Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (24 March 2023) | Viewed by 30185

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Morphological disciplines, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: probiotic bacteria; innate immunity; molecular biology; campylobacteriosis; PCR methods

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Guest Editor
Department of Morphological Disciplines, The University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Košice, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: oncology; histology; imunochemistry; cytology

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of morphological disciplines, UVMP Kosice, 041 81 Košice, Slovakia
Interests: histology; ultrastructure of tissues and organs; electron microscopy

Special Issue Information

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the world, especially from a dietary point of view, in the consumption of healthy animal products. At the same time, emphasis is placed on the use of alternative methods of prevention of the emergence and spread of diseases in animal husbandry. The quality of animal products depends, among other factors, mainly on the feed or other additives. In the past, antibiotics have been widely used in animal husbandry, also as effective growth stimulators. Their frequent and excessive use over time has led to the development of severe resistance to many types of pathogens. Equally serious concern has been the increase in the amount of residual substances in animal meat, which poses a direct threat to the health of humans as consumers. A promising alternative in this regard appears to be the application of various natural substances or bioactive ingredients such as probiotic bacteria, enzymes, organic acids, plant ingredients as well as other lesser known substances. It has been found that these substances can have a beneficial effect on animal organism, which ultimately leads to improved health and consequently to an increase in the quality of animal products.

This Special Issue offers an open access forum that aims at bringing together a collection of review and original research articles addressing a deeper understanding of the expanding field such as the use of substances of natural origin in animal feed or using different animal models. In this regard, we are welcoming contributions that may cover the effect of natural substances to the animal in various specific areas. We look forward to providing a new aspect in the extended field of animal nutrition and health with direct impact on human health.

Dr. Viera Karaffová
Prof. Dr. Zuzana Ševčíková
Dr. Viera Almášiová
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • natural products
  • organic acids
  • probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics
  • plant extracts
  • animal nutrition
  • animal physiology
  • animal embryology
  • animal reproduction
  • animal models

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 2790 KiB  
Article
Modulation of Immunity, Antioxidant Status, Performance, Blood Hematology, and Intestinal Histomorphometry in Response to Dietary Inclusion of Origanum majorana in Domestic Pigeons’ Diet
by Hala Y. Amer, Rasha I. M. Hassan, Fatma El-Zahraa A. Mustafa, Ramadan D. EL-Shoukary, Ibrahim F. Rehan, František Zigo, Zuzana Lacková and Walaa M. S. Gomaa
Life 2023, 13(3), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13030664 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Origanum majorana (OM) powder to domestic pigeon diets on growth performance, feeding and drinking behaviour, blood hematology, blood biochemical parameters, blood inflammatory and oxidative markers, carcass characteristics, the weights of lymphoid organs, and [...] Read more.
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding Origanum majorana (OM) powder to domestic pigeon diets on growth performance, feeding and drinking behaviour, blood hematology, blood biochemical parameters, blood inflammatory and oxidative markers, carcass characteristics, the weights of lymphoid organs, and and intestinal cecal, and bursa of Fabricius histology. A random distribution of fifty-four unsexed pigeon squabs (30 days old, average body weight; 321 g ± 7.5) into three groups was done. The first group was fed the grower basal diet without adding OM powder, while OM powder was added at levels of 0.5 and 1% to the basal diets of the second and third groups, respectively. The changes in growth performance parameters and feeding and drinking behavior under OM powder’s effect were insignificant. However, the lymphoid organs (spleen and thymus) significantly increased in weight (p < 0.05) in the OM-fed groups. Moreover, blood examination showed positive responses to OM powder in terms of blood cell counts (RBCs andWBCs), and the values of hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte numbers, levels of globulin, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme were significantly increased. The numbers of heterophils, the ratio of heterophil to lymphocyte, malondialdehyde levels were reduced (p < 0.05). Histomorphometry examination revealed increases in intestinal villi height, cecal thickness, and bursal follicle area and number. These results indicated that adding OM powder to the pigeon diet may improve their immunity, increase their antioxidant status, and correct some hematological disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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16 pages, 8777 KiB  
Article
Natural Ghee Enhances the Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Reproductive Performance of Female Rabbits
by Hassan T. El-Gharrawy, Kadry M. Sadek, Sahar F. Mahmoud, Attaa. M. Abd Elrehim, Mustafa Shukry, Heba I. Ghamry, Samah F. Ibrahim, Liana Fericean, Mohamed Abdo and Mohamed M. Zeweil
Life 2023, 13(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010080 - 27 Dec 2022
Viewed by 3280
Abstract
The reproductive effects of several dietary fats (margarine, ghee, and olive oil) on female rabbits were studied. For that purpose, 40 mature female rabbits were designed into four groups of ten rabbits each. Group I was given a control diet, Group II received [...] Read more.
