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Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 January 2023) | Viewed by 31388

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Center on Nanoenergy Research, School of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530000, China
2. CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Energy and Sensor, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China
3. School of Nanoscience and Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 101400, China
Interests: bioelectronics; medical electronics; biosensors; nanogenerators; cell mechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China
Interests: biosensors; nanogenerators; self-powered biosystems; wearable bioelectronics; implantable bioelectronics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past decade, the impact of functional materials on biomedical engineering has seen a dramatic increase. Attributed to the efforts of materials scientists, various promising materials and devices that possess unique biological properties and functions have been developed, such as piezoelectric materials, pyroelectric materials, triboelectric materials, bionic materials, self-healing materials, biodegradable materials, hydrogels, stretchable/flexible devices, and electronic skin. These functional materials have been widely studied and used in energy harvesting from organisms, blood glucose sensing, pulse sensing, human motion detection, cardiac pacing, nerve stimulation, electrocardiographic monitoring, electroencephalogram monitoring, electrophysiological monitoring, wireless monitoring of vital signs, etc. The continuous development of functional materials enables scientists and technicians in biomedical engineering to yield more and more valuable achievements for human health and life sciences. Meanwhile, due to advances in nanotechnology and electrical science, wearable/implantable bioelectronics and biosensors have evolved to become miniaturized, multifunctional, soft, and smart, creating new demands for functional materials.

This Special Issue aims to highlight recent achievements in the development of functional materials for bioelectronics and biosensors. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit your work in the form of either preliminary communications, original research articles or reviews.

Prof. Dr. Zhou Li
Prof. Dr. Bojing Shi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biosensors
  • Wearable bioelectronics
  • Implantable bioelectronics
  • Energy harvesting from organisms
  • Soft biocompatible materials
  • Electronic skin
  • Nanogenerators
  • Self-powered biosensors and biosystems
  • 3D printing
  • Biochips
  • Hydrogels
  • Electrocardiograph
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Electromyography
  • Blood glucose sensing
  • Human motion detection
  • Biomechanical sensing
  • Biomolecular detection
  • Surface & Interface
  • MEMS
  • Self-healing
  • Biodegradable
  • Bionic
  • Cardiovascular sensing
  • Respiratory sensing
  • Biophysical
  • Biochemical

