Special Issue "Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Cezary Specht
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geodesy and Oceanography, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
Interests: geodetic GNSS networks; global navigation satellite systems; navigation; geodesy; hydrography; positioning systems; mapping; failure analysis; transportation; civil engineering; digital mapping; geoinformation; spatial analysis; system modeling; geographic information systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Adam Weintrit
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Navigation, Department of Navigation, Gdynia Maritime University, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
Interests: e-navigation; safety of navigation; geodesy; cartography; ECDIS
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mariusz Specht
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Navigation, Gdynia Maritime University, 81-374 Gdynia, Poland
Interests: global navigation satellite systems; civil engineering; geomatics; navigation; hydrography; mapping; earth observation; geospatial science; geoinformation; spatial analysis; geodesy; applied mathematics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The implementation of modern and innovative research and technical and organizational solutions from various scientific disciplines is a fundamental issue related to the use of oceans and seas for human needs. This activity requires that the implemented solutions are thoroughly verified through theoretical research, modeling, and application verifications (theory, methods, and applications). Therefore, marine measurements are important in the development of marine science and engineering, which form the basis for scientific research, ensuring the dynamic development of this activity.

This Special Issue focuses on the latest and innovative solutions in the field of marine measurements that serve the sustainable use of human's oceans and seas. They also have a positive impact on the protection of the marine environment and climate, ensure the safety of maritime activities, and also include infrastructure at sea, as well as increasing the level of protection of human life at sea.

Topics of interest for the Special Issue include, but are not limited to oceanography, navigation, hydrography, marine geodesy, mapping, photogrammetry, remote sensing, and civil engineering.

Prof. Cezary Specht
Prof. Adam Weintrit
Dr. Mariusz Specht
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Oceanography
  • navigation
  • hydrography
  • marine geodesy
  • mapping
  • photogrammetry
  • remote sensing
  • civil engineering

