Special Issue "Fungal Pigments"

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Laurent Dufossé
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Guest Editor
Université de La Réunion, ESIROI Département Agroalimentaire, Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles et des Sciences des Aliments, 2 rue Joseph Wetzell, F‐97490 Sainte‐Clotilde, La Réunion, France
Interests: microbial biotechnology; microbial production of pigments; dairy; fermentation; bioprocess engineering and fermentation technology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Yanis Caro
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Guest Editor
Laboratory of Chemistry of Natural Substances and Food Sciences (LCSNSA), University of Reunion, F-97490 Sainte-Clotilde, Reunion Island, France
Interests: Fermentation; Industrial biotechnology; Marine fungi; Fungal pigments; Anthraquinones; Chemistry of lipids; Biodiesel
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mireille Fouillaud
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the impact of globalization in research trends, the search for healthier life styles, the increasing public demand for natural, organic, and ‘clean labelled’ products, as well as the growing global market for natural colorants in economically fast-growing countries all over the world, filamentous fungi started to be investigated as readily available sources of chemically diverse pigments and colorants. For all of these reasons, this special issue of Journal of Fungi will highlight exciting findings, which may pave the way for alternative and/or additional biotechnological processes for industrial applications of fungal pigments and colorants. Research papers and reviews about the fungal biodiversity from terrestrial and marine origins are welcome, bringing new elements about fungi as potential sources of well-known carotenoid pigments (e.g. beta-carotene, lycopene) and other specific pigmented polyketide molecules, such as Monascus and Monascus-like azaphilones, which are yet not known to be biosynthesized by any other organisms like higher plants. These polyketide pigments also include promising, and unexplored hydroxy-anthraquinoid colorants from Ascomycetous species. The investigation of biosynthetic pathways of the carotenoids and polyketide-derivative colored molecules (i.e. azaphilones, hydroxyanthraquinones, and naphthoquinones) in pigment-producing fungal species could bring some articles. Contributions about alternative greener extraction processes of the fungal colored compounds, along with current industrial applications, description of their limits and further opportunities for the use of fungal pigments in beverage, food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile and painting areas will also be part of this special issue.

Prof. Laurent Dufossé
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Fungi is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For this Special Issue dedicated to Fungal Pigments the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts, with respect to the 31 March 2017 deadline. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • filamentous fungi
  • pigment
  • colorant
  • carotenoid
  • polyketide
  • azaphilone
  • anthraquinone
  • naphthoquinone
  • screening
  • biodiversity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Fungal Pigments: Deep into the Rainbow of Colorful Fungi
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030045 - 07 Aug 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
With the impact of globalization on research trends, the search for healthier life styles, the increasing public demand for natural, organic, and ”clean labelled” products, as well as the growing global market for natural colorants in economically fast-growing countries all over the world, [...] Read more.
With the impact of globalization on research trends, the search for healthier life styles, the increasing public demand for natural, organic, and ”clean labelled” products, as well as the growing global market for natural colorants in economically fast-growing countries all over the world, filamentous fungi started to be investigated as readily available sources of chemically diverse pigments and colorants.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pigments) Printed Edition available

Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Utilization of High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of 8-O-methylbostrycoidin Production by Species of the Fungus Fusarium
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030043 - 25 Jul 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
The pigment 8-O-methylbostrycoidin is a polyketide metabolite produced by multiple species of the fungus Fusarium that infects plant crops, including maize. A technique was developed for the analysis of 8-O-methylbostrycoidin by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization [...] Read more.
The pigment 8-O-methylbostrycoidin is a polyketide metabolite produced by multiple species of the fungus Fusarium that infects plant crops, including maize. A technique was developed for the analysis of 8-O-methylbostrycoidin by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The quantitative nature of the LC-MS/MS experiment was demonstrated over a range of concentrations in maize. Limits of detection for the method (10 ng/g from 8-O-methylbostrycoidin spiked into ground maize) were shown, and susceptibility of the method to matrix effects from maize was also evaluated. The method was applied to evaluate the ability of the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides to produce 8-O-methylbostrycoidin in developing maize ears grown in an agricultural field. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Dyeing Properties of the Pigments Produced by Talaromyces spp.
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030038 - 05 Jul 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The high production yields of pigments by Talaromyces spp. and their high thermal stability have implied that industrial application interests may emerge in the food and textile industries, as they both involve subjecting the colourants to high temperatures. The present study aimed to [...] Read more.