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

12 pages, 4847 KiB  
Article
A High Performance Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on MXene/Graphene Oxide Electrode for Glucose Detection
by Wei Yang, Xu Cai, Shujun Guo, Long Wen, Zhaoyang Sun, Ruzhi Shang, Xin Shi, Jun Wang, Huamin Chen and Zhou Li
Materials 2023, 16(2), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16020841 - 15 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
A smart sensing platform based on a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) possesses various advantages such as self-powering, convenience, real-time and biocompatibility. However, the detection limit of the TENG-based sensor is required to be improved. In this study, a high performance TENG-based glucose sensor was [...] Read more.
A smart sensing platform based on a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) possesses various advantages such as self-powering, convenience, real-time and biocompatibility. However, the detection limit of the TENG-based sensor is required to be improved. In this study, a high performance TENG-based glucose sensor was proposed by using the Ti3C2Tx (MXene)/graphene oxide (GO) composite electrode. The MXene and GO nanosheets are popular 2D materials which possessed high conductivity and a rich surface functional group. The MXene/GO thin films were prepared through electrostatic self-assembly technology, which can effectively impede the agglomeration of two nanoflakes. The as-prepared MXene/GO film presented outstanding mechanical property. To figure out the relationship between the nanostructure of MXene/GO film and the TENG, a series of MXene/GO-based TENG with different GO sizes was characterized. As a result, the TENG with 400 nm GO demonstrated the highest output performance. Subsequently, the optimized TENG was used in glucose detection application without the assistance of a glucose enzyme. This simple and flexible TENG shows promising potential in biosensors and non-invasive health monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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11 pages, 2646 KiB  
Article
A Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerator Based on Multilayer MXene/Cellulose Nanofibril Composite Film for Patterned Electroluminescence Display
by Zhaoyang Sun, Huamin Chen, Mingqiang Wu, Wei Yang, Jiang Zhao, Zefeng Wang, Shujun Guo, Huining Wang, Weiguo Wang and Jun Wang
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196770 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1966
Abstract
The flexible self-powered display system integrating a flexible triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and flexible alternating current electroluminescence (ACEL) has attracted increasing attention for its promising potential in human–machine interaction applications. In this work, a performance-enhanced MXene/cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/MXene-based TENG (MCM-TENG) is reported for powering [...] Read more.
The flexible self-powered display system integrating a flexible triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and flexible alternating current electroluminescence (ACEL) has attracted increasing attention for its promising potential in human–machine interaction applications. In this work, a performance-enhanced MXene/cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/MXene-based TENG (MCM-TENG) is reported for powering a flexible patterned ACEL device in order to realize self-powered display. The MCM multilayer composite film was self-assembled through the layer-by-layer method. The MCM film concurrently acted as a triboelectric layer and electrode layer due to its high conductivity and strength. Moreover, the effect of CNF concentration and number of layers on the output performance of TENG was investigated. It was found that the MCM-TENG realized the optimum output performance. Finally, a flexible self-powered display device was realized by integrating the flexible TENG and ACEL. The MCM-TENG with an output voltage of ≈90 V at a frequency of 2 Hz was found to be efficient enough to power the ACEL device. Therefore, the as-fabricated flexible TENG demonstrates a promising potential in terms of self-powered displays and human–machine interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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11 pages, 2172 KiB  
Article
Paper-Based Humidity Sensor for Respiratory Monitoring
by Xiaoxiao Ma, Shaoxing Zhang, Peikai Zou, Ruya Li and Yubo Fan
Materials 2022, 15(18), 6447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15186447 - 16 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2016
Abstract
Flexible respiratory monitoring devices have become available for outside-hospital application scenarios attributable to their improved system wearability. However, the complex fabrication process of such flexible devices results in high prices, limiting their applications in real-life scenarios. This study proposes a flexible, low-cost, and [...] Read more.
Flexible respiratory monitoring devices have become available for outside-hospital application scenarios attributable to their improved system wearability. However, the complex fabrication process of such flexible devices results in high prices, limiting their applications in real-life scenarios. This study proposes a flexible, low-cost, and easy-processing paper-based humidity sensor for sleep respiratory monitoring. A paper humidity sensing model was established and sensors under different design parameters were processed and tested, achieving high sensitivity of 5.45 kΩ/%RH and good repeatability with a matching rate of over 85.7%. Furthermore, the sensor patch with a dual-channel 3D structure was designed to distinguish between oral and nasal breathing from origin signals proved in the simulated breathing signal monitoring test. The sensor patch was applied in the sleep respiratory monitoring of a healthy volunteer and an obstruct sleep apnea patient, demonstrating its ability to distinguish between different respiratory patterns as well as various breathing modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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10 pages, 2142 KiB  
Article
Self-Powered Electrical Impulse Chemotherapy for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
by Chaochao Zhao, Yuan Yang, Xi Cui, Yizhu Shan, Jiangtao Xue, Dongjie Jiang, Jinyan Sun, Na Li, Zhou Li and Anping Yang
Materials 2022, 15(6), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15062060 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common oral cancer of the head and neck, which causes tremendous physical and mental pain to people. Traditional chemotherapy usually results in drug resistance and side effects, affecting the therapy process. In this study, a self-powered [...] Read more.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common oral cancer of the head and neck, which causes tremendous physical and mental pain to people. Traditional chemotherapy usually results in drug resistance and side effects, affecting the therapy process. In this study, a self-powered electrical impulse chemotherapy (EIC) method based on a portable triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) was established for OSCC therapy. A common chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was used in the experiment. The TENG designed with zigzag structure had a small size of 6 cm × 6 cm, which could controllably generate the fixed output of 200 V, 400 V and 600 V. The electrical impulses generated by the TENG increased the cell endocytosis of DOX remarkably. Besides, a simply and ingeniously designed microneedle electrode increased the intensity of electric field (EF) between two adjacent microneedle tips compared with the most used planar interdigital electrode at the same height, which was more suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cells or tissues. Based on the TENG, microneedle electrode and DOX, the self-powered EIC system demonstrated a maximal apoptotic cell ratio of 22.47% and a minimum relative 3D multicellular tumor sphere (MCTS) volume of 160% with the drug dosage of 1 μg mL−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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13 pages, 8394 KiB  
