Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil by Fungi

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Ecological Interactions of Fungi".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 5917

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, Qingdao 266042, China
Interests: soil pollution and remediation; ecotoxicity of environmental pollutants; emerging contaminants; arbuscular mycorrhizae; phytoremediation; ecotoxicology and environmental risks; heavy metals; ecological restoration
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Guest Editor
School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
Interests: soil-plant system interactions; bioremediation; microbial ecology; soil environmental chemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Agriculture, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China
Interests: mycorrhizal bioremediation; soil pollution and soil microbial; soil pollution and mycorrhizal functions; soil pollution and plant nutrition; ecological stoichiometry of soil and plant under soil pollution; soil pollution and soil enzyme; soil pollution and glomalin

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Soil contamination represents a global environmental challenge, posing potential threats to soil ecosystems and sustainable agricultural production. Bioremediation using microorganisms, plants, or soil animals is considered a low-cost and environment-friendly soil remediation technology. Fungi occur widely in various environments, including polluted habitats, playing a critical role in decomposition processes. Due to their diverse metabolic capacities, numerous fungi are able to degrade or transform organic chemicals, toxic metal(loid)s, and radionuclides through various detoxification mechanisms, showing great potential for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. In addition, symbiotic fungi such as mycorrhizal fungi can help host plants to survive in stressful environments through improving their tolerance to contaminants, thus facilitating phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Increasing concerns regarding soil contamination and remediation technologies call for new insights into soil bioremediation using fungi. This Special Issue focuses on the applications of fungi and their enzymes in the remediation of soils contaminated with both traditional and emerging contaminants. It is open to all aspects related to soil bioremediation via fungi, including new fungal species/strains/enzymes, new contaminants, new mechanisms, and new remediation materials and technologies. Studies on phytoremediation assisted by fungi are also welcome. The listed keywords represent a few of the priorities.

Prof. Dr. Fayuan Wang
Prof. Dr. Linchuan Fang
Prof. Dr. Zhaoyong Shi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fungal remediation
  • mycoremediation
  • enzymatic remediation
  • soil contamination
  • soil bioremediation
  • soil fungi
  • organic pollutants
  • emerging contaminants
  • heavy metals
  • biodegradation
  • phytoremediation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 8973 KiB  
Article
The Role of Lignin in the Compartmentalization of Cadmium in Maize Roots Is Enhanced by Mycorrhiza
by Ruimin Lao, Yanying Guo, Weixia Hao, Wenjun Fang, Haiyan Li, Zhiwei Zhao and Tao Li
J. Fungi 2023, 9(8), 852; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9080852 - 15 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
In nature, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in the root systems of plants. They can help enhance the resistance of host plants by improving the compartmentalization of toxic metal contaminants in the cell walls (CWs). However, the functions and responses [...] Read more.
In nature, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in the root systems of plants. They can help enhance the resistance of host plants by improving the compartmentalization of toxic metal contaminants in the cell walls (CWs). However, the functions and responses of various CW subfractions to mycorrhizal colonization under Cd exposure remain unknown. Here we conducted a study to investigate how Cd is stored in the cell walls of maize roots colonized by Funneliformis mosseae. Our findings indicate that inoculating the roots with AMF significantly lowers the amount of Cd in the maize shoots (63.6 ± 6.54 mg kg−1 vs. 45.3 ± 2.19 mg kg−1, p < 0.05) by retaining more Cd in the mycorrhized roots (224.0 ± 17.13 mg kg−1 vs. 289.5 ± 8.75 mg kg−1, p < 0.01). This reduces the adverse effects of excessive Cd on the maize plant. Additional research on the subcellular distribution of Cd showed that AMF colonization significantly improves the compartmentalization of 88.2% of Cd in the cell walls of maize roots, compared to the 80.8% of Cd associated with cell walls in the non-mycorrhizal controls. We observed that the presence of AMF did not increase the amount of Cd in pectin, a primary binding site for cell walls; however, it significantly enhanced the content of lignin and the proportion of Cd in the total root cell walls. This finding is consistent with the increased activity of lignin-related enzymes, such as PAL, 4CL, and laccase, which were also positively impacted by mycorrhizal colonization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results revealed that AMF increased the number and types of functional groups, including −OH/−NH and carboxylate, which chelate Cd in the lignin. Our research shows that AMF can improve the ability of maize plants to tolerate Cd by reducing the amount of Cd transferred from the roots to the shoots. This is achieved by increasing the amount of lignin in the cell walls, which binds with Cd and prevents it from moving through the plant. This is accomplished by activating enzymes related to lignin synthesis and increasing the exposure of Cd-binding functional groups of lignin. However, more direct evidence on the immobilization of Cd in the mycorrhiza-altered cell wall subfractions is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil by Fungi)
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15 pages, 2318 KiB  
Article
AMF Inoculation Alleviates Molybdenum Toxicity to Maize by Protecting Leaf Performance
by Mengge Zhang, Zhaoyong Shi, Shichuan Lu and Fayuan Wang
J. Fungi 2023, 9(4), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof9040479 - 16 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a vital strategy for enhancing the phytoremediation of heavy metals. However, the role of AMF under molybdenum (Mo) stress is elusive. A pot culture experiment was conducted to explore the effects of AMF (Claroideoglomus [...] Read more.
The use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a vital strategy for enhancing the phytoremediation of heavy metals. However, the role of AMF under molybdenum (Mo) stress is elusive. A pot culture experiment was conducted to explore the effects of AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Rhizophagus intraradices) inoculation on the uptake and transport of Mo and the physiological growth of maize plants under different levels of Mo addition (0, 100, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg). AMF inoculation significantly increased the biomass of maize plants, and the mycorrhizal dependency reached 222% at the Mo addition level of 1000 mg/kg. Additionally, AMF inoculation could induce different growth allocation strategies in response to Mo stress. Inoculation significantly reduced Mo transport, and the active accumulation of Mo in the roots reached 80% after inoculation at the high Mo concentration of 2000 mg/kg. In addition to enhancing the net photosynthetic and pigment content, inoculation also increased the biomass by enhancing the uptake of nutrients, including P, K, Zn, and Cu, to resist Mo stress. In conclusion, C. etunicatum and R. intraradices were tolerant to the Mo stress and could alleviate the Mo-induced phytotoxicity by regulating the allocation of Mo in plants and improving photosynthetic leaf pigment contents and the uptake of nutrition. Compared with C. etunicatum, R. intraradices showed a stronger tolerance to Mo, which was manifested by a stronger inhibition of Mo transport and a higher uptake of nutrient elements. Accordingly, AMF show potential for the bioremediation of Mo-polluted soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil by Fungi)
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Review

