Advances in Livestock and Human Parasites

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 12595

Special Issue Editors

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Interests: gut microbiota modification with a focus on the gut–disease relation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Interests: toxoplasma; cryptosporidium; metabolism; gene editing; vaccine development; drug targets

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
Interests: parasites; anthelmintic drugs; drug targets; epidemiology; genomics

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61802, USA
Interests: parasitic protozoa; host–parasite interactions; novel antiparasitic agents

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Parasitic diseases are one of the most common infectious diseases among humans and animals around the world. Many parasite species are deleterious to human and animal health and agricultural efficiency. The levels of parasite infections vary markedly between different livestock production systems and from one farm to another. The reasons for these differences relate to livestock breeds, different management factors, and other practices that directly or indirectly affect parasite infections, as well as to farmers’ attitudes—e.g. the chosen threshold for intervention. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1.5 billion people worldwide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis, especially in impecunious areas. Livestock plays an important role in the economies of both developed and developing countries. The greatest impact of parasitic infections and diseases on developing countries is associated with reduced productivity and the loss of socio-economic potential. We aim to showcase the most recent advances in livestock and human parasitology. The term livestock here refers to all domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities, including ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats), swine, horses, poultry, and fish.

Studies on all aspects of parasitology and parasite biology will be considered, including those on

  • biodiversity;
  • life cycles;
  • understanding host–parasite interactions using different approaches, such as immunology, genomics, and genetics; metagenomics and microbiome studies;
  • cell and molecular biology;
  • pathology;
  • mechanisms of anthelmintic or drug resistance;
  • parasite distribution shifts in the context of climate changes;
  • novel therapeutics;
  • alternative parasite control strategies;
  • and vaccines.

Dr. Kun Li
Dr. Ningbo Xia
Dr. Khalid Mehmood
Dr. William Harold Witola
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • livestock
  • human Parasites
  • parasites
  • vaccine development
  • anthelmintic drugs
  • drug targets
  • epidemiology
  • genomics
  • biodiversity and life cycles
  • mechanisms of anthelmintic
  • parasite distribution shifts