Article
A Robust and Wearable Triboelectric Tactile Patch as Intelligent Human-Machine Interface
by Zhiyuan Hu, Junpeng Wang, Yan Wang, Chuan Wang, Yawei Wang, Ziyi Zhang, Peng Xu, Tiancong Zhao, Yu Luan, Chang Liu, Lin Qiao, Mingrui Shu, Jianchun Mi, Xinxiang Pan and Minyi Xu
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216366 - 24 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3308
Abstract
The human–machine interface plays an important role in the diversified interactions between humans and machines, especially by swaping information exchange between human and machine operations. Considering the high wearable compatibility and self-powered capability, triboelectric-based interfaces have attracted increasing attention. Herein, this work developed [...] Read more.
The human–machine interface plays an important role in the diversified interactions between humans and machines, especially by swaping information exchange between human and machine operations. Considering the high wearable compatibility and self-powered capability, triboelectric-based interfaces have attracted increasing attention. Herein, this work developed a minimalist and stable interacting patch with the function of sensing and robot controlling based on triboelectric nanogenerator. This robust and wearable patch is composed of several flexible materials, namely polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), nylon, hydrogels electrode, and silicone rubber substrate. A signal-processing circuit was used in this patch to convert the sensor signal into a more stable signal (the deviation within 0.1 V), which provides a more effective method for sensing and robot control in a wireless way. Thus, the device can be used to control the movement of robots in real-time and exhibits a good stable performance. A specific algorithm was used in this patch to convert the 1D serial number into a 2D coordinate system, so that the click of the finger can be converted into a sliding track, so as to achieve the trajectory generation of a robot in a wireless way. It is believed that the device-based human–machine interaction with minimalist design has great potential in applications for contact perception, 2D control, robotics, and wearable electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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11 pages, 2249 KiB  
Article
The Emission Mechanism of Gold Nanoclusters Capped with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic Acid, and the Detection of Methanol in Adulterated Wine Model
by Ming Wei, Ye Tian, Lijun Wang, Yuankai Hong, Dan Luo and Yinlin Sha
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216342 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
The absorption and emission mechanisms of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have yet to be understood. In this article, 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) capped AuNCs (AuNC@MUA) were synthesized using the chemical etching method. Compared with MUA, AuNC@MUA had three obvious absorption peaks at 280 nm, 360 [...] Read more.
The absorption and emission mechanisms of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) have yet to be understood. In this article, 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) capped AuNCs (AuNC@MUA) were synthesized using the chemical etching method. Compared with MUA, AuNC@MUA had three obvious absorption peaks at 280 nm, 360 nm, and 390 nm; its photoluminescence excitation (PLE) peak and photoluminescence (PL) peak were located at 285 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The AuNC@MUA was hardly emissive when 360 nm and 390 nm were chosen as excitation wavelengths. The extremely large stokes-shift (>300 nm), and the mismatch between the excitation peaks and absorption peaks of AuNC@MUA, make it a particularly suitable model for studying the emission mechanism. When the ligands were partially removed by a small amount of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution, the absorption peak showed a remarkable rise at 288 nm and declines at 360 nm and 390 nm. These experimental results illustrated that the absorption peak at 288 nm was mainly from metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT), while the absorption peaks at 360 nm and 390 nm were mainly from ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). The PLE peak coincided with the former absorption peak, which implied that the emission of the AuNC@MUA was originally from MMCT. It was also interesting that the emission mechanism could be switched to LMCT from MMCT by decreasing the size of the nanoclusters using 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA), which possesses a stronger etching ability. Moreover, due to the different PL intensities of AuNC@MUA in methanol, ethanol, and water, it has been successfully applied in detecting methanol in adulterated wine models (methanol-ethanol-water mixtures). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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10 pages, 1777 KiB  
Article
A Stretchable, Self-Healable Triboelectric Nanogenerator as Electronic Skin for Energy Harvesting and Tactile Sensing
by Xi Han, Dongjie Jiang, Xuecheng Qu, Yuan Bai, Yu Cao, Ruizeng Luo and Zhou Li
Materials 2021, 14(7), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14071689 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4387
Abstract
Electronic skin that is deformable, self-healable, and self-powered has high competitiveness for next-generation energy/sense/robotic applications. Herein, we fabricated a stretchable, self-healable triboelectric nanogenerator (SH-TENG) as electronic skin for energy harvesting and tactile sensing. The elongation of SH-TENG can achieve 800% (uniaxial strain) and [...] Read more.
Electronic skin that is deformable, self-healable, and self-powered has high competitiveness for next-generation energy/sense/robotic applications. Herein, we fabricated a stretchable, self-healable triboelectric nanogenerator (SH-TENG) as electronic skin for energy harvesting and tactile sensing. The elongation of SH-TENG can achieve 800% (uniaxial strain) and the SH-TENG can self-heal within 2.5 min. The SH-TENG is based on the single-electrode mode, which is constructed from ion hydrogels with an area of 2 cm × 3 cm, the output of short-circuit transferred charge (Qsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and short-circuit current (Isc) reaches ~6 nC, ~22 V, and ~400 nA, and the corresponding output power density is ~2.9 μW × cm−2 when the matching resistance was ~140 MΩ. As a biomechanical energy harvesting device, the SH-TENG also can drive red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) bulbs. Meanwhile, SH-TENG has shown good sensitivity to low-frequency human touch and can be used as an artificial electronic skin for touch/pressure sensing. This work provides a suitable candidate for the material selection of the hydrogel-based self-powered electronic skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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Review

