Special Issue "Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Mireille Fouillaud Website E-Mail
University of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, France
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Laurent Dufossé E-Mail
Université de La Réunion, ESIROI Département Agroalimentaire, Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles et des Sciences des Aliments, 2 rue Joseph Wetzell, F‐97490 Sainte‐Clotilde, La Réunion, France
Interests: microbial biotechnology; microbial production of pigments; dairy; fermentation; bioprocess engineering and fermentation technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fungal secondary metabolites cover a large group of compounds of primary importance for societies in the coming years. Several polyketides, terpenoids, alkaloids, lipids, and shikimate-derived fungal molecules have been highlighted in the past 20 years, with some of the most promising advantages for health and daily life.

Today's challenge in this field is clearly to increase scientific knowledge about the diversity and the characteristics of these chemical compounds. Our capacities to control their production and the opportunities we can design, to use them for our benefits, will be major keys for some future societal developments.

In this Special Issue dedicated to "Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites", research papers and reviews about the discovery of new fungal secondary metabolites are welcome, providing new evidence about fungi as potential sources of bioactive or more largely useful properties. New skills related to fungal compounds exerting toxic effects could be a topic worth following.

Investigations about the biosynthetic pathways of already known molecules, or original findings about their production, at a laboratory scale or at a pilot level, could be emphasized. Alternative and/or additional biotechnological processes for industrial applications may also be explored, as well as contributions regarding alternative greener extraction processes.

Current industrial applications, and description of their limits and further opportunities for the use of fungal compounds in food, beverage, pharmaceutic, cosmetic, textile, or painting industries, could also be part of this Special Issue.

Sincerely,

Dr. Mireille Fouillaud
Prof. Laurent Dufossé
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fungi
  • Polyketide
  • Biosynthetic pathway
  • Production
  • Extraction
  • Biological properties
  • Industrial application

