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Special Issue "GNSS CORS Application"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2023 | Viewed by 2381

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Gino Dardanelli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Engineering, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 90100 Palermo, Italy
Interests: Galileo; GLONASS; GPS; GNSS; CORS; remote sensing; geomatics; photogrammetry; surveying; mapping; drones; cartography; topography; dam displacements; laser scanner; UAV
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Mariusz Specht
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Transport and Logistics, Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
Interests: global navigation satellite systems; civil engineering; geomatics; navigation; hydrography; mapping; earth observation; geospatial science; geoinformation; spatial analysis; geodesy; applied mathematics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) revolution has made it easier for scientists all over the world to construct infrastructure suitable for wide-ranging Earth monitoring investigations. Currently, there are several fully operational satellite navigation systems, such as the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, http://en.beidou.gov.cn/), the European Galileo (https://www.gsc-europa.eu/system-service-status/constellation-information), the Russian Glonass (https://www.glonass-iac.ru/en/GLONASS/) and the American Navstar GPS (https://www.gps.gov/).  Many other GNSS systems will be available in the next few years, such as those defined as Regional Navigation Satellite Systems (RNSS) including the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System IRNSS/NavIC (https://www.isro.gov.in/irnss-programme) or Japanese Quasi‑Zenith Satellite System (QZSS, https://qzss.go.jp/en/) and Regional South Korean Positioning System (KPS, https://www.gpsworld.com/korea-will-launch-its-own-satellite-positioning-system/). This represents a massive potential for the scientific community to develop studies that will certainly improve the lives of the world's population.

GNNS applications have historically been found in positioning for the analysis of three-dimensional (3D) positioning by using Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS). The scientific and technical applications developed in different parts of the continents involved CORS networks for evaluating 3D positioning in real time (Network Real-Time Kinematic, NRTK) and in post-process analyses. Indeed, the innovative framework of GNSS CORS networks allowed receiving the most reliable differential corrections over an area by using the Virtual Reference Station (VRS), the Flächen-Korrektur-Parameter (FKP) or Multi Reference Station (MRS) approaches. Many studies were also carried out by applying the multi-GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique. As a consequence, the use of CORS networks allowed increasing the distances between reference stations, contemporary reducing the total amount of CORS distributed over the same area. Moreover, many advantages have been observed in terms of economic impact and network management. The scientific implementations using CORS networks were subjects of focus in the analysis and correction of ionospheric and tropospheric errors by using Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) estimations. Many analyses have been developed to evaluate the use of a global reference system with respect to its inconstancy, as well as geodynamic studies over seismic areas. Nowadays, the GNSS CORS networks are globally and widely distributed, and they are classified as global, regional, national and local networks based on the covered region.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest state-of-the-art findings examine GNSS CORS applications. Contributions that are solicited include, but are not limited to, the following topics: GNSS, CORS, NRTK, PPP, Geodesy, Geohazards, GNSS  volcanology and crustal deformation.

Dr. Gino Dardanelli
Dr. Mariusz Specht
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • GNSS
  • CORS
  • NRTK
  • PPP
  • geodesy
  • geohazards
  • crustal deformation
  • volcanology
  • UAV