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Sensor Placement with Two-Dimensional Equal Arc Length Non-Uniform Sampling for Underwater Terrain Deformation Monitoring
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(9), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9090954 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 298
Abstract
Sensor placement plays an important role in terrain deformation monitoring systems and has an essential effect on data collection. The difficulty of sensor placement entails obtaining the most adequate and reliable information with the fewest number of sensors. Most sensor placement schemes are [...] Read more.
Sensor placement plays an important role in terrain deformation monitoring systems and has an essential effect on data collection. The difficulty of sensor placement entails obtaining the most adequate and reliable information with the fewest number of sensors. Most sensor placement schemes are currently based on randomized non-uniform sampling and probability statistics, such as structural modality and optimization methods, which are difficult to directly apply due to the randomness and spatial heterogeneity of terrain deformation. In this study, the placement conditions of two-dimensional non-uniform sampling with equal arc length were deduced for underwater terrain deformation monitoring based on the MEMS accelerometer network. In order to completely reconstruct the underwater terrain, the arc length interval of the sensors should be less than 12Ω (Ω is the maximum frequency of the detected terrain). The maximum MRE and maximum RMSE were both less than seven percent in a terrain deformation monitoring experiment and a water tank test. The research results help technicians apply contact sensor arrays for underwater terrain monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Communication
An Axiom of True Courses Calculation in Great Circle Navigation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(6), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9060603 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Based on traditional expressions and spherical trigonometry, at present, great circle navigation is undertaken using various navigational software packages. Recent research has mainly focused on vector algebra. These problems are calculated numerically and are thus suited to computer-aided great circle navigation. However, essential [...] Read more.
Based on traditional expressions and spherical trigonometry, at present, great circle navigation is undertaken using various navigational software packages. Recent research has mainly focused on vector algebra. These problems are calculated numerically and are thus suited to computer-aided great circle navigation. However, essential knowledge requires the navigator to be able to calculate navigation parameters without the use of aids. This requirement is met using spherical trigonometry functions and the Napier wheel. In addition, to facilitate calculation, certain axioms have been developed to determine a vessel’s true course. These axioms can lead to misleading results due to the limitations of the trigonometric functions, mathematical errors, and the type of great circle navigation. The aim of this paper is to determine a reliable trigonometric function for calculating a vessel’s course in regular and composite great circle navigation, which can be used with the proposed axioms. This was achieved using analysis of the trigonometric functions, and assessment of their impact on the vessel’s calculated course and established axioms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Article
Velocity Measurement of Coherent Doppler Sonar Assisted by Frequency Shift, Kalman Filter and Linear Prediction
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020109 - 21 Jan 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Velocity is vital information for navigation and oceanic engineering. Coherent Doppler sonar is an accurate tool for velocity measurement, but its use is limited due to velocity ambiguity. Velocity measured by frequency shift has no velocity ambiguity, yet its measurement error is larger [...] Read more.
Velocity is vital information for navigation and oceanic engineering. Coherent Doppler sonar is an accurate tool for velocity measurement, but its use is limited due to velocity ambiguity. Velocity measured by frequency shift has no velocity ambiguity, yet its measurement error is larger than that of coherent Doppler sonar. Therefore, coherent Doppler sonar assisted by frequency shift is used to accurately measure velocity without velocity ambiguity. However, the velocity measured by coherent Doppler sonar assisted by frequency shift is affected by impulsive noise. To decrease the impulsive noise, Kalman filter and linear prediction are proposed to improve the velocity sensing accuracy. In this method, the Kalman filter is used to decrease measurement error of velocity measured by frequency shift, and linear prediction is used to remove the impulsive noise generated by a wrong estimate of the integer ambiguity. Lab-based experiments were carried, and the results have shown that coherent Doppler sonar assisted by frequency shift, Kalman filter and linear prediction can provide accurate and precise velocity with short time delay in a large range of signal to noise ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Article
Multi-Visual Feature Saliency Detection for Sea-Surface Targets through Improved Sea-Sky-Line Detection
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 799; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100799 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 507
Abstract
To visually detect sea-surface targets, the objects of interest must be effectively and rapidly isolated from the background of sea-surface images. In contrast to traditional image detection methods, which employ a single visual feature, this paper proposes a significance detection algorithm based on [...] Read more.
To visually detect sea-surface targets, the objects of interest must be effectively and rapidly isolated from the background of sea-surface images. In contrast to traditional image detection methods, which employ a single visual feature, this paper proposes a significance detection algorithm based on the fusion of multi-visual features after detecting the sea-sky-lines. The gradient edges of the sea-surface images are enhanced using a Gaussian low-pass filter to eliminate the effect of the image gradients pertaining to the clouds, wave points, and illumination. The potential region and points of the sea-sky-line are identified. The sea-sky-line is fitted through polynomial iterations to obtain a sea-surface image containing the target object. The saliency subgraphs of the high and low frequency, gradient texture, luminance, and color antagonism features are fused to obtain an integrated saliency map of the sea-surface image. The saliency target area of the sea surface is segmented. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. The average detection rate and time for the sea-sky-line detection were 96.3% and 1.05 fps, respectively. The proposed method outperformed the existing saliency models on the marine obstacle detection dataset and Singapore maritime dataset, with mean absolute errors of 0.075 and 0.051, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Article
Optimized Algorithm for Processing Outlier of Water Current Data Measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090655 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 554
Abstract
In the process of pond culture, the usage of an aeration device can increase dissolved oxygen density and form a decent circulation which facilitates the collection of sludge. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) has been widely used to monitor the flow velocity, however, factors [...] Read more.
In the process of pond culture, the usage of an aeration device can increase dissolved oxygen density and form a decent circulation which facilitates the collection of sludge. Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) has been widely used to monitor the flow velocity, however, factors such as bubbles and suspended particles can affect the correlation coefficient and signal-to-noise ratio of ADV, which leads to the existence of outliers in velocity data. This study constructs the three-dimensional rousseeuw phase-space (3DRPS) method by optimizing the phase space threshold method and robust estimation method through two-step filtering and three-dimensional simultaneous measurement, where the outliers close to the real value can be detected more accurately and the iterative process can be reduced more effectively. The results show that the detection rate of the optimized 3DRPS method is approximately 99%. It is a promising method that effectively improves the accuracy of outlier detection and greatly reduces the phenomenon of over processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Article
Methodology for Carrying out Measurements of the Tombolo Geomorphic Landform Using Unmanned Aerial and Surface Vehicles near Sopot Pier, Poland
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 384; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060384 - 27 May 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
The human impact on the ecosystem has been particularly evident in the last century; it transforms the Earth’s surface on an unprecedented scale and brings about irreversible changes. One example is an oceanographic phenomenon known as a tombolo, i.e., a narrow belt connecting [...] Read more.
The human impact on the ecosystem has been particularly evident in the last century; it transforms the Earth’s surface on an unprecedented scale and brings about irreversible changes. One example is an oceanographic phenomenon known as a tombolo, i.e., a narrow belt connecting the mainland with an island lying near the shore formed as a result of sand and gravel being deposited by sea currents. The phenomenon contributes to an increase in the biogenic substance content in the littoral zone, which leads to increased cyanobacteria blooming in the summer period. Moreover, the debris accumulation in the littoral zone results in the mud formation, which makes the beach landscape less attractive. One of the main features of the tombolo phenomenon is its variability of shape, which includes the form of both the shore and the seabed adjacent to it. Therefore, to describe its size and spatio-temporal variability, it is necessary to apply methods for geodetic (the land) and hydrographic (the sea) measurements that can be carried out in different ways. The aim of the paper is to present the methodology for carrying out measurements of the tombolo oceanographic phenomenon using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV) on the example of a waterbody adjacent to the Sopot pier. It also presents the results of surveys carried out in November 2019 within this area. The study demonstrated that the integration of two measuring devices whose development began in the second decade of the 20th century, i.e., UAVs and USVs, enables accurate (even up to several centimeters) and reliable determination of the scale and variability of the phenomena occurring in the littoral zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Review

