Special Issue "Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 May 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Bum Soo Park
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology), Busan, Korea
Interests: phytoplankton; microbial ecology; molecular ecology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Zhun Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB, Daejeon, Korea
Interests: microbial diversity; microalgae; HABs; photosynthetic organisms; molecular ecology
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue focuses on the taxonomy and ecology of marine algae. Recent findings indicate that marine environments have rapidly changed due to global warming over the past several decades. This change leads to significant variations in marine algal ecology. For example, a long-term increase in ocean temperatures due to global warming has facilitated the intensification of harmful algal blooms, which adversely impact public health, aquatic organisms, and aquaculture industries. Thus, extensive studies have been conducted, but there is still a knowledge gap in our understanding of the variation of their ecology in accordance with future marine environmental changes. To fill this gap, studies on the taxonomy and ecology of marine algae are highly necessary.

We invite researchers to submit research articles that enable us to advance our understanding of the taxonomy and ecology of marine algae. The scope of this Special Issue covers all aspects of the taxonomy and ecology of marine algae.

Dr. Bum Soo Park
Dr. Zhun Li
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Taxonomy of marine algae
  • Life cycle of marine algae
  • Ecology of marine algae
  • Harmful algal blooms
  • Mechanism of algal blooms
  • Algal microbiome
  • Interaction between phytoplankton and bacteria
  • Algal cultivation and production
  • Algal parasites

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Coagulant Plus Bacillus nitratireducens Fermentation Broth Technique Provides a Rapid Algicidal Effect of Toxic Red Tide Dinoflagellate
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 395; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040395 - 08 Apr 2021
Viewed by 254
Abstract
When the toxic red tide alga Gymnodinium catenatum H.W. Graham accumulates in sediment through sexual reproduction, it provides the provenance of a periodic outbreak of red tide, a potential threat to the marine environment. In our study, the flocculation effects of four coagulants [...] Read more.
When the toxic red tide alga Gymnodinium catenatum H.W. Graham accumulates in sediment through sexual reproduction, it provides the provenance of a periodic outbreak of red tide, a potential threat to the marine environment. In our study, the flocculation effects of four coagulants were compared. Bacteria fermentation (Ba3) broth and coagulant were combined with Ba3 to reduce the vegetative cells of G. catenatum, inhibit the cystic germination in the sediment, and control the red tide outbreak. To promote a more efficient and environmentally friendly algae suppression method, we studied these four coagulants combined with algae suppression bacteria for their effect on G. catenatum. The results show that polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is more efficient than other coagulants when used alone because it had a more substantial inhibitory effect. Ba3 broth also had a beneficial removal effect on the vegetative cells of G. catenatum. The inhibition efficiency of 2-day fermentation liquid was higher than that of 1-day and 3-day fermentation liquids. When combined, the PAC and Ba3 broth produced a pronounced algae inhibition effect that effectively hindered the germination of algae cysts. We conclude that this combination provides a scientific reference for the prevention and control of marine red tide. Our results suggest that designing environmentally friendly methods for the management of harmful algae is quite feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Changes in Free-Living and Particle-Associated Bacterial Communities Depending on the Growth Phases of Marine Green Algae, Tetraselmis suecica
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020171 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Bacteria are remarkably associated with the growth of green algae Tetraselmis which are used as a feed source in aquaculture, but Tetraselmis-associated bacterial community is characterized insufficiently. Here, as a first step towards characterization of the associated bacteria, we investigated the community [...] Read more.
Bacteria are remarkably associated with the growth of green algae Tetraselmis which are used as a feed source in aquaculture, but Tetraselmis-associated bacterial community is characterized insufficiently. Here, as a first step towards characterization of the associated bacteria, we investigated the community composition of free-living (FLB) and particle-associated (PAB) bacteria in each growth phase (lag, exponential, stationary, and death) of Tetraselmis suecica P039 culture using pyrosequencing. The percentage of shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between FLB and PAB communities was substantially high (≥92.4%), but their bacterial community compositions were significantly (p = 0.05) different from each other. The PAB community was more variable than the FLB community depending on the growth phase of T. suecica. In the PAB community, the proportions of Marinobacter and Flavobacteriaceae were considerably varied in accordance with the cell number of T. suecica, but there was no clear variation in the FLB community composition. This suggests that the PAB community may have a stronger association with the algal growth than the FLB community. Interestingly, irrespective of the growth phase, Roseobacter clade and genus Muricauda were predominant in both FLB and PAB communities, indicating that bacterial communities in T. suecica culture may positively affect the algae growth and that they are potentially capable of enhancing the T. suecica growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle
Morphology and Phylogeny of Scrippsiella precaria Montresor & Zingone (Thoracosphaerales, Dinophyceae) from Korean Coastal Waters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020154 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
The dinoflagellate genus Scrippsiella is a common member of phytoplankton and their cysts are also frequently reported in coastal sediments worldwide. However, the diversity of Scrippsiella in Korean waters has not been fully investigated. Here, several isolates of Scrippsiella precaria collected from Korean [...] Read more.
