Special Issue "Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration - 2020"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Tiago H. Silva
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
3B's Research Group, I3Bs – Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal; ICVS/3B’s – PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: marine biomaterials; bioinspired materials; tissue engineering; marine biotechnology; valorization of byproducts; biorefinery and circular economy; surface modification; biomedical applications
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Catarina F. Marques
Website
Co-Guest Editor
3B’s Research Group, I3Bs—Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics, University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, AvePark, Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: biomaterials; bone tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; colloidal processing; calcium phosphates; additive manufacturing techniques; marine biotechnology
Prof. Dr. Rui L. Reis
Website
Co-Guest Editor
3B’s Research Group, I3Bs - Research Institute on Biomaterials, Biodegradables and Biomimetics of University of Minho, Headquarters of the European Institute of Excellence on Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Avepark - Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia, Zona Industrial da Gandra, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal;
ICVS/3B’s - PT Government Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, 4805-017, Portugal;
The Discoveries Centre for Regenerative and Precision Medicine, Headquarters at University of Minho, Avepark, 4805-017 Barco, Guimarães, Portugal
Interests: biomaterials; tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; stem cells
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The worldwide incidence of bone disorders has been rising in the past few decades, leading to tremendous harm to human health and general quality of life. Every year, millions of people need some kind of prosthetic or implant. Therefore, many studies have appeared with their focus on the development of new tissue engineering strategies for bone tissue regeneration. A great deal of research has been done on this subject, but the currently available therapeutic solutions lack efficiency.

At present, several studies have indicated marine organisms as a rich source of valuable bioactive compounds or inspiration by demonstrating interesting structural properties, which could be advantageous for bone tissue engineering approaches. These studies cover topics from the use of marine biopolymers (e.g., chitosan, collagen, or alginate) and ceramics (e.g., calcium phosphates and biosilicas) as building blocks for the development of bone biomaterials to the characterization of the morphological and mechanical features of corals, sponges, and other mineralized structures to support biomimetic approaches.

As Guest Editors of this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, we would like to invite you to submit manuscripts that explore recent aspects of this research field, including the extraction of bioactive compounds from marine organisms (both biopolymers and/or inorganic materials), the use of the entire organism as a scaffold (taking advantage of the natural structure of fish bones, shells, corals, etc.), or even drug incorporation into these in order to create new functional biomaterials and drug delivery systems for bone tissue engineering.

Dr. Tiago Henriques da Silva
Dr. Catarina F. Marques
Prof. Rui L. Reis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bone tissue engineering
  • extraction
  • biopolymers
  • scaffold processing
  • marine organisms
  • marine biomaterials
  • bioceramics

