Wave Climates

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 15755

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Risk Frontiers, St Leonards, Australia
2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
Interests: wave climate; storm surge; climate change; climate variability; sea level rise; tropical cyclone; coastal morphodynamics; coastal structural design, numerical modelling

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Guest Editor
Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, Mexico
Interests: coastal green infrastructure; coastal morphodynamics; physical oceanography; integrated coastal zone management; oceanographic risk; marine energy harnessing; rehabilitation and protection of coastal ecosystems
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Guest Editor
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Oceans and Atmosphere, Melbourne, VIC 3195, Australia
Interests: impacts; extreme; climate; coastal; wind waves; water levels

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ocean waves are the principle driver of coastal and ocean structural design and beach morphological change along much of the world’s open coast. While analyses of wave climate extremes have always been at the heart of coastal engineering, directional wave climate variability can also significantly impact coastal systems’ response to a rising tidal prism with sea level rise.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish the most exciting research across the broad topic of “Wave Climates” and to provide a rapid turn-around time regarding reviewing and publishing, and to disseminate the articles freely for research, teaching, and reference purposes.

High-quality papers are encouraged for publication, related to various aspects of wave climate, including:

  • Statistical analyses of extreme wave conditions;
  • Modelling studies of coastal and ocean waves;
  • Monitoring and measurements of ocean waves;
  • Wave climate impacts on coastal processes and coastal risk;
  • Projections and hindcasts of coastal and ocean waves;
  • Climate change and climate drivers of ocean waves;
  • Wave energy resource assessments.

Dr. Thomas Mortlock
Dr. Rodolfo Silva Casarín
Dr. Julian O'Grady
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wave climate
  • Wave energy
  • Coastal and ocean engineering
  • Wave monitoring and measurement
  • Coastal processes
  • Coastal risk
  • Climate change
  • Climate variability

