Special Issue "Nutrigenomics"

A special issue of Journal of Personalized Medicine (ISSN 2075-4426).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Ahmed El-Sohemy

Professor and Canada Research Chair in Nutrigenomics, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada
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Interests: nutrigenetics; biomarkers; food preferences; genetic testing; cardiometabolic disease; athletic performance
Guest Editor
Prof. José M. Ordovás

Director Nutrition and Genomics, Professor Nutrition and Genetics, JM-USDA-HNRCA at Tufts University, USA
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Interests: nutrigenetics; biomarkers; eating behaviors, cardiovascular disease; lipid metabolism; genome-wide association studies; epigenetics; chronobiology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The integration of various ‘omics’ technologies into studies linking nutrition to human health and performance has greatly enhanced our understanding of the effects of specific nutrients, food bioactives and dietary patterns. These discoveries have helped us understand individual nutritional requirements, identify the presence of food preferences and intolerances, and establish specific dietary patterns that improve health and performance. This Special Issue of the Journal of Personalized Medicine aims to highlight the current state of the science and showcase some of the latest findings in the field of nutritional genomics. Studies include those that explore gene-diet interactions using basic science, clinical and population-based approaches. The scientific advances in the field of nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics will continue to pave the path towards personalized nutrition for optimal health and wellness.