The reproductive effects of several dietary fats (margarine, ghee, and olive oil) on female rabbits were studied. For that purpose, 40 mature female rabbits were designed into four groups of ten rabbits each. Group I was given a control diet, Group II received 10% margarine, Group III received 10% ghee, and Group IV received 10% olive oil; after two months, all rabbits were sacrificed. Lipid profile and reproductive hormones levels were assayed in serum besides ovarian antioxidant enzyme and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, ovarian tissue was examined using hematoxylin–eosin staining and immunohistochemistry of estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor, and caspase 3. Our data revealed that the margarine significantly (p < 0.05) increased lipid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, which decreased in olive oil and ghee compared to the control. In addition, serum FSH and estrogen (estradiol (E2)) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the group treated with margarine. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in ovarian superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in the margarine-treated group. In contrast, SOD and MDA showed a significant (p > 0.05) increase in the olive oil and ghee- treated group compared to the control group. At the same time, there was a significant increase in serum FSH and (estradiol (E2)) in the ghee and olive oil groups, respectively, compared to the control. The margarine feed group showed moderate immunoreaction of estrogen, FSH, LH receptor, and strong caspase 3, while ghee and olive oil showed strong immunoreaction of estrogen, FSH, LH receptor, and mild immunoreaction of caspase 3 in ovarian tissue. Photomicrograph of rabbit ovarian tissue showed vacuolation in small and growing follicles in the margarine group but appeared normal in ghee and the olive oil-treated group. In conclusion, based on these results, olive oil and ghee have a strong capability of enhancing lipid profile, antioxidant status, and female hormonal functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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15 pages, 673 KiB  
Article
Supplying Bee Pollen and Propolis to Growing Rabbits: Effects on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Meat Quality
by María Inés Sierra-Galicia, Raymundo Rodríguez-de Lara, José Felipe Orzuna-Orzuna, Alejandro Lara-Bueno, José Guadalupe García-Muñiz, Marianela Fallas-López and Pedro Abel Hernández-García
Life 2022, 12(12), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12121987 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with bee pollen (BP) and propolis (PRO) on productive performance, Eimeria oocyst counts in feces, blood metabolites, and the meat quality of growing rabbits. A total of 160 hybrid rabbits (California [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with bee pollen (BP) and propolis (PRO) on productive performance, Eimeria oocyst counts in feces, blood metabolites, and the meat quality of growing rabbits. A total of 160 hybrid rabbits (California × New Zealand) of 30 days of age and 643 ± 8.0 g body weight (BW) were assigned to four treatments with 10 replicates each (four rabbits/replicate). The treatments were as follows: (1) CON: rabbits fed basal diet and not supplemented with BP or PRO; (2) BP500: CON + BP (500 mg/kg BW); (3) PRO50: CON + PRO (50 µL/kg BW); and (4) BP + PRO: CON + BP (500 mg/kg BW) + PRO (50 µL/kg BW). Higher daily weight gain (p = 0.04) and lower feed conversion rate (p = 0.03) were observed in rabbits supplemented with PRO50. In addition, supplementation with PRO50 and BP + PRO reduced the amount of Eimeria oocysts per gram of feces (p < 0.05). Most hematological and serum biochemical parameters were similar in rabbits of all treatments. Protein content, collagen, and meat color were similar between treatments. In conclusion, propolis supplementation (50 µL/kg BW) can prevent coccidiosis and act as a natural growth promoter in rabbits without affecting animal health and meat quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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12 pages, 1172 KiB  
Article
Immunomodulatory Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri (Limosilactobacillus reuteri) and Its Exopolysaccharides Investigated on Epithelial Cell Line IPEC-J2 Challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium
by Zuzana Kiššová, Ľudmila Tkáčiková, Dagmar Mudroňová and Mangesh R. Bhide
Life 2022, 12(12), 1955; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12121955 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1473
Abstract
The gastrointestinal tract is the largest and most complex component of the immune system. Each component influences the production and regulation of cytokines secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to see how the probiotic strain Limosilactobacillus reuteri L26 [...] Read more.