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Review
Review and Prospects for Autonomous Observing Systems in Vessels of Opportunity
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040366 - 30 Mar 2021
Viewed by 705
Abstract
This paper focuses on the state of the art on Autonomous Observing Systems (AOS) used in Vessels of Opportunity (VOO) for collecting in situ atmospheric, oceanic and biogeochemical data. The designation Vessels of Opportunity includes all kinds of ships, even if not having [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the state of the art on Autonomous Observing Systems (AOS) used in Vessels of Opportunity (VOO) for collecting in situ atmospheric, oceanic and biogeochemical data. The designation Vessels of Opportunity includes all kinds of ships, even if not having scientific goals, which may carry proper devices that autonomously measure environmental variables. These vessels can be merchant, military, research, cruise liners, fishing, ferries, or even private yachts or sailing boats. The use of AOS can provide the opportunity for highly refined oceanographic data and improved derived data estimation, for local, regional or global scales studies. However, making the collected information accessible, both for scientific and technical purposes, provides a challenge in data management and analysis, which must, above all, ensure trusted useful data to the stakeholders. An overall review of the systems implemented is presented. This includes the definition of objectives, the recruitment of vessels and a review on the installation of proper acquisition devices; the selection and collection of Essential Oceanic Variables (EOV); the mechanisms for transmitting the information, and the quality control analysis and dissemination of data. The present and future capabilities of VOO for measuring EOV, within the Portuguese context are referred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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Other

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Technical Note
Study on the Coastline Evolution in Sopot (2008–2018) Based on Landsat Satellite Imagery
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060464 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 858
Abstract
The coastline is the boundary between the water surface in a reservoir or watercourse and the land, which is characterised by high instability and functional diversity. For these reasons, research on coastal monitoring has been conducted for several decades. Currently, satellite images performed [...] Read more.
The coastline is the boundary between the water surface in a reservoir or watercourse and the land, which is characterised by high instability and functional diversity. For these reasons, research on coastal monitoring has been conducted for several decades. Currently, satellite images performed with synthetic aperture radars (SARs) are used to determine its course and variability together with high-resolution multispectral imagery from satellites such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and WorldView, or moderate-resolution multispectral images from Landsat satellites. This paper analysed the coastline variability in Sopot (2008–2018) based on Landsat satellite imagery. Furthermore, based on multispectral images obtained, it was determined how the beach surface in Sopot changed. Research has shown that the coastline keeps moving away from the land every year. This was particularly noticeable between 2008 and 2018 when the coastline moved on average 19.1 m towards the Baltic Sea. Moreover, it was observed that the area of the sandy beach in Sopot increased by 14 170.6 m2, which translates into an increase of 24.7% compared to 2008. The probable cause of the continuous coastline shift towards the sea and the increase of the beach surface is the oceanographic phenomenon called tombolo, which occurred in this area as a result of the construction of a yacht marina near the coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Measurements: Theory, Methods and Applications)
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