Interdisciplinary Approaches to Arctic Hazards and Risks

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2023) | Viewed by 12364

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Civil Engineering Department, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK, USA
Interests: arctic coastal processes, hazards, and risks; hydrokinetic renewable energy; coastal engineering; coastal sediment transport; coastal geomorphology
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Guest Editor
Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
Interests: coastal erosion; permafrost degradation; civil infrastructure; Seepage; erosion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I would like to announce a JMSE Special Issue on the modeling of coastal hazards and risks, that is applicable to Arctic settings. Arctic coastal hazards include erosion, flooding, permafrost thaw, and salinity intrusion. The hazards pose risks and consequently costs on coastal communities and government agencies, and the hazards and risks are expected to intensify in coming decades due to climate change. Communities and agencies mitigate the hazards and risks in various ways. For example, to mitigate flooding of roads, funds may be expended to raise the roads. The ability to mitigate the hazards and risks constitutes resilience. In this issue, we seek approaches to defining coastal hazards and risks and to designing counter-measures to mitigate those risks and achieve resilience. Addressing these issues requires interdisciplinary approaches including natural and social sciences and engineering and requires the involvement of local communities. The Special Issue aims to define the state of knowledge of Arctic coastal hazards and risks and identify knowledge gaps that prevent successful coastal adaptation to climate change.

Prof. Dr. Tom Ravens
Prof. Dr. Xiao Ming
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coastal erosion modeling
  • coastal geomorphic change
  • sediment transport
  • coastal flooding
  • permafrost thaw
  • salinity intrusion