The dinoflagellate genus Scrippsiella is a common member of phytoplankton and their cysts are also frequently reported in coastal sediments worldwide. However, the diversity of Scrippsiella in Korean waters has not been fully investigated. Here, several isolates of Scrippsiella precaria collected from Korean waters and germinated from resting cysts were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. The resting cysts were characterized by pointed calcareous spines and one or two red accumulation bodies, and the archeopyle was mesoepicystal, representing the loss of 2–4′ and 1–3a paraplates. Rounded resting cysts were found in culture, and an increase in spine length was observed until 8 days of development. Korean isolates of S. precaria had the plate formula of Po, X, 4′, 3a, 7″, 6C, 4S, 5‴, 2⁗. There were differences in the cell size and location of the red body between Korean isolates and previously described cells of S. precaria. In addition, the Korean isolates of S. precaria had two types of the 5″ plate that either contacted the 2a plate or not. Molecular phylogeny based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences revealed that the Korean isolates were nested within the subclade of PRE (S. precaria and related species) in the clade of Scrippsiella sensu lato, and that the PRE subclade had two ribotypes: ribotype 1 consisting of the isolates from Korea, China, and Australia, and ribotype 2 consisting of the isolates from Italy and Greece. Lineages between isolates of ribotype 1 were likely to be related to the dispersal by ocean currents and ballast waters from international shipping, and the two types of spine shapes and locations of the 5″ plates may be a distinct feature for ribotype 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle
Laboratory Culture-Based Characterization of the Resting Stage Cells of the Brown-Tide-Causing Pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121027 - 16 Dec 2020
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Life history (life cycle) plays a vital role in the ecology of some microalgae; however, the well-known brown-tide-causing pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens has been barely investigated in this regard. Recently, based mainly on detections in marine sediments from China, we proved that this organism [...] Read more.
Life history (life cycle) plays a vital role in the ecology of some microalgae; however, the well-known brown-tide-causing pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens has been barely investigated in this regard. Recently, based mainly on detections in marine sediments from China, we proved that this organism has a resting stage. We, therefore, conducted a follow-up study to characterize the resting stage cells (RSCs) of A. anophagefferens using the culture CCMP1984. The RSCs were spherical, larger than the vegetative cells, and smooth in cell surface and contained more aggregated plastid but more vacuolar space than vegetative cells. RSCs contained a conspicuous lipid-enriched red droplet. We found a 9.9-fold decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content from vegetative cells to RSCs, indicative of a "resting" or dormant physiological state. The RSCs stored for 3 months (at 4 °C in darkness) readily reverted back to vegetative growth within 20 days after being transferred to the conditions for routine culture maintenance. Our results indicate that the RSCs of A. anophagefferens are a dormant state that differs from vegetative cells morphologically and physiologically, and that RSCs likely enable the species to survive unfavorable conditions, seed annual blooms, and facilitate its cosmopolitan distribution that we recently documented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle
Multidisciplinary Analysis of Cystoseira sensu lato (SE Spain) Suggest a Complex Colonization of the Mediterranean
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120961 - 25 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Cystoseira sensu lato (sl) are three genera widely recognized as bioindicators for their restricted habitat in a sub-coastal zone with low tolerance to pollution. Their ecological, morphological and taxonomic features are still little known due to their singular characteristics. We studied seven species [...] Read more.
Cystoseira sensu lato (sl) are three genera widely recognized as bioindicators for their restricted habitat in a sub-coastal zone with low tolerance to pollution. Their ecological, morphological and taxonomic features are still little known due to their singular characteristics. We studied seven species of Cystoseira sl spp. in Cabo de las Huertas (Alicante, SE Spain) and analyzed their distribution using Permutational Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) and Principal Component Ordination plots (PCO). A morphological cladogram has been constructed using fifteen phenotypic taxonomic relevant characters. We have also developed an optimized Cystoseira sl DNA extraction protocol. We have tested it to obtain amplicons from mt23S, tRNA-Lys and psbA genes. With these sequence data, we have built a phylogenetic supertree avoiding threatened Cystoseira sl species. Cartography and distribution analysis show that the response to hydrodynamism predicts perennial or seasonal behaviors. Morphological cladogram detects inter-specifical variability between our species and reference studies. Our DNA phylogenetic tree supports actual classification, including for the first-time Treptacantha sauvageauana and Treptacantha algeriensis species. These data support a complex distribution and speciation of Cystoseira sl spp. in the Mediterranean, perhaps involving Atlantic clades. The high ecological value of our area of study merits a future protection status as a Special Conservation Area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation, Identification, and Biochemical Characteristics of a Cold-Tolerant Chlorella vulgaris KNUA007 Isolated from King George Island, Antarctica
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(11), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8110935 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 479
Abstract
A cold-tolerant unicellular green alga was isolated from a meltwater stream on King George Island, Antarctica. Morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses revealed that the isolate belonged to the species Chlorella vulgaris. We tentatively named this algal strain C.vulgaris KNUA007 and investigated [...] Read more.