Prof. Ahmed El-Sohemy
Prof. José M. Ordovás
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Personalized Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutrigenomics
  • Nutrigenetics
  • Personalized Nutrition
  • Biomarkers
  • Epigenetics
  • Metabolomics
  • Proteomics
  • Genomics
  • Genetic testing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Association between Plasma Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Anthropometric Traits Differs by Racial/Ethnic Groups and NFKB1 Genotypes in Healthy Young Adults
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm9010013
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
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Abstract
Evidence for a relationship between omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and obesity in humans is inconsistent, perhaps due to differences in dietary intake or metabolism of PUFAs between different subsets of the population. Since chronic inflammation is central to obesity and [...] Read more.
Evidence for a relationship between omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and obesity in humans is inconsistent, perhaps due to differences in dietary intake or metabolism of PUFAs between different subsets of the population. Since chronic inflammation is central to obesity and inflammatory pathways are regulated by PUFAs, the objective of this study was to examine whether variants in the NFKB1 gene, an upstream regulator of the inflammatory response, modify the association between the n-6/n-3 ratio (from diet and plasma) and anthropometric traits in a multiethnic/multiracial population of young adults. Participants’ (n = 898) dietary PUFA intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma PUFA concentrations by gas chromatography. Nine tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in NFKB1 were genotyped. Significant interactions were found between racial/ethnic groups and plasma n-6/n-3 ratio for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02) and waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.007). Significant interactions were also observed between racial/ethnic groups and three NFKB1 genotypes (rs11722146, rs1609798, and rs230511) for BMI and WC (all p ≤ 0.04). Significant interactions were found between two NFKB1 genotypes and plasma n-6/n-3 ratio for BMI and WC (rs4648090 p = 0.02 and 0.03; rs4648022 p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Our findings suggest that anthropometric traits may be influenced by a unique combination of n-6/n-3 ratio, racial/ethnic background, and NFKB1 genotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Interaction between Genetic Polymorphisms in FTO and TCF7L2 Genes and Dietary Intake with Regard to Body Mass and Composition: An Exploratory Study
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm9010011
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
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Abstract
In contrast to the large number of genetic studies on obesity, there has been significantly less nutrigenetics investigation of the interaction between diet and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity, especially within Eastern Mediterranean populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate [...] Read more.
In contrast to the large number of genetic studies on obesity, there has been significantly less nutrigenetics investigation of the interaction between diet and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity, especially within Eastern Mediterranean populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential interactions between three candidate SNPs, namely, rs1558902 and rs9939609 in the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene and the rs7903146 variant of the Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) gene, and macronutrient intake with regard to obesity, body fat, and muscle composition. Three hundred and eight healthy Lebanese adults were included in this study. Data collection included a questionnaire for demographics and lifestyle in addition to a detailed dietary assessment using a culture-specific 80-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. This was coupled with anthropometric measurements and peripheral blood withdrawal for DNA and genotyping using Taqman allele discrimination assays. The two FTO candidate SNPs were not associated with risk of obesity in this population sample, yet there was a trend, though not a significant one, towards lower muscle mass among carriers of the risk allele of either FTO SNPs. To our knowledge, these results have not been previously reported. As for the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant, results were congruent with the literature, given that individuals who were homozygous for the risk allele had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and body fat despite lower intakes of saturated fat. Similar interactions, though not significant, were shown with muscle mass, whereby individuals who were homozygous for the risk allele had lower muscle mass with higher intakes of saturated fat, a result that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Variations in Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Are Related to Chocolate Powder and Dietary Fiber Intake in Obese Children and Adolescents
J. Pers. Med. 2018, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm8010007
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood obesity is a major public health problem. It has a direct impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents, as well as on their future risk of developing chronic diseases. Dietary patterns rich in fats and sugars and lacking dietary [...] Read more.
Childhood obesity is a major public health problem. It has a direct impact on the quality of life of children and adolescents, as well as on their future risk of developing chronic diseases. Dietary patterns rich in fats and sugars and lacking dietary fibers, vitamins, and minerals, as well as lack of physical exercise have been associated with the rise of obesity prevalence. However, factors that contribute to the preference for foods rich in these nutrients are not well established. Taste is recognized as an important predictor of food choices, and polymorphisms in taste-related genes may explain the variability of taste preference and food intake. The aim of this research is to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms of the sweet taste receptor gene TAS1R2 on diet and metabolic profile in obese children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 513 obese children and adolescents and 135 normal-weight children was carried out. A molecular study was performed for the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs9701796 and rs35874116 of TAS1R2, and dietary intake, anthropometric parameters (weight, height, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)), and metabolic profile (including fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)–cholesterol, and leptin levels) were analyzed. The variant rs9701796 was associated with increased waist-height ratio, as well as with a higher chocolate powder intake in obese children. The variant rs35874116 was associated with a lower dietary fiber intake. In conclusion, there was no relationship between genotypes and risk of obesity. Obese adolescents carrying the serine allele of SNP rs9701796 in TAS1R2 showed higher waist-to-height ratio and chocolate powder intake, whereas those carrying the valine allele of SNP rs35874116 in TAS1R2 were characterized by lower dietary fiber intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessArticle
Tailoring Nutritional Advice for Mexicans Based on Prevalence Profiles of Diet-Related Adaptive Gene Polymorphisms
J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7(4), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm7040016
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3999 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG) polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico’s population is comprised of Amerindians (AM) and Mestizos who have variable [...] Read more.
Diet-related adaptive gene (DRAG) polymorphisms identified in specific populations are associated with chronic disorders in carriers of the adaptive alleles due to changes in dietary and lifestyle patterns in recent times. Mexico’s population is comprised of Amerindians (AM) and Mestizos who have variable AM, European (EUR) and African genetic ancestry and an increased risk of nutrition-related chronic diseases. Nutritional advice based on the Mexican genome and the traditional food culture is needed to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. Therefore, we aimed to provide a prevalence profile of several DRAG polymorphisms in the Mexican population, including Central West (CW) Mexico subpopulations. Geographic heat maps were built using ArcGIS10 (Esri, Redlands, CA, USA) software, based on the published data of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), ABCA1 Arg230Cys (rs9282541), APOE T388C (rs429358)/C526T (rs7412), LCT C-13910T (rs4988235) polymorphisms and AMY1 copy number variation (CNV). Also, new data obtained by allelic discrimination-real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for the MTHFR, ABCA1, and APOE polymorphisms as well as the AMY1 CNV in the CW Mexico subpopulations with different proportions of AM and EUR ancestry were included. In the CW region, the highest frequency of the MTHFR 677T, ABCA1 230C and APOE ε4 adaptive alleles was observed in the AM groups, followed by Mestizos with intermediate AM ancestry. The LCT-13910T allele frequency was highest in Mestizos-EUR but extremely low in AM, while the AMY1 diploid copy number was 6.82 ± 3.3 copies. Overall, the heat maps showed a heterogeneous distribution of the DRAG polymorphisms, in which the AM groups revealed the highest frequencies of the adaptive alleles followed by Mestizos. Given these genetic differences, genome-based nutritional advice should be tailored in a regionalized and individualized manner according to the available foods and Mexican traditional food culture that may lead to a healthier dietary pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Polymorphisms in FFAR4 (GPR120) Gene Modulate Insulin Levels and Sensitivity after Fish Oil Supplementation
J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7(4), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm7040015
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9–2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid [...] Read more.
The objective was to test whether FFAR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with glycemic control-related traits in humans following fish oil supplementation. A total of 210 participants were given 3 g/day of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA) (1.9–2.2 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 1.1 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) during six weeks. Biochemical parameters were taken before and after the supplementation. Using the HapMap database and the tagger procedure in Haploview, 12 tagging SNPs in FFAR4 were selected and then genotyped using TaqMan technology. Transcript expression levels were measured for 30 participants in peripheral mononuclear blood cells. DNA methylation levels were measured for 35 participants in leukocytes. In silico analyses were also performed. Four gene–diet interactions on fasting insulin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values were found. rs17108973 explained a significant proportion of the variance of insulin levels (3.0%) and HOMA-IR (2.03%) index values. Splice site prediction was different depending on the allele for rs11187527. rs17108973 and rs17484310 had different affinity for transcription factors depending on the allele. n-3 FAs effectively improve insulin-related traits for major allele homozygotes of four FFAR4 SNPs as opposed to carriers of the minor alleles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessArticle
Dairy Product Consumption Interacts with Glucokinase (GCK) Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Insulin Resistance
J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7(3), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm7030008
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dairy product intake and a person’s genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis [...] Read more.
Dairy product intake and a person’s genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK) genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified. Secondly, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were grown in a high-glucose medium and incubated with either 1-dairy proteins: whey, caseins, and a mixture of whey and casein; and 2-four amino acids (AA) or mixtures of AA. The expression of GCK-related genes insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) was increased with whey protein isolate or hydrolysate. Individually, leucine increased IRS-1 expression, whereas isoleucine and valine decreased FASN expression. A branched-chain AA mixture decreased IRS-1 and FASN expression. In conclusion, carriers of the A allele for rs1799884 in the GCK gene may benefit from a higher intake of dairy products to maintain optimal insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the results show that whey proteins affect the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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