The gastrointestinal tract is the largest and most complex component of the immune system. Each component influences the production and regulation of cytokines secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to see how the probiotic strain Limosilactobacillus reuteri L26 and its exopolysaccharide (EPS) affect porcine intestinal-epithelial cells IPEC-J2 infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. The results revealed that Salmonella infection up-regulated all studied pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6 and TLR4, TLR5 signaling pathways, while decreasing the expression of TGF-β. An immunosuppressive activity was found in EPS-treated wells, since the transcriptional levels of the studied pro-inflammatory cytokines were not increased, and the pretreatment with EPS was even able to attenuate up-regulated pro-inflammatory genes induced by Salmonella infection. However, there was a significant increase in the expression of mRNA levels of IL-8 and TNF-α in L26-treated cells, although this up-regulation was suppressed in the case of pretreatment. The immunoregulatory function of L. reuteri was also confirmed by the increased level of mRNA expression for TGF-β, a known immunosuppressive mediator. The most relevant finding of this ex vivo study was a case of immunity modulation, where the probiotic strain L. reuteri stimulated the innate immune-cell response which displayed both anti- and pro-inflammatory activities, and modulated the expression of TLRs in the IPEC-J2 cell line. Our findings also revealed that the pretreatment of cells with either EPS or live lactobacilli prior to infection has a suppressive effect on the inflammatory response induced by Salmonella Typhimurium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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16 pages, 3828 KiB  
Article
Effects of the Probiotic Enterococcus faecium on Muscle Characteristics of Chickens
by Elke Albrecht, Rudolf Zitnan, Viera Karaffova, Viera Revajova, Michaela Čechová, Martin Levkut Jr. and Monika Röntgen
Life 2022, 12(11), 1695; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12111695 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
The use of antibiotics in farm animals is one of the main reasons for the development of resistant bacterial strains (e.g., zoonotic pathogens). Therefore, save alternatives are needed. Here, we examined how post-hatch application (day one to seven of life) of the probiotic [...] Read more.
The use of antibiotics in farm animals is one of the main reasons for the development of resistant bacterial strains (e.g., zoonotic pathogens). Therefore, save alternatives are needed. Here, we examined how post-hatch application (day one to seven of life) of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium AL41 (EF) affects the development and tissue properties of the broiler pectoralis major muscle (PM). Expression of regulators, namely IGF-1, PAX7, and MYF5, was also investigated. At day 1 (n = 6), and days 5, 8, and 12 (n = 10), muscle samples were taken from control and EF supplemented chicks. From day 5 on, myonuclei number per fiber was elevated in EF chicks. Improved capillarization (from day 8), larger myofibers, increased body and PM weights (day 12) were found in the EF group. Part of our findings is explainable by higher intramuscular expression of IGF-1 and lower MYF5 expression in EF birds. In both groups IGF-1 expression decreases with age, thereby increasing the cellular myogenic potential. However, a strong increase in PAX7 expression and more PAX7-positive nuclei were found in EF chicks at day 12. We conclude that EF supplementation improves PM growth and health due to positive effects on bioavailability and fusion capacity of SATC progeny and better tissue perfusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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10 pages, 1317 KiB  
Article
Herbal Vitamin C Prevents DNA Oxidation and Modifies the Metabolomic Water Profile of Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)
by Moisés Villanueva, Guillermo Espinosa-Reyes, Rogelio Flores-Ramirez, Angel Natanael Rojas-Velazquez, Juan Carlos García López, Anayeli Vazquez-Valladolid, José Alejandro Roque-Jimenez, German D. Mendoza-Martinez, Pedro A. Hernandez-Garcia, Monika Palacios-Martinez, Alfonso J. Chay-Canul and Héctor A. Lee-Rangel
Life 2022, 12(8), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081243 - 16 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1584
Abstract
This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of herbal vitamin C at different levels on tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) growth, potential DNA damage, and the metabolomic profile of water effluent. Forty-five tilapias were housed in separate plastic tanks (80 L), and these were [...] Read more.