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23 pages, 2455 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review of the Effectiveness of Biochar Coupled with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Cadmium Immobilization
by Xin Fang, Xinqing Lee, Gratien Twagirayezu, Hongguang Cheng, Hongyu Lu, Shenglan Huang, Linbo Deng and Bo Ji
J. Fungi 2024, 10(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10030182 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 939
Abstract
Cadmium-contaminated soil significantly threatens global food security and human health. This scenario gives rise to significant worries regarding widespread environmental pollution. Biochar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can effectively immobilize cadmium in the soil in an environmentally friendly way. Existing studies have separately [...] Read more.
Cadmium-contaminated soil significantly threatens global food security and human health. This scenario gives rise to significant worries regarding widespread environmental pollution. Biochar and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can effectively immobilize cadmium in the soil in an environmentally friendly way. Existing studies have separately focused on the feasibility of each in remediating polluted soil. However, their association during the remediation of cadmium-polluted soils remains unclear. This review paper aims to elucidate the potential of biochar, in conjunction with AMF, as a strategy to remediate soil contaminated with cadmium. This paper comprehensively analyzes the current understanding of the processes in cadmium immobilization in the soil environment by examining the synergistic interactions between biochar and AMF. Key factors influencing the efficacy of this approach, such as biochar properties, AMF species, and soil conditions, are discussed. The influences of biochar–AMF interactions on plant growth, nutrient uptake, and overall ecosystem health in cadmium-contaminated environments are highlighted. This review indicates that combining biochar and AMF can improve cadmium immobilization. The presence of AMF in the soil can create numerous binding sites on biochar for cadmium ions, effectively immobilizing them in the soil. Insights from this review contribute to a deeper understanding of sustainable and eco-friendly approaches to remediate cadmium-contaminated soils, offering potential applications in agriculture and environmental management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil by Fungi)
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40 pages, 4223 KiB  
Review
A Review about the Mycoremediation of Soil Impacted by War-like Activities: Challenges and Gaps
by Regina Geris, Marcos Malta, Luar Aguiar Soares, Lourdes Cardoso de Souza Neta, Natan Silva Pereira, Miguel Soares, Vanessa da Silva Reis and Madson de Godoi Pereira
J. Fungi 2024, 10(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10020094 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
(1) Background: The frequency and intensity of war-like activities (war, military training, and shooting ranges) worldwide cause soil pollution by metals, metalloids, explosives, radionuclides, and herbicides. Despite this environmentally worrying scenario, soil decontamination in former war zones almost always involves incineration. Nevertheless, this [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The frequency and intensity of war-like activities (war, military training, and shooting ranges) worldwide cause soil pollution by metals, metalloids, explosives, radionuclides, and herbicides. Despite this environmentally worrying scenario, soil decontamination in former war zones almost always involves incineration. Nevertheless, this practice is expensive, and its efficiency is suitable only for organic pollutants. Therefore, treating soils polluted by wars requires efficient and economically viable alternatives. In this sense, this manuscript reviews the status and knowledge gaps of mycoremediation. (2) Methods: The literature review consisted of searches on ScienceDirect and Web of Science for articles (1980 to 2023) on the mycoremediation of soils containing pollutants derived from war-like activities. (3) Results: This review highlighted that mycoremediation has many successful applications for removing all pollutants of war-like activities. However, the mycoremediation of soils in former war zones and those impacted by military training and shooting ranges is still very incipient, with most applications emphasizing explosives. (4) Conclusion: The mycoremediation of soils from conflict zones is an entirely open field of research, and the main challenge is to optimize experimental conditions on a field scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil by Fungi)
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