Special Issue "Application of Surveying and Navigation Systems to Increase the Safety and Robustness of Maritime Operations"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Cezary Specht
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geodesy and Oceanography, Gdynia Maritime University, Gdynia, Poland
Interests: geodetic GNSS networks; global navigation satellite systems; navigation; geodesy; hydrography; positioning systems; mapping; failure analysis; transportation; civil engineering; digital mapping; geoinformation; spatial analysis; system modeling; geographic information systems
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Peter Vidmar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Maritime Studies and Transport Pot pomorščakov 4, 6320 Portorož, Slovenija
Interests: Risk assessment; safety analysis; maritime safety; CFD simulation; fire modeling
Dr. Grzegorz Stępień
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Navigation, Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
Interests: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); close range photogrammetry; coordinate transformations; positioning in oblique reference systems; dimensional control; civil engineering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is concerned with the application of measurement (surveying) and navigation systems in order to increase the safety and reliability of maritime operations. It is particularly related to the application of GNSS systems, underwater positioning systems, measurements in the offshore industry, maritime traffic engineering issues and risk analysis.

Measurement applications in the offshore industry include methods of dimensioning, especially laser scanning, total station measurements and ship metrology.

Topics are not limited to the measurement issues themselves; models based on measurements in maritime applications are also welcome.

The overarching aim of this Special Issue is to systematically increase the safety of maritime operations with the help of the presented models and systems.