This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of herbal vitamin C at different levels on tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) growth, potential DNA damage, and the metabolomic profile of water effluent. Forty-five tilapias were housed in separate plastic tanks (80 L), and these were randomly assigned to three treatments: (a) a commercial diet (CD) only; (Nutripec Purina®); (b) the commercial diet plus 250 mg of herbal vitamin C (HVC)/kg (CD250); and (c) the commercial diet plus 500 mg of HVC/kg (CD500). Biometric measurements were taken each week, blood samples were collected from the caudal vein on the final day, and water effluent was taken each week and immediately frozen (−80 °C) until further analysis (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems). Data were completely randomized with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Upon including herbal vitamin C, the final BW (p = 0.05) and BWG (p = 0.06) increased linearly. Herbal vitamin C decreases DNA damage (p ≥ 0.05). PLS-DA showed a 41.6% variation between treatments in the water samples. Fifteen metabolites had the best association between treatments, with a stronger correlation with CD500. Herbal vitamin C could improve fish performance, prevent DNA damage, and influence changes in the metabolomic profile of the water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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17 pages, 3089 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation of Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Alters Ovarian Functions of Xylene-Exposed Mice
by Radoslava Vlčková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Martina Lecová, Dušan Fabian, Zuzana Šefčíková, Alireza Seidavi and Alexander V. Sirotkin
Life 2022, 12(8), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12081152 - 29 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The aim of the performed study was to examine the ability of xylene, flaxseed, and their combinations to affect morphological and endocrine indexes of murine ovaries. The 72 indexes of secondary and tertiary follicular cells, oocytes, corpora lutea, and ovarian stroma have been [...] Read more.
The aim of the performed study was to examine the ability of xylene, flaxseed, and their combinations to affect morphological and endocrine indexes of murine ovaries. The 72 indexes of secondary and tertiary follicular cells, oocytes, corpora lutea, and ovarian stroma have been quantified: diameter, markers of proliferation PCNA and apoptosis caspase 3, receptors to FSH, oxytocin, estrogen (alpha and beta), and progesterone. In addition, concentrations of the ovarian hormones progesterone, estradiol, and IGF-I in the blood, as well as their production by isolated ovaries cultured with and without gonadotropins (FSH + LH mixture), were determined using histological, immunohistochemical, and immunoassay analyses. The character of xylene and flaxseed effects on ovarian functions in mice depended on the stage of ovarian folliculogenesis. It was shown that flaxseed could mitigate and prevent the major (63%) effects of xylene on the ovary. In addition, the ability of gonadotropins to affect ovarian hormone release and prevent its response to xylene has been shown. The effects of these additives could be mediated by changes in the release and reception of hormones. These observations suggest that flaxseed and possibly gonadotropins could be natural protectors of a female reproductive system against the adverse effects of xylene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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6 pages, 394 KiB  
Communication
The Effect of Humic Substances as an Organic Supplement on the Fattening Performance, Quality of Meat, and Selected Biochemical Parameters of Rabbits
by Zuzana Lacková, František Zigo, Zuzana Farkašová and Silvia Ondrašovičová
Life 2022, 12(7), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12071016 - 8 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
In this study, we assessed the effect of humic substances, as an organic supplement in feed, on the fattening performance, meat quality and selected lipid and mineral parameters from the blood serum of rabbits. Three groups of the Giant Saris rabbit breed were [...] Read more.