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 1049 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of an Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) for Screening of Babesia bovis in Cattle from West Africa
by Alassane Toure, Moussa Sanogo, Abdelmalek Sghiri and Hamid Sahibi
Life 2023, 13(1), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13010203 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
The epidemiology of corresponding tick-borne diseases has changed as a result of the recent introduction of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to West Africa. The current study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Babesia bovis infection in [...] Read more.
The epidemiology of corresponding tick-borne diseases has changed as a result of the recent introduction of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to West Africa. The current study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Babesia bovis infection in cattle. In a cross-section study, using a Bayesian Latent Class Model and iELISA diagnostic test for cattle babesiosis due to Babesia bovis, accuracy has been assessed with RT-PCR as an imperfect reference test. A total of 766 cattle were tested. The optimal diagnostic performances were obtained with 5% percentage of positivity. Sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.94 [Cr. I.: 0.85–0.99] and 0.89 [Cr. I.: 0.87–0.92]. Additional diagnostic characteristics revealed that the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were 96.6% [Cr. I.: 92.7–100%] and 82.2% [Cr. I.: 72–93%]. Overall, this test well discriminates an infected status from an uninfected status considering the area under the ROC curve (AUC) which was 0.78 [Cr. I: 0.72–0.85] and a Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR) of 127.8 [Cr. I.: 10.43–1562.27]. The AUC was significantly higher than 0.5 (p < 10−5). In consequence, this serologic assay could be suitable in moderate to high prevalence assessments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Livestock and Human Parasites)
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17 pages, 6180 KiB  
Article
The Biological Activity of Illicium verum (Star Anise) on Lernaea cyprinacea-Infested Carassius auratus (Goldfish): In Vivo Study
by Marwa M. Attia, Amal M. Alzahrani, Magdy I. Hanna, Heba M. Salem, Mohammed A. S. Abourehab, Mohamed T. El-Saadony and Hasnaa Thabit
Life 2022, 12(12), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12122054 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2175
Abstract
Lernaea cyprinacea infestation is considered a serious economic problem in the fish market. An assessment to control this parasite is needed to manage this problem. The Illicium verum oil extract has considerable antioxidant activity and scavenges 96.22% of free radicals; the high antioxidant [...] Read more.
Lernaea cyprinacea infestation is considered a serious economic problem in the fish market. An assessment to control this parasite is needed to manage this problem. The Illicium verum oil extract has considerable antioxidant activity and scavenges 96.22% of free radicals; the high antioxidant activity refers to the phenolic content presence. The extract contains minerals, especially K, fibers, and dry matter. So, the Illicium verum ingredients were tested against this copepod for in vitro and in vivo investigation with the assessment of the treatment trial using a scanning electron microscope and evaluating the change in different immunological genes in goldfish. Female parasitic L. cyprinacea worms were blackish and hairy. The in vitro study on L. cyprinacea adults using star anise revealed that the LC50 was 12.5 and 25 μg/mL for 2 and 1 h exposure periods, respectively. Interleukin (IL-1β) and IL-6 were grossly upregulated in C. auratus-infested skin by L. cyprinacea after treatment by 1 week, then declined after 3 weeks. In contrast, TNF-α was 18 folds upregulated in the first week after treatment, with a decline after 3 weeks. In conclusion, star anise is recommended as a safe and economical agent for controlling L. cyprinacea infestation in fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Livestock and Human Parasites)
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13 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Immune Cell Reaction Associated with Coenurus cerebralis Infection in Sheep with Particular Reference to ELISA as a Diagnostic Tool
by Soliman M. Soliman, Nesreen H. Aljahdali, Kamlah Ali Majrashi, Sohila M. El-Gameel, Elshaimaa Ismael, Heba M. Salem, Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Najah M. Albaqami, Haifaa A. Mahjoub, Mohamed T. El-Saadony and Marwa M. Attia
Life 2022, 12(10), 1515; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12101515 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1989
Abstract
Sturdy is a disease caused by Coenurus cerebralis (C. cerebralis) that typically affects the brain and spinal cord of sheep. So, this study aimed to detect the pathological, hematological and immunological changes caused by C. cerebralis in sheep. On examination, a [...] Read more.
Sturdy is a disease caused by Coenurus cerebralis (C. cerebralis) that typically affects the brain and spinal cord of sheep. So, this study aimed to detect the pathological, hematological and immunological changes caused by C. cerebralis in sheep. On examination, a total of 17 sheep out of 30 sheep (56.7%) from various regions in Egypt were found infected with C. cerebralis from May to August 2019. Each cyst was extracted from the sheep brain; in addition, tissue specimens were taken from the brain tissues for histopathological examination. The hematological profile was analyzed. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay’s (ELISA) specificity and sensitivity were evaluated using cystic fluid and protoscolices antigens (Ag). The cell-mediated immunity against the C. cerebralis cyst was also assessed via quantitative Real Time—Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) to show alterations in mRNA expression of the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and gamma Interferon (IFN-γ) cytokines qRT-PCR. In histopathological sections, cerebral tissue showed an areolar cyst wall with many protoscolices attached to the tissue. The affected part showed prominent necrosis together with inflammatory cells’ aggregation. Hyperplastic proliferation of the ependymal cells was a common finding. The infected sheep exhibited significantly lower total erythrocyte numbers (ER), hemoglobin levels (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), platelet numbers (PN) and segmented cell numbers compared to apparently healthy sheep. Despite the sensitivity for the indirect ELISA being 100% for both of the Ags (fluid and scolex), the evaluation of ELISA specificity using the two antigen (Ag) preparations showed specificities of 46.2% and 38.5% for fluid and scolex Ag, respectively. Meanwhile accuracy ranged from 76.7% and 73.3% for the fluid and scolex Ags, respectively, that showed the priority was directed to the fluid to be used as an ideal sample type for ELISA. Levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in infected sheep compared to non-infected control ones. In conclusion, C. cerebralis is a serious disease infecting sheep in Egypt revealing economic losses. Although this investigation supports preliminary information about the prevalence, pathological and serological characterization of C. cerebralis, further sequencing and phylogenetic analysis is needed to understand better the T. multiceps epidemiology in ruminants and canines in Egypt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Livestock and Human Parasites)
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10 pages, 2242 KiB  
Article
Acaricidal Potential and Ecotoxicity of Metallic Nano-Pesticides Used against the Major Life Stages of Hyalomma Ticks
by Tean Zaheer, Mahmoud Kandeel, Rao Zahid Abbas, Shanza Rauf Khan, Tauseef ur Rehman and Amjad Islam Aqib
Life 2022, 12(7), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12070977 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are blood-feeding parasites capable of transmitting diseases to animals (Piroplasmosis) and humans (Congo fever, Lyme disease). The non-judicious use of chemical acaricides has led to the development of acaricide-resistant ticks, making the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases difficult. This [...] Read more.
Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are blood-feeding parasites capable of transmitting diseases to animals (Piroplasmosis) and humans (Congo fever, Lyme disease). The non-judicious use of chemical acaricides has led to the development of acaricide-resistant ticks, making the control of ticks and tick-borne diseases difficult. This study reports the efficacy of magnesium oxide (MgO), iron oxide (Fe2O3), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) as alternatives to traditional acaricides/pesticides using in vitro tests against major representative stages of Hyalomma ticks. Nanopesticides were chemically synthesized as rods (Fe2O3), stars (ZnO), and spheres (MgO) and were characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. The in vitro bioassays included adult immersion, larval immersion, and larval packet tests. Non-target effects of the nanopesticides were evaluated using snails. The LC90 values of Fe2O3 NPs (4.21, 2.83, 0.89 mg/L) were lowest followed by MgO (4.27, 2.91, 0.93 mg/L) and ZnO (4.49, 3.05, 0.69 mg/L), for the tick adult, larval and egg stages, respectively. Fe2O3 NPs were capable of arresting oviposition and larval hatching in the study ticks in vitro. The snail toxicity experiments revealed minimum to mild off-target effects for all nanopesticides tested. This study is the first to report the comparative efficacy of magnesium, iron, and zinc nanomaterials for toxicity in egg, adult and larval stages of Hyalomma ticks. Further studies of NPs on establishing the efficacy against ticks and safety at host-human-environment interface could lead to promising nanopesticde applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Livestock and Human Parasites)
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Review