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Influence of Environmental Growth Factors on the Biomass and Pigment Production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens
J. Fungi 2019, 5(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5020046 - 08 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The soft rot fungus Chlorociboria aeruginascens produces a blue–green pigment xylindein, which is of considerable interest for various applications such as in the veneer industry or in organic semiconductors. To understand the fungal growth as well as pigment production of C. aeruginascens, [...] Read more.
The soft rot fungus Chlorociboria aeruginascens produces a blue–green pigment xylindein, which is of considerable interest for various applications such as in the veneer industry or in organic semiconductors. To understand the fungal growth as well as pigment production of C. aeruginascens, several studies were performed, the results of which are presented here. These studies investigated various growth conditions such as temperature, pH value, oxygen level and light intensity. It was observed that the formation of xylindein by C. aeruginascens decoupled from growth. In the primary metabolismus, the uncolored biomass is formed. Pigment production took place within the secondary metabolism, while biomass growth as well as pigment production depended on various growth conditions. It was also found that certain conditions encourage the switch in metabolism, leading to pigment production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessCommunication
Influence of the Nutrients on the Biomass and Pigment Production of Chlorociboria aeruginascens
J. Fungi 2019, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5020040 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The blue-green pigment xylindein, produced by the soft rot fungus Chlorociboria aeruginascens, is of considerable interest for various applications such as the veneer industry or organic semiconductors. The studies presented were performed in order to understand the fungal growth as well as [...] Read more.
The blue-green pigment xylindein, produced by the soft rot fungus Chlorociboria aeruginascens, is of considerable interest for various applications such as the veneer industry or organic semiconductors. The studies presented were performed in order to understand the fungal growth as well as the pigment production of C. aeruginascens. Therefore, various nutrient compositions were investigated. As a result, observations of the formation of xylindein through C. aeruginascens decoupling from growth were made. In the primary metabolism the uncolored biomass is formed. Various carbohydrates were determined as nutrients for the fungus and as a nitrogen source it was observed that the fungus prefers the complex organic nitrogen source, that being yeast extract. Furthermore, it was discovered that the ratio between carbohydrate and nitrogen sources encourages the switch of the metabolism and therewith the production of the blue-green pigment xylindein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Marine Basidiomycetes Fulvifomes sp.-Derived Ergosterol Peroxide on Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cell Line
J. Fungi 2019, 5(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5010016 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to extract the bioactive compounds which can induce the apoptosis in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by marine basidiomycetes. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences based molecular taxonomic study confirmed that collected the marine basidiomycetes belongs to [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to extract the bioactive compounds which can induce the apoptosis in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by marine basidiomycetes. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) sequences based molecular taxonomic study confirmed that collected the marine basidiomycetes belongs to Fulvifomes sp. Further, the isolated compounds from the Fulvifomes sp. confirmed as ergosterol peroxide (EP) by spectroscopic studies. The compound inhibited 50% of the cell growth (IC50) at the concentration of 40 µg/mL and induced 90% cell death (IC 90) at the concentration of 80 µg/mL. The ergosterol peroxide generated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7. Ethidium bromide/Acridine Orange (Et/Br) staining showed the increased number of early and late apoptosis in treated MCF-7 cells. The compounds treated cells indicated the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) with p < 0.05. The induction of apoptosis by marine basidiomycetes derived ergosterol peroxide was confirmed by chromatin condensation in MCF7 cells using Hoechst staining 33342. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Improved Carotenoid Extraction Method to Characterize the Carotenoid Composition under Oxidative Stress and Cold Temperature in the Rock Inhabiting Fungus Knufia petricola A95
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040124 - 09 Nov 2018
Abstract
Black yeasts are a highly specified group of fungi, which are characterized by a high resistance against stress factors. There are several factors enabling the cells to survive harsh environmental conditions. One aspect is the pigmentation, the melanin black yeasts often display a [...] Read more.
Black yeasts are a highly specified group of fungi, which are characterized by a high resistance against stress factors. There are several factors enabling the cells to survive harsh environmental conditions. One aspect is the pigmentation, the melanin black yeasts often display a highly diverse carotenoid spectrum. Determination and characterization of carotenoids depend on an efficient extraction and separation, especially for black yeast, which is characterized by thick cell walls. Therefore, specific protocols are needed to ensure reliable analyses regarding stress responses in these fungi. Here we present both. First, we present a method to extract and analyze carotenoids and secondly we present the unusual carotenoid composition of the black yeast Knufia petricola A95. Mechanical treatment combined with an acetonitrile extraction gave us very good extraction rates with a high reproducibility. The presented extraction and elution protocol separates the main carotenoids (7) in K. petricola A95 and can be extended for the detection of additional carotenoids in other species. K. petricola A95 displays an unusual carotenoid composition, with mainly didehydrolycopene, torulene, and lycopene. The pigment composition varied in dependency to oxidative stress but remained relatively constant if the cells were cultivated under low temperature. Future experiments have to be carried out to determine if didehydrolycopene functions as a protective agent itself or if it serves as a precursor for antioxidative pigments like torulene and torularhodin, which could be produced after induction under stress conditions. Black yeasts are a promising source for carotenoid production and other substances. To unravel the potential of these fungi, new methods and studies are needed. The established protocol allows the determination of carotenoid composition in black yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle
Oryzines A & B, Maleidride Congeners from Aspergillus oryzae and Their Putative Biosynthesis
J. Fungi 2018, 4(3), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4030096 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Aspergillus oryzae is traditionally used in East Asia for the production of food and brewing. In addition, it has been developed into a suitable host for the heterologous expression of natural product biosynthetic genes and gene clusters, enabling the functional analysis of the [...] Read more.
Aspergillus oryzae is traditionally used in East Asia for the production of food and brewing. In addition, it has been developed into a suitable host for the heterologous expression of natural product biosynthetic genes and gene clusters, enabling the functional analysis of the encoded enzymes. A. oryzae shares a 99.5% genome homology with Aspergillus flavus, but their secondary metabolomes differ significantly and various compounds unique to A. oryzae have been reported. While using A. oryzae as a host for heterologous expression experiments we discovered two new metabolites in extracts of A. oryzae M-2-3 with an unusual maleidride backbone, which were named oryzine A and B. Their structures were elucidated by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Their structural relationships with known maleidrides implied involvement of a citrate synthase (CS) and a polyketide (PKS) or fatty acid synthase (FAS) in their biosynthesis. Analysis of the A. oryzae genome revealed a single putative biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) consistent with the hypothetical biosynthesis of the oryzines. These findings increase knowledge of the chemical potential of A. oryzae and are the first attempt to link a novel product of this fungus with genomic data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Chemical Diversity and Biological Activities of Phaeosphaeria Fungi Genus: A Systematic Review
J. Fungi 2018, 4(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4040130 - 05 Dec 2018
Abstract
Microbial natural products (MNPs) have been identified as important hotspots and effective sources for drug lead discovery. The genus Phaeosphaeria (family: Phaeosphaeriaceae, order: Pleosporales), in particular, has produced divergent chemical structures, including pyrazine alkaloids, isocoumarins, perylenequinones, anthraquinones, diterpenes, and cyclic peptides, which display [...] Read more.
Microbial natural products (MNPs) have been identified as important hotspots and effective sources for drug lead discovery. The genus Phaeosphaeria (family: Phaeosphaeriaceae, order: Pleosporales), in particular, has produced divergent chemical structures, including pyrazine alkaloids, isocoumarins, perylenequinones, anthraquinones, diterpenes, and cyclic peptides, which display a wide scope of biological potentialities. This contribution comprehensively highlights, over the period 1974–2018, the chemistry and biology of the isolated natural products from the micro-filamentous Phaeosphaeria fungi genus. A list of 71 compounds, with structural and biological diversities, were gathered into 5 main groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Polyketides and Other Secondary Metabolites)
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