In this study, we assessed the effect of humic substances, as an organic supplement in feed, on the fattening performance, meat quality and selected lipid and mineral parameters from the blood serum of rabbits. Three groups of the Giant Saris rabbit breed were used (one control and two experimental), with 16 animals per group. The animals in the control group were fed a standard pellet diet, the humic substances group received a basal diet supplemented with 5% humic substances, and the third group received a basal diet with 5% humic–fatty substances preparation during the entire experiment (from 35 to 120 days of age). There were 85 days of fattening; then, the rabbits were slaughtered. In the group supplemented with 5% humic–fatty substances addition, we noticed a higher final weight (p < 0.05) and higher average daily gains compared to the control group at the end of the fattening period, at 120 days of age. On the other hand, a slightly lower final weight (p > 0.05) in the group supplemented with humic substances was found compared to the control group. In the comparison of the individual parameters of the meat quality in rabbits, we observed a positive effect in the reduction in the intramuscular fat content and the lipid parameters as well as a lower total cholesterol from the blood serum in both supplemented groups. Regarding the mineral parameters, we observed elevated blood serum values of calcium and phosphorus in both experimental groups. The addition of humic–fatty substances appears to be the most effective way of supplementing rabbit feed due to the synergistic effect of humates and vegetable oils for their optimal growth development and the production of reduced-fat meat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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18 pages, 3425 KiB  
Article
Antiproliferative Effect of Phellodendron amurense Rupr. Based on Angiogenesis
by Ľudmila Balážová, Slavomír Kurhajec, Martin Kello, Zdenka Bedlovičová, Martina Zigová, Eva Petrovová, Katarína Beňová, Ján Mojžiš and Jarmila Eftimová
Life 2022, 12(5), 767; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050767 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2361
Abstract
Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is medicinal plant used for supplemental therapy of various diseases based on their positive biological activities. The aim of this study was evaluated the main metabolite, safety of application and anticancer potential. Berberine was determined by HPLC as main alkaloid. [...] Read more.
Phellodendron amurense Rupr. is medicinal plant used for supplemental therapy of various diseases based on their positive biological activities. The aim of this study was evaluated the main metabolite, safety of application and anticancer potential. Berberine was determined by HPLC as main alkaloid. Harmful character was determined by irritation test in ovo. The potential cancerogenic effect was studied in vitro on a cellular level, in ovo by CAM assay and in vivo on whole organism Artemia franciscana. Extract from the bark of Phellodendron amurense showed antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects. The results of our work showed promising anticancer effects based also on the inhibition of angiogenesis with minimum negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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13 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Enterococcus faecium AL41 on the Acute Phase Proteins and Selected Mucosal Immune Molecules in Broiler Chickens
by Viera Karaffová, Csilla Tóthová, Renáta Szabóová, Viera Revajová, Andrea Lauková, Zuzana Ševčíková, Róbert Herich, Rudolf Žitňan, Martin Levkut, Mikuláš Levkut, Zita Faixová and Oskar Nagy
Life 2022, 12(4), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12040598 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Probiotic bacteria, including the Enterococcus faecium strain, can improve intestinal mucosal health by several mechanisms, including modulation of the immune response, as well as by improving the protective function of the epithelial barrier. In this study, we tested the effect of Enterococcus faecium [...] Read more.
Probiotic bacteria, including the Enterococcus faecium strain, can improve intestinal mucosal health by several mechanisms, including modulation of the immune response, as well as by improving the protective function of the epithelial barrier. In this study, we tested the effect of Enterococcus faecium AL41 on the acute phase proteins response (blood), gene expression of selected molecules of mucosal immunity (immunoglobulin A, mucin-2, insulin-like growth factor 2) and mucus production (all parts of the small intestine) in broilers. Eighty broiler chicks were divided into two groups: a control and E. faecium AL41 (birds were inoculated with AL41 for 7 days) group. The whole experiment lasted 11 days. Our results revealed that the administration of E. faecium AL41 had no substantial effect on the concentrations of acute phase proteins, but we recorded a significant increase in β- and γ-globulin fractions at the end of the experiment, which may indicate an improvement in the immune status. A significant prolonged stimulatory effect of E. faecium AL41 on the relative expression of molecules (immunoglobulin A, mucin-2) as well as on the dynamic of mucus production in the chicken intestine was observed. In addition, AL41 significantly reduced the total number of enterococci in the cecum and faeces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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13 pages, 18117 KiB  
Article
Influence of Immune Parameters after Enterococcus faecium AL41 Administration and Salmonella Infection in Chickens
by Viera Revajová, Terézia Benková, Viera Karaffová, Martin Levkut, Emília Selecká, Emília Dvorožňáková, Zuzana Ševčíková, Róbert Herich and Mikuláš Levkut
Life 2022, 12(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12020201 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Immune response of day-old chicks infected with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and preventive administration of Enterococcus faecium AL41 were studied using hematology and flow cytometry of immunocompetent cells in blood, cecum, bursa and spleen for 11 days, and included 220 animals divided into four [...] Read more.
