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Open AccessArticle

The Association between Plasma Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Anthropometric Traits Differs by Racial/Ethnic Groups and NFKB1 Genotypes in Healthy Young Adults

1
School of Human Kinetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
2
Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
3
Public Health Risk Sciences Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Toronto, ON M5V 3L7, Canada
4
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
5
School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
6
Institut du savoir Montfort, Hôpital Montfort, Ottawa, ON K1K 0T2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm9010013
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 16 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
Evidence for a relationship between omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio and obesity in humans is inconsistent, perhaps due to differences in dietary intake or metabolism of PUFAs between different subsets of the population. Since chronic inflammation is central to obesity and inflammatory pathways are regulated by PUFAs, the objective of this study was to examine whether variants in the NFKB1 gene, an upstream regulator of the inflammatory response, modify the association between the n-6/n-3 ratio (from diet and plasma) and anthropometric traits in a multiethnic/multiracial population of young adults. Participants’ (n = 898) dietary PUFA intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma PUFA concentrations by gas chromatography. Nine tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in NFKB1 were genotyped. Significant interactions were found between racial/ethnic groups and plasma n-6/n-3 ratio for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02) and waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.007). Significant interactions were also observed between racial/ethnic groups and three NFKB1 genotypes (rs11722146, rs1609798, and rs230511) for BMI and WC (all p ≤ 0.04). Significant interactions were found between two NFKB1 genotypes and plasma n-6/n-3 ratio for BMI and WC (rs4648090 p = 0.02 and 0.03; rs4648022 p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively). Our findings suggest that anthropometric traits may be influenced by a unique combination of n-6/n-3 ratio, racial/ethnic background, and NFKB1 genotypes. View Full-Text
Keywords: NFKB1; single nucleotide polymorphism; omega-6/omega-3 ratio; body mass index; waist circumference; racial/ethnic groups NFKB1; single nucleotide polymorphism; omega-6/omega-3 ratio; body mass index; waist circumference; racial/ethnic groups
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Bauman-Fortin, J.; Ma, D.W.; Mutch, D.M.; Abdelmagid, S.A.; Badawi, A.; El-Sohemy, A.; Fontaine-Bisson, B. The Association between Plasma Omega-6/Omega-3 Ratio and Anthropometric Traits Differs by Racial/Ethnic Groups and NFKB1 Genotypes in Healthy Young Adults. J. Pers. Med. 2019, 9, 13.

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