The high production yields of pigments by Talaromyces spp. and their high thermal stability have implied that industrial application interests may emerge in the food and textile industries, as they both involve subjecting the colourants to high temperatures. The present study aimed to assess the potential application of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in the textile area by studying their dyeing properties. Dyeing studies were performed on wool. The dyeing process consisted of three stages: scouring, mordanting, and dyeing. Two different mordants (alum, A; ferric chloride, F) were tested at different concentrations on fabric weight (A: 5, 10, 15%; F: 10, 20, 30%). The mordanting process had a significant effect on the final colour of the dyed fabrics obtained. The values of dyeing rate constant (k), half-time of dyeing (t1/2), and sorption kinetics behaviour were evaluated and discussed. The obtained results showed that pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. could serve as a source for the natural dyeing of wool textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pigments) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Biodiversity of Pigmented Fungi Isolated from Marine Environment in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean: New Resources for Colored Metabolites
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030036 - 02 Jul 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
Marine ecosystems cover about 70% of the planet surface and are still an underexploited source of useful metabolites. Among microbes, filamentous fungi are captivating organisms used for the production of many chemical classes of secondary metabolites bound to be used in various fields [...] Read more.
Marine ecosystems cover about 70% of the planet surface and are still an underexploited source of useful metabolites. Among microbes, filamentous fungi are captivating organisms used for the production of many chemical classes of secondary metabolites bound to be used in various fields of industrial application. The present study was focused on the collection, isolation, screening and genotyping of pigmented filamentous fungi isolated from tropical marine environments around La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean. About 150 micromycetes were revived and isolated from 14 marine samples (sediments, living corals, coral rubble, sea water and hard substrates) collected in four different locations. Forty-two colored fungal isolates belonging to 16 families, 25 genera and 31 species were further studied depending on their ability to produce pigments and thus subjected to molecular identification. From gene sequence analysis, the most frequently identified colored fungi belong to the widespread Penicillium, Talaromyces and Aspergillus genera in the family Trichocomaceae (11 species), then followed by the family Hypocreaceae (three species). This study demonstrates that marine biotopes in La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean, from coral reefs to underwater slopes of this volcanic island, shelter numerous species of micromycetes, from common or uncommon genera. This unstudied biodiversity comes along with the ability for some fungal marine inhabitants, to produce a range of pigments and hues. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030034 - 28 Jun 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, [...] Read more.
The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera (Penicillium, Talaromyces, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Dreschlera, and Paecilomyces). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium, Fusarium oxysporum, marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp., and Trichoderma atroviride, as potential red pigment producers. The extraction of the pigments is a crucial step, whereby the qualitative and quantitative compositions of each fungal extract need to be respected for reliable identification, as well as preserving bioactivity. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for more sustainable and cost-effective extraction methods. Therefore, a pressurized liquid extraction technique was carried out in this study, allowing a greener and faster extraction step of the pigments, while preserving their chemical structures and bioactivities in comparison to conventional extraction processes. The protocol was illustrated with the production of pigment extracts from P. purpurogenum rubisclerotium and Talaromyces spp. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography combined with photodiode array-detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The more promising strain was the isolate Talaromyces spp. of marine origin. The main polyketide pigment produced by this strain has been characterized as N-threoninerubropunctamine, a non-toxic red Monascus-like azaphilone pigment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perstraction of Intracellular Pigments through Submerged Fermentation of Talaromyces spp. in a Surfactant Rich Media: A Novel Approach for Enhanced Pigment Recovery
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030033 - 27 Jun 2017
Cited by 2
Abstract
A high percentage of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. remains inside the cell, which could lead to a high product concentration inhibition. To overcome this issue an extractive fermentation process, perstraction, was suggested, which involves the extraction of the intracellular products out [...] Read more.
A high percentage of the pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. remains inside the cell, which could lead to a high product concentration inhibition. To overcome this issue an extractive fermentation process, perstraction, was suggested, which involves the extraction of the intracellular products out of the cell by using a two-phase system during the fermentation. The present work studied the effect of various surfactants on secretion of intracellular pigments produced by Talaromyces spp. in submerged fermentation. Surfactants used were: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Span 20 and Triton X-100) and a polyethylene glycerol polymer 8000, at different concentrations (5, 20, 35 g/L). The highest extracellular pigment yield (16 OD500nm) was reached using Triton X-100 (35 g/L), which was 44% higher than the control (no surfactant added). The effect of addition time of the selected surfactant was further studied. The highest extracellular pigment concentration (22 OD500nm) was achieved when the surfactant was added at 120 h of fermentation. Kinetics of extracellular and intracellular pigments were examined. Total pigment at the end of the fermentation using Triton X-100 was 27.7% higher than the control, confirming that the use of surfactants partially alleviated the product inhibition during the pigment production culture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microscopic Analysis of Pigments Extracted from Spalting Fungi
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3010015 - 14 Mar 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and [...] Read more.