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Assessment of the Steering Precision of a UAV along the Flight Profiles Using a GNSS RTK Receiver
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(23), 6127; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14236127 - 02 Dec 2022
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Abstract
Photogrammetric surveys are increasingly being carried out using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Steering drones along the flight profiles is one of the main factors that determines the quality of the compiled photogrammetric products. The aim of this article is to present a methodology [...] Read more.
Photogrammetric surveys are increasingly being carried out using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Steering drones along the flight profiles is one of the main factors that determines the quality of the compiled photogrammetric products. The aim of this article is to present a methodology for performing and processing measurements, which are used in order to determine the accuracy of steering any drone along flight profiles. The study used a drone equipped with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Real Time Kinematic (RTK) receiver. The measurements were performed on two routes which comprised parallel profiles distant from each other by 10 m and 20 m. The study was conducted under favourable meteorological conditions (windless and sunny weather) at three speeds (10 km/h, 20 km/h and 30 km/h). The cross track error (XTE), which is the distance between a UAV’s position and the flight profile, calculated transversely to the course, was adopted as the accuracy measure of steering a UAV along the flight profiles. Based on the results obtained, it must be concluded that the values of XTE measures for two representative routes are very similar and are not determined by the flight speed. The XTE68 measure (p = 0.68) ranged from 0.39 m to 1.00 m, while the XTE95 measure (p = 0.95) ranged from 0.60 m to 1.22 m. Moreover, analyses demonstrated that the statistical distribution of the XTE measure was most similar to the gamma and Weibull (3P) distributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS CORS Application)
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Article
On the Accuracy of Cadastral Marks: Statistical Analyses to Assess the Congruence among GNSS-Based Positioning and Official Maps
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(16), 4086; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14164086 - 21 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Cadastral marks constitute a dense source of information for topographical surveys required to update cadastral maps. Historically, in Italy, cadastral marks have been the cartographic network for the implementation of mapping updates. Different sources of cadastral marks can be used by cadastral surveyors. [...] Read more.
Cadastral marks constitute a dense source of information for topographical surveys required to update cadastral maps. Historically, in Italy, cadastral marks have been the cartographic network for the implementation of mapping updates. Different sources of cadastral marks can be used by cadastral surveyors. In recent years, the cadastre is moving toward a digital world, and with the advancement of surveying technology, GNSS CORS technology has emerged in the positioning of cadastral marks. An analysis of congruence among cadastral marks using GNSS CORS and official maps is missing. Thus, this work aims to analyze the positional accuracy of some cadastral marks, located in Palermo, Italy, with regard to the official maps produced by the cadastral bureau, the local cartography, and Google Earth maps. A survey of 60 cadastral marks was carried out by conventional GNSS NRTK procedures, with the lateral offset method due to their materialization (mostly building edges), which is not always directly detectable. The cadastral marks’ positioning was obtained from different maps: cadastral maps and related monographic files, numerical technical maps, and Google Earth maps, to check their coordinate congruence. A statistical approach was performed to check whether the distribution frequencies of the coordinate’s differences belonged to the bivariate normal distribution for the planimetric coordinates and the univariate normal distribution for the altimetric component. The results show that the hypothesis of a normal distribution is confirmed in most of the pairs, and specifically, most of the analyses indicate that the highest congruencies seem to characterize the coordinates determined by using the GNSS and with those that can be deduced by the numerical technical maps. The results obtained experimentally show centimetric accuracies obtained by the GNSS NRTK survey, in both the planimetric and altimetric components, while the accuracies obtained from the georeferencing of the cadastral maps show differences in the order of 0.4–0.8 m. Meanwhile, the differences resulting from comparing the technical cartography produced by the local authority and Google Earth maps show greater criticalities, with a metric order of magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS CORS Application)
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Review

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Review
Integration Data Model of the Bathymetric Monitoring System for Shallow Waterbodies Using UAV and USV Platforms
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(16), 4075; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14164075 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Changes in the seafloor relief are particularly noticeable in shallow waterbodies (at depths up to several metres), where they are of significance for human safety and environmental protection, as well as for which the highest measurement accuracy is required. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Changes in the seafloor relief are particularly noticeable in shallow waterbodies (at depths up to several metres), where they are of significance for human safety and environmental protection, as well as for which the highest measurement accuracy is required. The aim of this publication is to present the integration data model of the bathymetric monitoring system for shallow waterbodies using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USV). As part of this model, three technology components will be created: a hydroacoustic and optoelectronic data integration component proposed by Dąbrowski et al., a radiometric depth determination component based on optoelectronic data using the Support Vector Regression (SVR) method, and a coastline extraction component proposed by Xu et al. Thanks to them, it will be possible to cover the entire area with measurements in the coastal zone, in particular between the shallow waterbody coastline and the min. isobath recorded by the echo sounder (the area is lacking actual measurement data). Multisensor data fusion obtained using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)/Inertial Navigation System (INS), Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR), Real Time Kinematic (RTK), UAV, and USV will allow to meet the requirements provided for the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) Special Order (horizontal position error ≤ 2 m (p = 0.95), vertical position error ≤ 0.25 m (p = 0.95)). To this end, bathymetric and photogrammetric measurements shall be carried out under appropriate conditions. The water transparency in the tested waterbody should be at least 2 m. Hydrographic surveys shall be performed in windless weather and the water level is 0 in the Douglas sea scale (no waves or sea currents). However, the mission with the use of an UAV should take place in appropriate meteorological conditions, i.e., no precipitation, windless weather (wind speed not exceeding 6–7 m/s), sunny day. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GNSS CORS Application)
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