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

45 pages, 6648 KiB  
Article
A Process-Based Model for Arctic Coastal Erosion Driven by Thermodenudation and Thermoabrasion Combined and including Nearshore Morphodynamics
by Mohammad Akhsanul Islam and Raed Lubbad
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111602 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Various models have recently been developed to describe Arctic coastal erosion. Current process-based models simulate multiple physical processes and combine them interactively to resemble the unique mechanism of Arctic coastal erosion. One limitation of such models is the difficulty of including hydrodynamic forces. [...] Read more.
Various models have recently been developed to describe Arctic coastal erosion. Current process-based models simulate multiple physical processes and combine them interactively to resemble the unique mechanism of Arctic coastal erosion. One limitation of such models is the difficulty of including hydrodynamic forces. The available coastal erosion models developed for warmer climates cannot be applied to Arctic coastal erosion, where permafrost is a significant environmental parameter. This paper explains a methodology that allows us to use the models designed for warmer climates to simulate Arctic coastal erosion. The open-source software XBeach is employed to simulate the waves, sediment transport and morphological changes. We developed different submodules for the processes unique to Arctic coasts, such as thawing–freezing, slumping, wave-cut niche, bluff failure, etc. The submodules are coupled with XBeach to enable concurrent simulation of the two mechanisms of Arctic coastal erosion, namely thermodenudation and thermoabrasion. Some of the model’s input parameters are calibrated using field measurements from the Arctic coast of Kara Sea, Russia. The model is then validated by another set of mutually exclusive field measurements under different morphological conditions from the study area. The sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that nearshore waves are an important driver of erosion, and the inclusion of nearshore hydrodynamics and sediment transport are essential for accurately modelling the erosion mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Approaches to Arctic Hazards and Risks)
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15 pages, 1839 KiB  
Article
Geotechnical Measurements for the Investigation and Assessment of Arctic Coastal Erosion—A Review and Outlook
by Nina Stark, Brendan Green, Nick Brilli, Emily Eidam, Kevin W. Franke and Kaleb Markert
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(7), 914; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070914 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
Geotechnical data are increasingly utilized to aid investigations of coastal erosion and the development of coastal morphological models; however, measurement techniques are still challenged by environmental conditions and accessibility in coastal areas, and particularly, by nearshore conditions. These challenges are exacerbated for Arctic [...] Read more.
Geotechnical data are increasingly utilized to aid investigations of coastal erosion and the development of coastal morphological models; however, measurement techniques are still challenged by environmental conditions and accessibility in coastal areas, and particularly, by nearshore conditions. These challenges are exacerbated for Arctic coastal environments. This article reviews existing and emerging data collection methods in the context of geotechnical investigations of Arctic coastal erosion and nearshore change. Specifically, the use of cone penetration testing (CPT), which can provide key data for the mapping of soil and ice layers as well as for the assessment of slope and block failures, and the use of free-fall penetrometers (FFPs) for rapid mapping of seabed surface conditions, are discussed. Because of limitations in the spatial coverage and number of available in situ point measurements by penetrometers, data fusion with geophysical and remotely sensed data is considered. Offshore and nearshore, the combination of acoustic surveying with geotechnical testing can optimize large-scale seabed characterization, while onshore most recent developments in satellite-based and unmanned-aerial-vehicle-based data collection offer new opportunities to enhance spatial coverage and collect information on bathymetry and topography, amongst others. Emphasis is given to easily deployable and rugged techniques and strategies that can offer near-term opportunities to fill current gaps in data availability. This review suggests that data fusion of geotechnical in situ testing, using CPT to provide soil information at deeper depths and even in the presence of ice and using FFPs to offer rapid and large-coverage geotechnical testing of surface sediments (i.e., in the upper tens of centimeters to meters of sediment depth), combined with acoustic seabed surveying and emerging remote sensing tools, has the potential to provide essential data to improve the prediction of Arctic coastal erosion, particularly where climate-driven changes in soil conditions may bias the use of historic observations of erosion for future prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Approaches to Arctic Hazards and Risks)
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25 pages, 7121 KiB  
Article
Understanding Effects of Permafrost Degradation and Coastal Erosion on Civil Infrastructure in Arctic Coastal Villages: A Community Survey and Knowledge Co-Production
by Min Liew, Ming Xiao, Louise Farquharson, Dmitry Nicolsky, Anne Jensen, Vladimir Romanovsky, Jana Peirce, Lilian Alessa, Christopher McComb, Xiong Zhang and Benjamin Jones
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030422 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4117
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a community survey that was designed to better understand the effects of permafrost degradation and coastal erosion on civil infrastructure. Observations were collected from residents in four Arctic coastal communities: Point Lay, Wainwright, Utqiaġvik, and Kaktovik. All [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a community survey that was designed to better understand the effects of permafrost degradation and coastal erosion on civil infrastructure. Observations were collected from residents in four Arctic coastal communities: Point Lay, Wainwright, Utqiaġvik, and Kaktovik. All four communities are underlain by continuous ice-rich permafrost with varying degrees of degradation and coastal erosion. The types, locations, and periods of observed permafrost thaw and coastal erosion were elicited. Survey participants also reported the types of civil infrastructure being affected by permafrost degradation and coastal erosion and any damage to residential buildings. Most survey participants reported that coastal erosion has been occurring for a longer period than permafrost thaw. Surface water ponding, ground surface collapse, and differential ground settlement are the three types of changes in ground surface manifested by permafrost degradation that are most frequently reported by the participants, while houses are reported as the most affected type of infrastructure in the Arctic coastal communities. Wall cracking and house tilting are the most commonly reported types of residential building damage. The effects of permafrost degradation and coastal erosion on civil infrastructure vary between communities. Locations of observed permafrost degradation and coastal erosion collected from all survey participants in each community were stacked using heatmap data visualization. The heatmaps constructed using the community survey data are reasonably consistent with modeled data synthesized from the scientific literature. This study shows a useful approach to coproduce knowledge with Arctic residents to identify locations of permafrost thaw and coastal erosion at higher spatial resolution as well as the types of infrastructure damage of most concern to Arctic residents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Approaches to Arctic Hazards and Risks)
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22 pages, 7218 KiB  
Article
Assessing Coastal Road Flood Risk in Arctic Alaska, a Case Study from Hooper Bay
by Anna Christina Miller and Thomas Michael Ravens
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(3), 406; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10030406 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Rising waters and land subsidence are increasing relative sea levels in western and northern Alaska, forcing communities to relocate or armor in place. To appropriately plan and make equitable decisions, there is a need to forecast the risk of flood exposure in coastal [...] Read more.
Rising waters and land subsidence are increasing relative sea levels in western and northern Alaska, forcing communities to relocate or armor in place. To appropriately plan and make equitable decisions, there is a need to forecast the risk of flood exposure in coastal Alaskan communities and to evaluate methods to mitigate that risk. This paper conducts use-inspired science to evaluate the current and future flood exposure of roads in Hooper Bay, Alaska, proposes a unit cost of flood exposure to estimate the cost of flooding, and compares various mitigation efforts including elevating roads and building dikes. Nine historic storms and their associated flood depths were subject to return-period analysis and modeled for several sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulated road flood exposure (km hours/storm), and the storm-return period, an annual flood exposure (km hours/year) was computed. Then, the unit cost of flood exposure (USD/km hours) was determined as the ratio of the cost of flood mitigation (USD/year) to the annual flood exposure mitigated by the project. The analysis found that the unit cost of flood exposure, in conjunction with flood exposure calculations, does provide an approximate flood risk calculation, though a unitized cost of flood exposure needs to be divided into lump sum costs and materials costs. The analysis also found that dikes may be a more cost-effective alternative than road elevation. The flood risk calculation, based on the unit cost of flood exposure, could be made for all of the communities in a given region to identify those communities that face a high flood risk. Furthermore, if one divides the unit cost of flood exposure by the population, one obtains a cost/benefit ratio that potentially could be used to prioritize flood mitigation work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Approaches to Arctic Hazards and Risks)
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