Immune response of day-old chicks infected with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and preventive administration of Enterococcus faecium AL41 were studied using hematology and flow cytometry of immunocompetent cells in blood, cecum, bursa and spleen for 11 days, and included 220 animals divided into four groups (n = 55). E. faecium AL41 was administered for 7 days to EF and EFSE groups and on day 4 SE and EFSE groups were infected with Salmonella Enteritidis. Values of monocytes at 4 dpi significantly increased in EFSE and lymphocytes at 7 dpi in EF groups. Blood CD3, CD4, CD8 and IgM lymphocytes improved in EF and EFSE groups and IgA in EF group at 4 dpi. Phagocytic activity of probiotic groups was improved in both samples. Cecal IEL and LPL lymphocytes showed at 7 dpi stimulation of CD3, CD4 and CD8 subpopulations in probiotic groups, especially in EFSE group, IgA IEL and IgA with IgM LPL in EF groups. Bursa Fabricii at 7 dpi presented overstimulation of IgG subpopulation in SE group, spleen CD3 and CD8 in EF and EFSE groups. E. faecium AL41 revealed the protective effect and positive influence on the local and systemic immune response in Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 infected chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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Review

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36 pages, 1243 KiB  
Review
Green Biomass-Based Protein for Sustainable Feed and Food Supply: An Overview of Current and Future Prospective
by Éva Domokos-Szabolcsy, Seckin Reyhan Yavuz, Edgard Picoli, Miklós Gabor Fári, Zoltán Kovács, Csaba Tóth, László Kaszás, Tarek Alshaal and Nevien Elhawat
Life 2023, 13(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13020307 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4276
Abstract
It is necessary to develop and deploy novel protein production to allow the establishment of a sustainable supply for both humans and animals, given the ongoing expansion of protein demand to meet the future needs of the increased world population and high living [...] Read more.
It is necessary to develop and deploy novel protein production to allow the establishment of a sustainable supply for both humans and animals, given the ongoing expansion of protein demand to meet the future needs of the increased world population and high living standards. In addition to plant seeds, green biomass from dedicated crops or green agricultural waste is also available as an alternative source to fulfill the protein and nutrient needs of humans and animals. The development of extraction and precipitation methods (such as microwave coagulation) for chloroplast and cytoplasmic proteins, which constitute the bulk of leaf protein, will allow the production of leaf protein concentrates (LPC) and protein isolates (LPI). Obtained LPC serves as a sustainable alternative source of animal-based protein besides being an important source of many vital phytochemicals, including vitamins and substances with nutritional and pharmacological effects. Along with it, the production of LPC, directly or indirectly, supports sustainability and circular economy concepts. However, the quantity and quality of LPC largely depend on several factors, including plant species, extraction and precipitation techniques, harvest time, and growing season. This paper provides an overview of the history of green biomass-derived protein from the early green fodder mill concept by Károly Ereky to the state-of-art of green-based protein utilization. It highlights potential approaches for enhancing LPC production, including dedicated plant species, associated extraction methods, selection of optimal technologies, and best combination approaches for improving leaf protein isolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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27 pages, 1132 KiB  
Review
Any Future for Faecal Microbiota Transplantation as a Novel Strategy for Gut Microbiota Modulation in Human and Veterinary Medicine?
by Martina Takáčová, Alojz Bomba, Csilla Tóthová, Alena Micháľová and Hana Turňa
Life 2022, 12(5), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050723 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3241
Abstract
Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome, also known as dysbiosis, are the result of many factors such as diet, antibiotics, stress, diseases, etc. There are currently several ways to modulate intestinal microbiome such as dietary modulation, the use of antimicrobials, prebiotics, [...] Read more.
Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome, also known as dysbiosis, are the result of many factors such as diet, antibiotics, stress, diseases, etc. There are currently several ways to modulate intestinal microbiome such as dietary modulation, the use of antimicrobials, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, and synbiotics. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) represents one new method of gut microbiota modulation in humans with the aim of reconstructing the intestinal microbiome of the recipient. In human medicine, this form of bacteriotherapy is successfully used in cases of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT has been known in large animal medicine for several years. In small animal medicine, the use of FMT is not part of normal practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Substances in Nutrition and Health of Animals)
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