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Blue Mussel-Derived Peptides PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK Trigger Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling-Mediated Osteogenesis in Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(10), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18100510 - 09 Oct 2020
Abstract
Marine-derived bioactive peptides have shown potential bone health promoting effects. Although various marine-derived bioactive peptides have potential nutraceutical or pharmaceutical properties, only a few of them are commercially available. This study presented an osteogenic mechanism of blue mussel-derived peptides PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK as [...] Read more.
Marine-derived bioactive peptides have shown potential bone health promoting effects. Although various marine-derived bioactive peptides have potential nutraceutical or pharmaceutical properties, only a few of them are commercially available. This study presented an osteogenic mechanism of blue mussel-derived peptides PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK as potential bone health promoting agents in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization were stimulated using PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK as early and late markers of osteogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blot and RT-qPCR results revealed that PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK increased osteoblast differentiation of hBMMSCs by activating canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling-related proteins and mRNAs. Immunofluorescence images confirmed nuclear translocation of β-catenin in osteogenic differentiation. Treatment with the pharmacological inhibitor DKK-1 blocked PIISVYWK- and FSVVPSPK-induced ALP activity and mineralization, as well as mRNA expression of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in hBMMSC differentiation into osteoblasts. These findings suggested that PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK promoted the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in osteogenesis of hBMMSCs. Blue mussel-derived PIISVYWK and FSVVPSPK might help develop peptide-based therapeutic agents for bone-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration - 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Enzymatically Extracted Fucoidans on Angiogenesis and Osteogenesis in Primary Cell Culture Systems Mimicking Bone Tissue Environment
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(9), 481; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18090481 - 21 Sep 2020
Abstract
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is an essential process for successful bone regeneration. Further, angiogenesis is a key factor for the development of bone-related disorders like osteosarcoma or arthritis. Fucoidans, sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae, have been shown [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones, is an essential process for successful bone regeneration. Further, angiogenesis is a key factor for the development of bone-related disorders like osteosarcoma or arthritis. Fucoidans, sulfated polysaccharides from brown algae, have been shown to affect angiogenesis as well as a series of other physiological processes including inflammation or infection. However, the chemical properties of fucoidan which define the biological activity vary tremendously, making a prediction of the bioactivity or the corresponding therapeutic effect difficult. In this study, we compare the effect of four chemically characterized high molecular weight fucoidan extracts from Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens (FE_crude and fractions F1, F2, F3) on angiogenic and osteogenic processes in bone-related primary mono- and co-culture cell systems. By determining the gene expression and protein levels of the regulatory molecules vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), ANG-2 and stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), we show that the extracted fucoidans negatively influence angiogenic and osteogenic processes in both the mono- and co-culture systems. We demonstrate that purer fucoidan extracts with a high fucose and sulfate content show stronger effects on these processes. Immunocytochemistry of the co-culture system revealed that treatment with FE_F3, containing the highest fucose and sulfate content, impaired the formation of angiogenic tube-like structures, indicating the anti-angiogenic properties of the tested fucoidans. This study highlights how chemical properties of fucoidan influence its bioactivity in a bone-related context and discusses how the observed phenotypes can be explained on a molecular level—knowledge that is indispensable for future therapies based on fucoidans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration - 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Fermented Oyster Extract Promotes Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1-Mediated Osteogenesis and Growth Rate
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(9), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18090472 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
Fermented oyster (Crassostrea gigas) extract (FO) prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and activating osteogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FO-mediated bone formation and growth rate are unclear. In the current study, we found that FO significantly upregulated the expression of [...] Read more.
Fermented oyster (Crassostrea gigas) extract (FO) prevents ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and activating osteogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FO-mediated bone formation and growth rate are unclear. In the current study, we found that FO significantly upregulated the expression of growth-promoting genes in zebrafish larvae including insulin-like growth factor 1 (zigf-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (zigfbp-3), growth hormone-1 (zgh-1), growth hormone receptor-1 (zghr-1), growth hormone receptor alpha (zghra), glucokinase (zgck), and cholecystokinin (zccka). In addition, zebrafish larvae treated with 100 μg/mL FO increased in total body length (3.89 ± 0.13 mm) at 12 days post fertilization (dpf) compared to untreated larvae (3.69 ± 0.02 mm); this effect was comparable to that of the β-glycerophosphate-treated zebrafish larvae (4.00 ± 0.02 mm). Furthermore, FO time- and dose-dependently increased the extracellular release of IGF-1 from preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells, which was accompanied by high expression of IGF-1. Pharmacological inhibition of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) using picropodophyllin (PPP) significantly reduced FO-mediated vertebrae formation (from 9.19 ± 0.31 to 5.53 ± 0.35) and growth performance (from 3.91 ± 0.02 to 3.69 ± 0.01 mm) in zebrafish larvae at 9 dpf. Similarly, PPP significantly decreased FO-induced calcium deposition in MC3T3-E1 cells by inhibiting GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9. Additionally, DOI hydrochloride, a potent stabilizer of GSK-3β, reduced FO-induced nuclear translocation of RUNX2. Transient knockdown of IGF-1Rα/β using specific silencing RNA also resulted in a significant decrease in calcium deposition and reduction in GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 in MC3T3-E1 cells. Altogether, these results indicate that FO increased phosphorylated GSK-3β at Ser9 by activating the autocrine IGF-1-mediated IGF-1R signaling pathway, thereby promoting osteogenesis and growth performance. Therefore, FO is a potential nutritional supplement for bone formation and growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration - 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Mussel Shell-Derived Macroporous 3D Scaffold: Characterization and Optimization Study of a Bioceramic from the Circular Economy
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18060309 - 12 Jun 2020
Abstract
Fish industry by-products constitute an interesting platform for the extraction and recovery of valuable compounds in a circular economy approach. Among them, mussel shells could provide a calcium-rich source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics. In this work, HA nanoparticles have been [...] Read more.
Fish industry by-products constitute an interesting platform for the extraction and recovery of valuable compounds in a circular economy approach. Among them, mussel shells could provide a calcium-rich source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics. In this work, HA nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized starting from mussel shells (Mytilus edulis) with a two steps process based on thermal treatment to convert CaCO3 in CaO and subsequent wet precipitation with a phosphorus source. Several parameters were studied, such as the temperature and gaseous atmosphere of the thermal treatment as well as the use of two different phosphorus-containing reagents in the wet precipitation. Data have revealed that the characteristics of the powders can be tailored, changing the conditions of the process. In particular, the use of (NH4)2HPO4 as the phosphorus source led to HA nanoparticles with a high crystallinity degree, while smaller nanoparticles with a higher surface area were obtained when H3PO4 was employed. Further, a selected HA sample was synthesized at the pilot scale; then, it was employed to fabricate porous 3D scaffolds using the direct foaming method. A highly porous scaffold with open and interconnected porosity associated with good mechanical properties (i.e., porosity in the range 87–89%, pore size in the range 50–300 μm, and a compressive strength σ = 0.51 ± 0.14 MPa) suitable for bone replacement was achieved. These results suggest that mussel shell by-products are effectively usable for the development of compounds of high added value in the biomedical field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration - 2020)
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