A cold-tolerant unicellular green alga was isolated from a meltwater stream on King George Island, Antarctica. Morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses revealed that the isolate belonged to the species Chlorella vulgaris. We tentatively named this algal strain C.vulgaris KNUA007 and investigated its growth and lipid composition. We found that the strain was able to thrive in a wide range of temperatures, from 5 to 30 °C; however, it did not survive at 35 °C. Ultimate analysis confirmed high gross calorific values only at low temperatures (10 °C), with comparable values to land plants for biomass fuel. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the isolate was rich in nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The major fatty acid components were hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3 ω3, 17.31%), linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6, 8.52%), and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 ω3, 43.35%) at 10 °C. The microalga was tolerant to low temperatures, making it an attractive candidate for the production of biochemicals under cold weather conditions. Therefore, this Antarctic microalga may have potential as an alternative to fish and/or plant oils as a source of omega-3 PUFA. The temperature tolerance and composition of C.vulgaris KNUA007 also make the isolate desirable for commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle
Allelopathic Inhibition by the Bacteria Bacillus cereus BE23 on Growth and Photosynthesis of the Macroalga Ulva prolifera
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 718; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090718 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 564
Abstract
Bacteria-derived allelopathic effects on microalgae blooms have been studied with an aim to develop algicidal products that may have field applications. However, few such studies have been conducted on macroalgae. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to investigate the impacts of different [...] Read more.
Bacteria-derived allelopathic effects on microalgae blooms have been studied with an aim to develop algicidal products that may have field applications. However, few such studies have been conducted on macroalgae. Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to investigate the impacts of different concentrations of cell-free filtrate of the bacteria Bacillus cereus BE23 on Ulva prolifera. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced when these cells were exposed to high concentrations of filtrate relative to f/2 medium. In such conditions, the antioxidative defense system of the macroalga was activated as shown by activities of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and upregulation of the associated genes upMnSOD and upCAT. High concentrations of filtrate also inhibited growth of U. prolifera, and reduced chlorophyll a and b, the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), and the electron transport rate (rETR). Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was also inhibited, as evidenced by the downregulation of the photoprotective genes PsbS and LhcSR. Collectively, this evidence indicates that the alteration of energy dissipation caused excess cellular ROS accumulation that further induced oxidative damage on the photosynthesis apparatus of the D1 protein. The potential allelochemicals were further isolated by five steps of extraction and insolation (solid phase–liquid phase–open column–UPLC–preHPLC) and identified as N-phenethylacetamide, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Val), and cyclo (L-Pro-L-Pro) by HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectra. The diketopiperazines derivative, cyclo (L-Pro-L-Pro), exhibited the highest inhibition on U. prolifera and may be a good candidate as an algicidal product for green algae bloom control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Plasticity and Multiplicity of Trophic Modes in the Dinoflagellate Karlodinium and Their Pertinence to Population Maintenance and Bloom Dynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9010051 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 427
Abstract
As the number of mixotrophic protists has been increasingly documented, “mixoplankton”, a third category separated from the traditional categorization of plankton into “phytoplankton” and “zooplankton”, has become a new paradigm and research hotspot in aquatic plankton ecology. While species of dinoflagellates are a [...] Read more.
As the number of mixotrophic protists has been increasingly documented, “mixoplankton”, a third category separated from the traditional categorization of plankton into “phytoplankton” and “zooplankton”, has become a new paradigm and research hotspot in aquatic plankton ecology. While species of dinoflagellates are a dominant group among all recorded members of mixoplankton, the trophic modes of Karlodinium, a genus constituted of cosmopolitan toxic species, were reviewed due to their representative features as mixoplankton and harmful algal blooms (HABs)-causing dinoflagellates. Among at least 15 reported species in the genus, three have been intensively studied for their trophic modes, and all found to be phagotrophic. Their phagotrophy exhibits multiple characteristics: (1) omnivority, i.e., they can ingest a variety of preys in many forms; (2) flexibility in phagotrophic mechanisms, i.e., they can ingest small preys by direct engulfment and much bigger preys by myzocytosis using a peduncle; (3) cannibalism, i.e., species including at least K. veneficum can ingest the dead cells of their own species. However, for some recently described and barely studied species, their tropical modes still need to be investigated further regarding all of the above-mentioned aspects. Mixotrophy of Karlodinium plays a significant role in the population dynamics and the formation of HABs in many ways, which thus deserves further investigation in the aspects of physiological ecology, environmental triggers (e.g., levels of inorganic nutrients and/or presence of preys), energetics, molecular (genes and gene expression regulations) and biochemical (e.g., relevant enzymes and signal molecules) bases, origins, and evaluation of the advantages of being a phagotroph. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Taxonomy and Ecology of Marine Algae)
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