Jump to: Research

14 pages, 3034 KiB  
Review
Functionalization of TiO2 for Better Performance as Orthopedic Implants
by Sehrish Noreen, Engui Wang, Hongqing Feng and Zhou Li
Materials 2022, 15(19), 6868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15196868 - 3 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2357
Abstract
This review mainly focuses on the surface functionalization approaches of titanium dioxide (TiO2) to prevent bacterial infections and facilitate osteointegration simultaneously for titanium (Ti)-based orthopedic implants. Infection is one of the major causes of implant failure. Meanwhile, it is also critical [...] Read more.
This review mainly focuses on the surface functionalization approaches of titanium dioxide (TiO2) to prevent bacterial infections and facilitate osteointegration simultaneously for titanium (Ti)-based orthopedic implants. Infection is one of the major causes of implant failure. Meanwhile, it is also critical for the bone-forming cells to integrate with the implant surface. TiO2 is the native oxide layer of Ti which has good biocompatibility as well as enriched physical, chemical, electronic, and photocatalytic properties. The formed nanostructures during fabrication and the enriched properties of TiO2 have enabled various functionalization methods to combat the micro-organisms and enhance the osteogenesis of Ti implants. This review encompasses the various modifications of TiO2 in aspects of topology, drug loading, and element incorporation, as well as the most recently developed electron transfer and electrical tuning approaches. Taken together, these approaches can endow Ti implants with better bactericidal and osteogenic abilities via the functionalization of TiO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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36 pages, 5705 KiB  
Review
Flexible and Stretchable Bioelectronics
by Chandani Chitrakar, Eric Hedrick, Lauren Adegoke and Melanie Ecker
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051664 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 6343
Abstract
Medical science technology has improved tremendously over the decades with the invention of robotic surgery, gene editing, immune therapy, etc. However, scientists are now recognizing the significance of ‘biological circuits’ i.e., bodily innate electrical systems for the healthy functioning of the body or [...] Read more.
Medical science technology has improved tremendously over the decades with the invention of robotic surgery, gene editing, immune therapy, etc. However, scientists are now recognizing the significance of ‘biological circuits’ i.e., bodily innate electrical systems for the healthy functioning of the body or for any disease conditions. Therefore, the current trend in the medical field is to understand the role of these biological circuits and exploit their advantages for therapeutic purposes. Bioelectronics, devised with these aims, work by resetting, stimulating, or blocking the electrical pathways. Bioelectronics are also used to monitor the biological cues to assess the homeostasis of the body. In a way, they bridge the gap between drug-based interventions and medical devices. With this in mind, scientists are now working towards developing flexible and stretchable miniaturized bioelectronics that can easily conform to the tissue topology, are non-toxic, elicit no immune reaction, and address the issues that drugs are unable to solve. Since the bioelectronic devices that come in contact with the body or body organs need to establish an unobstructed interface with the respective site, it is crucial that those bioelectronics are not only flexible but also stretchable for constant monitoring of the biological signals. Understanding the challenges of fabricating soft stretchable devices, we review several flexible and stretchable materials used as substrate, stretchable electrical conduits and encapsulation, design modifications for stretchability, fabrication techniques, methods of signal transmission and monitoring, and the power sources for these stretchable bioelectronics. Ultimately, these bioelectronic devices can be used for wide range of applications from skin bioelectronics and biosensing devices, to neural implants for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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26 pages, 4277 KiB  
Review
Gel-Based Luminescent Conductive Materials and Their Applications in Biosensors and Bioelectronics
by Jiajin Qi, Gongmeiyue Su and Zhao Li
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6759; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226759 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
The gel is an ideal platform for fabricating materials for bio-related applications due to its good biocompatibility, adjustable mechanical strength, and flexible and diversified functionalization. In recent decades, gel-based luminescent conductive materials that possess additional luminescence and conductivity simultaneously advanced applications in biosensors [...] Read more.
The gel is an ideal platform for fabricating materials for bio-related applications due to its good biocompatibility, adjustable mechanical strength, and flexible and diversified functionalization. In recent decades, gel-based luminescent conductive materials that possess additional luminescence and conductivity simultaneously advanced applications in biosensors and bioelectronics. Herein, a comprehensive overview of gel-based luminescent conductive materials is summarized in this review. Gel-based luminescent conductive materials are firstly outlined, highlighting their fabrication methods, network structures, and functions. Then, their applications in biosensors and bioelectronics fields are illustrated. Finally, challenges and future perspectives of this emerging field are discussed with the hope of inspire additional ideas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Functional Materials for Bioelectronics and Biosensors)
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