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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Mussel Shell-Derived Macroporous 3D Scaffold: Characterization and Optimization Study of a Bioceramic from the Circular Economy

Institute of Nanotechnology (NANOTEC), National Research Council (CNR), Campus Ecoteckne, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics (ISTEC), National Research Council (CNR), Via Granarolo 64, 48018 Faenza, Italy
Ghimas SpA, C/O Ditech S.c.a.r.l., Campus Ecotekne, 73100 Lecce, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Advanced (magnetic) Theranostic nanostructures Lab, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga, 4715-330 Braga, Portugal.
Current affiliation: ENEA, Division for Sustainable Materials, Brindisi Research Centre, S.S. 7 Appia–km 706, 72100 Brindisi, Italy.
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(6), 309;
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 12 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration - 2020)
Fish industry by-products constitute an interesting platform for the extraction and recovery of valuable compounds in a circular economy approach. Among them, mussel shells could provide a calcium-rich source for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics. In this work, HA nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized starting from mussel shells (Mytilus edulis) with a two steps process based on thermal treatment to convert CaCO3 in CaO and subsequent wet precipitation with a phosphorus source. Several parameters were studied, such as the temperature and gaseous atmosphere of the thermal treatment as well as the use of two different phosphorus-containing reagents in the wet precipitation. Data have revealed that the characteristics of the powders can be tailored, changing the conditions of the process. In particular, the use of (NH4)2HPO4 as the phosphorus source led to HA nanoparticles with a high crystallinity degree, while smaller nanoparticles with a higher surface area were obtained when H3PO4 was employed. Further, a selected HA sample was synthesized at the pilot scale; then, it was employed to fabricate porous 3D scaffolds using the direct foaming method. A highly porous scaffold with open and interconnected porosity associated with good mechanical properties (i.e., porosity in the range 87–89%, pore size in the range 50–300 μm, and a compressive strength σ = 0.51 ± 0.14 MPa) suitable for bone replacement was achieved. These results suggest that mussel shell by-products are effectively usable for the development of compounds of high added value in the biomedical field. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioceramics; scaffolds; hydroxyapatite; circular economy; by-products; mussel shells bioceramics; scaffolds; hydroxyapatite; circular economy; by-products; mussel shells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scialla, S.; Carella, F.; Dapporto, M.; Sprio, S.; Piancastelli, A.; Palazzo, B.; Adamiano, A.; Degli Esposti, L.; Iafisco, M.; Piccirillo, C. Mussel Shell-Derived Macroporous 3D Scaffold: Characterization and Optimization Study of a Bioceramic from the Circular Economy. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 309.

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