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16 pages, 991 KiB  
Review
Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Their Role as Potential Drug Candidates for the Treatment of Parasitic Diseases
by Hammad Ur Rehman Bajwa, Muhammad Kasib Khan, Zaheer Abbas, Roshan Riaz, Tauseef ur Rehman, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Tahir Aleem, Asghar Abbas, Mashal M. Almutairi, Fahdah Ayed Alshammari, Yasser Alraey and Abdulaziz Alouffi
Life 2022, 12(5), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/life12050750 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4202
Abstract
Protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites are the major groups of parasites distributed worldwide. Currently, these parasites are treated with chemotherapeutic antiprotozoal drugs, anti-helminthic and anti-ectoparasitic agents, but, with the passage of time, resistance to these drugs has developed due to overuse. In this scenario, [...] Read more.
Protozoa, helminths and ectoparasites are the major groups of parasites distributed worldwide. Currently, these parasites are treated with chemotherapeutic antiprotozoal drugs, anti-helminthic and anti-ectoparasitic agents, but, with the passage of time, resistance to these drugs has developed due to overuse. In this scenario, nanoparticles are proving to be a major breakthrough in the treatment and control of parasitic diseases. In the last decade, there has been enormous development in the field of nanomedicine for parasitic control. Gold and silver nanoparticles have shown promising results in the treatments of various types of parasitic infections. These nanoparticles are synthesized through the use of various conventional and molecular technologies and have shown great efficacy. They work in different ways, that include damaging the parasite membrane, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) disruption, protein synthesis inhibition and free-radical formation. These agents are effective against intracellular parasites as well. Other nanoparticles, such as iron, nickel, zinc and platinum, have also shown good results in the treatment and control of parasitic infections. It is hoped that this research subject will become the future of modern drug development. This review summarizes the methods that are used to synthesize nanoparticles and their possible mechanisms of action against parasites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Livestock and Human Parasites)
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