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 8385 KiB  
Article
Atmospheric Drivers of Oceanic North Swells in the Eastern Caribbean
by Timothy W. Hawkins, Isabelle Gouirand, Theodore Allen and Ali Belmadani
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(2), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10020183 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Large wintertime ocean swells in the Caribbean, known as north swells, generate high surf and expose communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure to hazardous conditions. Empirical orthogonal functions and cluster analyses using ERA5 reanalysis swell data are performed to characterize north swells in the eastern [...] Read more.
Large wintertime ocean swells in the Caribbean, known as north swells, generate high surf and expose communities, ecosystems, and infrastructure to hazardous conditions. Empirical orthogonal functions and cluster analyses using ERA5 reanalysis swell data are performed to characterize north swells in the eastern Caribbean and to establish a ranked list of historical events. ERA5 atmospheric and swell data are used to create basin-scale sea-level pressure, surface wind and swell composites for north swell events of different magnitudes. Additionally, storm events are identified in the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. North swells are predominantly generated by storms that intensify off the North American east coast. However, there is a subset of moderately sized swells associated with a westward-located high-pressure system in the North Atlantic. While lower sea-level pressure and stronger surface winds are important for generating larger swells, the location of the low-pressure center and storm track as well the zonal speed of the storm are critical in the development of large eastern Caribbean north swells. The largest such events are associated with storms located comparatively further southeast, with a more zonal trajectory, and slower zonal speed. Large storms located further northwest, with a more southwest to northeast trajectory, and faster zonal speeds are associated with weaker north swells or in many cases, no significant north swell in the eastern Caribbean. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Climates)
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27 pages, 15747 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Impact of Wave–Current Interactions on Storm Surges and Waves during Cold Air Outbreaks in the Northern East China Sea
by Dongxue Mo, Jian Li and Yijun Hou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(8), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9080824 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
Storm surges and disastrous waves induced by cold air outbreaks, a type of severe weather system, often impact the coastal economic development. Using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis wind product and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport model, we developed a coupled numerical model and [...] Read more.
Storm surges and disastrous waves induced by cold air outbreaks, a type of severe weather system, often impact the coastal economic development. Using the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis wind product and the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere–Wave–Sediment Transport model, we developed a coupled numerical model and applied it to examine the interaction between surface gravity waves and ocean currents during cold air outbreaks in two case studies in the northern East China Sea. The results revealed that wave–current interactions improved the simulation accuracy, especially the water level, as verified by tidal station measurements. We conducted sensitivity experiments to explore the spatiotemporal variation of the impact of wave–current interactions on storm surges and waves in the northern East China Sea, away from the coastline. The wave-induced surge (up to 0.4 m) and the wave-induced current (up to 0.5 m/s) were found to be related to the difference between wave direction and current direction. The significant wave height difference (up to 0.5 m) was sensitive to the storm surge nearshore and sensitive to the current field offshore, while the mean wave direction change (up to 40°) was more sensitive to the current field than to the storm surge. Additionally, the wave–current interaction regulated the momentum balance and wave action balance, respectively. By comparison, the momentum residuals of pressure gradient, Coriolis force, Coriolis–Stokes force, and bottom stress, which were pronounced in different areas, were modulated more significantly by the wave effect than other terms. The dominant mechanisms of wave–current interactions on waves included the current-induced modification of energy generation caused by wind input, the current-induced modification of energy dissipation caused by whitecapping, and the current-induced wave advection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Climates)
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28 pages, 10495 KiB  
Article
Dynamical Downscaling of ERA5 Data on the North-Western Mediterranean Sea: From Atmosphere to High-Resolution Coastal Wave Climate
by Valentina Vannucchi, Stefano Taddei, Valerio Capecchi, Michele Bendoni and Carlo Brandini
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020208 - 17 Feb 2021
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 5606
Abstract
A 29-year wind/wave hindcast is produced over the Mediterranean Sea for the period 1990–2018. The dataset is obtained by downscaling the ERA5 global atmospheric reanalyses, which provide the initial and boundary conditions for a numerical chain based on limited-area weather and wave models: [...] Read more.
A 29-year wind/wave hindcast is produced over the Mediterranean Sea for the period 1990–2018. The dataset is obtained by downscaling the ERA5 global atmospheric reanalyses, which provide the initial and boundary conditions for a numerical chain based on limited-area weather and wave models: the BOLAM, MOLOCH and WaveWatch III (WW3) models. In the WW3 computational domain, an unstructured mesh is used. The variable resolutions reach up to 500 m along the coasts of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian seas (Italy), the main objects of the study. The wind/wave hindcast is validated using observations from coastal weather stations and buoys. The wind validation provides velocity correlations between 0.45 and 0.76, while significant wave height correlations are much higher—between 0.89 and 0.96. The results are also compared to the original low-resolution ERA5 dataset, based on assimilated models. The comparison shows that the downscaling improves the hindcast reliability, particularly in the coastal regions, and especially with regard to wind and wave directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Climates)
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23 pages, 4829 KiB  
Article
Southern African Wave Model Sensitivities and Accuracies
by Christo Rautenbach, Michael A. Barnes, David W. Wang and James Dykes
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100773 - 1 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4220
Abstract
Numerous studies have identified the complexities of the wave climatology around the South African coast, but limited studies have investigated these complex dynamics in the available literature. Several freely available parameterized wave boundary conditions are produced around southern Africa. However, none of these [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have identified the complexities of the wave climatology around the South African coast, but limited studies have investigated these complex dynamics in the available literature. Several freely available parameterized wave boundary conditions are produced around southern Africa. However, none of these are fully spectral outputs from global or larger regional spectral wave models. This constraint results in local engineering and scientific organizations, reconstructing their own spectral boundary conditions. For coastal models, this is a reasonable assumption, assuming that the single parameterization is accurate and a representation of a non-multimodal sea state. The South African Weather Service (SAWS) Marine unit recently launched their coupled, operational wave and storm surge forecasting model. The aim of the SAWS Wave and Storm Surge (SWaSS) platform was to provide accurate, high-resolution coastal forecasts for the entire South African coastline. The present investigation thus presents the validation of the spectral wave component of the coupled system, developed in Delft3D. Various wave boundary reconstructions are investigated together with the two most used and well-known whitecapping formulations. Validation is performed with both in situ wave-rider buoy data (at nine locations along the coastline) and regional remotely sensed, along track, altimetry data. Full model performance statistics are provided, and the accuracy of the model is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Climates)
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