Prof. Dr. Cezary Specht
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Peter Vidmar
Dr. Grzegorz Stępień
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Article
Modeling of Vessel Traffic Flow for Waterway Design–Port of Świnoujście Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8126; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178126 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 275
Abstract
The paper presents an analysis of ship traffic using the port of Świnoujście and the problems associated with modelling vessel traffic flows. Navigation patterns were studied using the Automatic Identification System (AIS); an analysis of vessel traffic was performed with statistical methods using [...] Read more.
The paper presents an analysis of ship traffic using the port of Świnoujście and the problems associated with modelling vessel traffic flows. Navigation patterns were studied using the Automatic Identification System (AIS); an analysis of vessel traffic was performed with statistical methods using historical data; and the paper presents probabilistic models of the spatial distribution of vessel traffic and its parameters. The factors that influence the spatial distribution were considered to be the types of vessels, dimensions, and distances to hazards. The results show a correlation between the standard deviation of the traffic flow, the vessel sizes, and the distance to the hazard. These can be used in practice to determine the safety of navigation and the design of non-existing waterways and to create a general model of vessel traffic flow. The creation of the practical applications is intended to improve navigation efficiency, safety, and risk analysis in any particular area. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Tracking Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles with Acoustic Localization and Extended Kalman Filter
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8038; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178038 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 272
Abstract
The absence of global positioning system (GPS) signals and the influence of ocean currents are two of the main challenges facing the autonomy of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This paper proposes an acoustic localization-based tracking control method for AUVs. Particularly, three buoys that [...] Read more.
The absence of global positioning system (GPS) signals and the influence of ocean currents are two of the main challenges facing the autonomy of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). This paper proposes an acoustic localization-based tracking control method for AUVs. Particularly, three buoys that emit acoustic signals periodically are deployed over the surface. Times of arrivals of these acoustic signals at the AUV are then obtained and used to calculate an estimated position of the AUV. Moreover, the uncertainties involved in the localization and ocean currents are handled together in the framework of the extended Kalman filter. To deal with system physical constraints, model predictive control relying on online repetitive optimizations is applied in the tracking controller design. Furthermore, due to the different sampling times between localization and control, the dead-reckoning technique is utilized considering detailed AUV dynamics. To avoid using the highly nonlinear and complicated AUV dynamics in the online optimizations, successive linearizations are employed to achieve a trade-off between computational complexity and control performance. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms are effective and can achieve the AUV tracking control goals. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Improving Ship Maneuvering Safety with Augmented Virtuality Navigation Information Displays
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7663; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167663 - 20 Aug 2021
Viewed by 286
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a study on improving the safety of navigation, during maneuvers in restricted areas, with the use of an augmented virtuality navigation information display. The augmented virtuality solution has been developed by one of the authors and has [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a study on improving the safety of navigation, during maneuvers in restricted areas, with the use of an augmented virtuality navigation information display. The augmented virtuality solution has been developed by one of the authors and has been described in a previous paper. A set of simulation scenarios has been proposed to study various maneuvers with different types of ships. Models of existing areas and existing ships have been used so the study can be recreated and reevaluated with different types of interfaces. The study is focused on comparing safe maneuvering areas with different information sources used. The results showed that augmented virtuality solution can indeed decrease the safe maneuvering areas and thus increase the safety of navigation for maneuvers in restricted areas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Factors Influencing the Action Point of the Collision Avoidance Manoeuvre
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7299; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167299 - 09 Aug 2021
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Perhaps the most problematic issue regarding navigation safety management is the unknown, or unknowable, is the navigator’s decision made in the face of a dangerous situation. This applies particularly to collision-avoidance. The aim of the article is to identify factors that influence the [...] Read more.
Perhaps the most problematic issue regarding navigation safety management is the unknown, or unknowable, is the navigator’s decision made in the face of a dangerous situation. This applies particularly to collision-avoidance. The aim of the article is to identify factors that influence the moment of decision during a collision-avoidance manoeuvre and to define theoretical distributions that can be used during modelling of a navigator’s behaviour. The applicable research was divided into two stages. In the first, the distance between ships and the time to closest point of approach (TCPA) were analysed. In the second, the influence of the size of the target ships and relative speed were investigated. The advantage of the paper is its use of actual observations collected in real situations. The proposed approach allows for a better understanding of the navigator’s actual decision-making, which will be instructive in measures taken to improve navigational safety. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Three-Dimensional Thematic Map Imaging of the Yacht Port on the Example of the Polish National Sailing Centre Marina in Gdańsk
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7016; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157016 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
The theory of cartographic projections is a tool which can present the convex surface of the Earth on the plane. Of the many types of maps, thematic maps perform an important function due to the wide possibilities of adapting their content to current [...] Read more.
The theory of cartographic projections is a tool which can present the convex surface of the Earth on the plane. Of the many types of maps, thematic maps perform an important function due to the wide possibilities of adapting their content to current needs. The limitation of classic maps is their two-dimensional nature. In the era of rapidly growing methods of mass acquisition of spatial data, the use of flat images is often not enough to reveal the level of complexity of certain objects. In this case, it is necessary to use visualization in three-dimensional space. The motivation to conduct the study was the use of cartographic projections methods, spatial transformations, and the possibilities offered by thematic maps to create thematic three-dimensional map imaging (T3DMI). The authors presented a practical verification of the adopted methodology to create a T3DMI visualization of the marina of the National Sailing Centre of the Gdańsk University of Physical Education and Sport (Poland). The profiled characteristics of the object were used to emphasize the key elements of its function. The results confirmed the increase in the interpretative capabilities of the T3DMI method, relative to classic two-dimensional maps. Additionally, the study suggested future research directions of the presented solution. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
AIS Data Vulnerability Indicated by a Spoofing Case-Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5015; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115015 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 942
Abstract
This paper takes a close look at the landscape of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) as a major source of information for maritime situational awareness (MSA) and identifies its vulnerabilities and challenges for safe navigation and shipping. As an important subset of cyber [...] Read more.
This paper takes a close look at the landscape of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) as a major source of information for maritime situational awareness (MSA) and identifies its vulnerabilities and challenges for safe navigation and shipping. As an important subset of cyber threats affecting many maritime systems, the AIS is subject to problems of tampering and reliability; indeed, the messages received may be inadvertently false, jammed, or intentionally spoofed. A systematic literature review was conducted for this article, complemented by a case study of a specific spoofing event near Elba in December 2019, which confirmed that the typical maritime AIS could be easily spoofed and generate erroneous position information. This intentional spoofing has affected navigation in international waters and passage through territorial waters. The maritime industry is neither immune to cyberattacks nor fully prepared for the risks associated with the use of modern digital systems. Maintaining seaworthiness in the face of the impact of digital technologies requires a robust cybersecurity framework. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Determination of the Waterway Parameters as a Component of Safety Management System
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4456; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104456 - 14 May 2021
Viewed by 500
Abstract
This article presents the use of a computer application codenamed “NEPTUN” to ascertain the waterway parameters of the modernised Świnoujście–Szczecin waterway. The designed program calculates the individual risks in selected sections of the fairway depending on the input data, including the parameters of [...] Read more.
This article presents the use of a computer application codenamed “NEPTUN” to ascertain the waterway parameters of the modernised Świnoujście–Szczecin waterway. The designed program calculates the individual risks in selected sections of the fairway depending on the input data, including the parameters of the ship, available water area, and positioning methods. The collected data used for analyses in individual modules are stored in a SQL server of shared access. Vector electronic navigation charts of S-57 standard specification are used as the cartographic background. The width of the waterway is calculated by means of the method developed on the basis of the modified PIANC guidelines. The main goal of the research is to prove and demonstrate that the designed software would directly increase the navigation safety level of the Świnoujście–Szczecin fairway and indicate the optimal positioning methods in various navigation circumstances. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Risk Assessment of Moored and Passing Ships
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(19), 6825; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10196825 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Accidents in port areas are generally relatively minor given the lower prevailing speeds, but dangerous cargo terminals located in the vicinity of populated areas present some risk of accidents with catastrophic consequences. The maritime risk assessment frameworks have been developed in many ports, [...] Read more.
Accidents in port areas are generally relatively minor given the lower prevailing speeds, but dangerous cargo terminals located in the vicinity of populated areas present some risk of accidents with catastrophic consequences. The maritime risk assessment frameworks have been developed in many ports, but few include studies incorporating collisions between sailing and moored ships. This paper presents the risk assessment framework for such accidents. Moreover, it presents the important role of harbour regulations in the navigation risk management process within the port area. Today’s port regulations are created mostly based on the good practice of pilots and other experts, whereas quantitative methods are used less frequently. The intention of the presented case study was to demonstrate how quantitative risk assessment may be used in port policy development, which is why the method created is general and may be used in any terminal with dangerous cargo. The multi-stage method consists of several steps that make up a complex methodology, consisting of expert study, real-time simulation—a simulation of a collision in port is presented—and analytical-empirical calculations for consequence assessment. The case studies of the developed method are presented based on two real accidents, one in the Police port along the Świnoujście-Szczecin waterway, and the second in the Port of Koper in Slovenia. The results of this study present the parameters of the ship’s safe approach to the terminal area, such as velocity and approaching angle. These parameters are used to calculate the impact forces in the case of a collision between a moored and passing ship and its consequences on ship integrity as well as on mooring arrangement. Based on probability and consequences, the risk is evaluated and discussed in the sense of port safety. The presented method could be used as the framework for risk assessment of collisions in a port area, particularly when dealing with dangerous cargo or sensitive vessels such as cruise ships. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop