competitiveness for next-generation energy/sense/robotic applications. Herein, we fabricated a stretchable, self-healable triboelectric nanogenerator (SH-TENG) as electronic skin for energy harvesting and tactile sensing. The elongation of SH-TENG can achieve 800% (uniaxial strain) and the SH-TENG can self-heal within 2.5 min. The SH-TENG is based on the single-electrode mode, which is constructed from ion hydrogels with an area of 2 cm × 3 cm, the output of short-circuit transferred charge (Qsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and short-circuit current (Isc) reaches ~6 nC, ~22 V, and ~400 nA, and the corresponding output power density is ~2.9 μW × cm−2 when the matching resistance was ~140 MΩ. As a biomechanical energy harvesting device, the SH-TENG also can drive red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) bulbs. Meanwhile, SH-TENG has shown good sensitivity to low-frequency human touch and can be used as an artificial electronic skin for touch/pressure sensing. This work provides a suitable candidate for the material selection of the hydrogel-based self-powered electronic skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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Review

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Review
Flexible and Stretchable Bioelectronics
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051664 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Medical science technology has improved tremendously over the decades with the invention of robotic surgery, gene editing, immune therapy, etc. However, scientists are now recognizing the significance of ‘biological circuits’ i.e., bodily innate electrical systems for the healthy functioning of the body or [...] Read more.
Medical science technology has improved tremendously over the decades with the invention of robotic surgery, gene editing, immune therapy, etc. However, scientists are now recognizing the significance of ‘biological circuits’ i.e., bodily innate electrical systems for the healthy functioning of the body or for any disease conditions. Therefore, the current trend in the medical field is to understand the role of these biological circuits and exploit their advantages for therapeutic purposes. Bioelectronics, devised with these aims, work by resetting, stimulating, or blocking the electrical pathways. Bioelectronics are also used to monitor the biological cues to assess the homeostasis of the body. In a way, they bridge the gap between drug-based interventions and medical devices. With this in mind, scientists are now working towards developing flexible and stretchable miniaturized bioelectronics that can easily conform to the tissue topology, are non-toxic, elicit no immune reaction, and address the issues that drugs are unable to solve. Since the bioelectronic devices that come in contact with the body or body organs need to establish an unobstructed interface with the respective site, it is crucial that those bioelectronics are not only flexible but also stretchable for constant monitoring of the biological signals. Understanding the challenges of fabricating soft stretchable devices, we review several flexible and stretchable materials used as substrate, stretchable electrical conduits and encapsulation, design modifications for stretchability, fabrication techniques, methods of signal transmission and monitoring, and the power sources for these stretchable bioelectronics. Ultimately, these bioelectronic devices can be used for wide range of applications from skin bioelectronics and biosensing devices, to neural implants for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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Review
Gel-Based Luminescent Conductive Materials and Their Applications in Biosensors and Bioelectronics
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226759 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 804
Abstract
The gel is an ideal platform for fabricating materials for bio-related applications due to its good biocompatibility, adjustable mechanical strength, and flexible and diversified functionalization. In recent decades, gel-based luminescent conductive materials that possess additional luminescence and conductivity simultaneously advanced applications in biosensors [...] Read more.
The gel is an ideal platform for fabricating materials for bio-related applications due to its good biocompatibility, adjustable mechanical strength, and flexible and diversified functionalization. In recent decades, gel-based luminescent conductive materials that possess additional luminescence and conductivity simultaneously advanced applications in biosensors and bioelectronics. Herein, a comprehensive overview of gel-based luminescent conductive materials is summarized in this review. Gel-based luminescent conductive materials are firstly outlined, highlighting their fabrication methods, network structures, and functions. Then, their applications in biosensors and bioelectronics fields are illustrated. Finally, challenges and future perspectives of this emerging field are discussed with the hope of inspire additional ideas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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