Pigments that are currently available in the market usually come from synthetic sources, or, if natural, often need mordants to bind to the target substrate. Recent research on the fungal pigment extracts from Scytalidium cuboideum, Scytalidium ganodermophthorum, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, and Chlorociboria aeruginascens have been shown to successfully dye materials, like wood, bamboo, and textiles, however, there is no information about their binding mechanisms. Due to this, a microscopic study was performed to provide information to future manufacturers interested in these pigments. The results of this study show that S. ganodermophthorum and C. aeruginosa form an amorphous layer on substrates, while S. cuboideum forms crystal-like structures. The attachment and morphology indicate that there might be different chemical and physical interactions between the extracted pigments and the materials. This possibility can explain the high resistance of the pigments to UV light and color fastness that makes them competitive against synthetic pigments. These properties make these pigments a viable option for an industry that demands natural pigments with the properties of the synthetic ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3010009 - 22 Feb 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise [...] Read more.
The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise pathway engineering by integration of three microbial genes into the genome and finally the chemical reduction of the resulting 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4,4’-diketo-β-carotene) and 4-keto-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4-monoketo-β-carotene). Both keto carotenoids and the resulting 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’,3’,4’-hexahydroxy-β-carotene) and 4-hydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’3’-pentahydroxy-β-carotene) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Their molecular masses and fragmentation patterns allowed the unequivocal identification of all four carotenoids. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Biosynthesis of Astaxanthin as a Main Carotenoid in the Heterobasidiomycetous Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030044 - 30 Jul 2017
Cited by 15
Abstract
Carotenoids are organic lipophilic yellow to orange and reddish pigments of terpenoid nature that are usually composed of eight isoprene units. This group of secondary metabolites includes carotenes and xanthophylls, which can be naturally obtained from photosynthetic organisms, some fungi, and bacteria. One [...] Read more.
Carotenoids are organic lipophilic yellow to orange and reddish pigments of terpenoid nature that are usually composed of eight isoprene units. This group of secondary metabolites includes carotenes and xanthophylls, which can be naturally obtained from photosynthetic organisms, some fungi, and bacteria. One of the microorganisms able to synthesise carotenoids is the heterobasidiomycetous yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, which represents the teleomorphic state of Phaffia rhodozyma, and is mainly used for the production of the xanthophyll astaxanthin. Upgraded knowledge on the biosynthetic pathway of the main carotenoids synthesised by X. dendrorhous, the biotechnology-based improvement of astaxanthin production, as well as the current omics approaches available in this yeast are reviewed in depth. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Fusarium
J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof3030039 - 07 Jul 2017
Cited by 7
Abstract
Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early [...] Read more.
Many fungi of the genus Fusarium stand out for the complexity of their secondary metabolism. Individual species may differ in their metabolic capacities, but they usually share the ability to synthesize carotenoids, a family of hydrophobic terpenoid pigments widely distributed in nature. Early studies on carotenoid biosynthesis in Fusarium aquaeductuum have been recently extended in Fusarium fujikuroi and Fusarium oxysporum, well-known biotechnological and phytopathogenic models, respectively. The major Fusarium carotenoid is neurosporaxanthin, a carboxylic xanthophyll synthesized from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate through the activity of four enzymes, encoded by the genes carRA, carB, carT and carD. These fungi produce also minor amounts of β-carotene, which may be cleaved by the CarX oxygenase to produce retinal, the rhodopsin’s chromophore. The genes needed to produce retinal are organized in a gene cluster with a rhodopsin gene, while other carotenoid genes are not linked. In the investigated Fusarium species, the synthesis of carotenoids is induced by light through the transcriptional induction of the structural genes. In some species, deep-pigmented mutants with up-regulated expression of these genes are affected in the regulatory gene carS. The molecular mechanisms underlying the control by light and by the CarS protein are currently under investigation. Full article
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