New Molecular Perspectives on Multidrug-Resistance in Postharvest Fungi

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X). This special issue belongs to the section "Fungi in Agriculture and Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2024 | Viewed by 1757

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Food Biotechnology Department, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Catedrático Agustín Escardino Benlloch 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain
Interests: fungal biotechnology, synthetic biology; fungal control; fungicide resistance; fungal virulence; signal transduction pathways; host–pathogen interaction
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fungi are a great threat to the post-harvest industry, causing high economic losses. Management options are limited due to resistance to fungicides. The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is the main factor responsible for the failure of antifungal control. The main mechanisms of resistance to antifungals are related to the presence of transport proteins in the plasma membrane, which extrude drugs from the intracellular medium and, therefore, prevent them from reaching the necessary concentration that would allow them to be effective against fungi. However, other mechanisms can be observed, such as point mutations in the binding targets of certain fungicides. Due to the importance of MDRs for the control of fungal pathogens during postharvest, the discovery of new molecules capable of inhibiting efflux transporters and/or new targets of action emerges as a promising strategy to strengthen the antifungal arsenal.

This Special Issue aims to present and promote research on fungicide resistance molecular mechanisms in order to encourage research into alternatives that block the multidrug resistance phenotype.

Dr. Paloma Sánchez-Torres
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • postharvest fungi
  • biocontrol
  • antifungal proteins and peptides
  • fungicide resistance
  • virulence/pathogenesis
  • signal transduction pathways
  • host-pathogen interaction
  • effectors

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 6366 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Potential Regulators of DMI Fungicide Resistance in the Citrus Postharvest Pathogen Penicillium digitatum
by Yue Xi, Jing Zhang, Botao Fan, Miaomiao Sun, Wenqian Cao, Xiaotian Liu, Yunpeng Gai, Chenjia Shen, Huizhong Wang and Mingshuang Wang
J. Fungi 2024, 10(5), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10050360 - 18 May 2024
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Abstract
Green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, is the major cause of citrus postharvest decay. Currently, the application of sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide is one of the main control measures to prevent green mold. However, the fungicide-resistance problem in the pathogen P. [...] Read more.
Green mold, caused by Penicillium digitatum, is the major cause of citrus postharvest decay. Currently, the application of sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide is one of the main control measures to prevent green mold. However, the fungicide-resistance problem in the pathogen P. digitatum is growing. The regulatory mechanism of DMI fungicide resistance in P. digitatum is poorly understood. Here, we first performed transcriptomic analysis of the P. digitatum strain Pdw03 treated with imazalil (IMZ) for 2 and 12 h. A total of 1338 genes were up-regulated and 1635 were down-regulated under IMZ treatment for 2 h compared to control while 1700 were up-regulated and 1661 down-regulated under IMZ treatment for 12 h. The expression of about half of the genes in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway was affected during IMZ stress. Further analysis identified that 84 of 320 transcription factors (TFs) were differentially expressed at both conditions, making them potential regulators in DMI resistance. To confirm their roles, three differentially expressed TFs were selected to generate disruption mutants using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The results showed that two of them had no response to IMZ stress while ∆PdflbC was more sensitive compared with the wild type. However, disruption of PdflbC did not affect the ergosterol content. The defect in IMZ sensitivity of ∆PdflbC was restored by genetic complementation of the mutant with a functional copy of PdflbC. Taken together, our results offer a rich source of information to identify novel regulators in DMI resistance. Full article
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13 pages, 3332 KiB  
Article
Procymidone Application Contributes to Multidrug Resistance of Botrytis cinerea
by Zhaochen Wu, Chuxian Yu, Qiuyan Bi, Junting Zhang, Jianjun Hao, Pengfei Liu and Xili Liu
J. Fungi 2024, 10(4), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof10040261 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 847
Abstract
The necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea infects a broad range of plant hosts and causes substantial economic losses to many crops. Although resistance to procymidone has been observed in the field, it remains uncertain why procymidone is usually involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) together [...] Read more.
The necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea infects a broad range of plant hosts and causes substantial economic losses to many crops. Although resistance to procymidone has been observed in the field, it remains uncertain why procymidone is usually involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) together with other fungicides. Nine mutants derived from the B. cinerea strain B05.10 through procymidone domestication exhibited high resistance factors (RFs) against both procymidone and fludioxonil. However, the fitness of the mutants was reduced compared to their parental strain, showing non-sporulation and moderate virulence. Furthermore, the RFs of these mutants to other fungicides, such as azoxystrobin, fluazinam, difenoconazole, and pyrimethanil, ranged from 10 to 151, indicating the occurrence of MDR. Transcriptive expression analysis using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the mutants overexpressed ABC transporter genes, ranging from 2 to 93.7-fold. These mutants carried single-point mutations W647X, R96X, and Q751X within BcBos1 by DNA sequencing. These alterations in BcBos1 conferred resistance to procymidone and other fungicides in the mutants. Molecular docking analysis suggested distinct interactions between procymidone and Bos1 in the B. cinerea standard strain B05.10 or the resistant mutants, suggesting a higher affinity of the former towards binding with the fungicide. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the biological characteristics of the resistant mutants and conducts an initial investigation into its fungicide resistance traits, providing a reference for understanding the causes of multidrug resistance of B. cinerea in the field. Full article
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