Special Issue "Future Coasts and Estuaries"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Keiko Udo
Website
Guest Editor
International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, 468-1 Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-0845, Japan
Interests: coastal engineering; coastal morphodynamics; sediment transport modelling; coastal risk assessment; climate change adaptation
Prof. Dr. Roshanka Ranasinghe
Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Water Science and Engineering, IHE Delft, PO Box 3015, 2601 DA Delft, The Netherlands
2. Water Engineering and Management, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
Interests: coastal engineering; morphodynamic modelling; coastal erosion; climate change; coastal risk
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Projections of climate change and associated hazards point towards very serious socioeconomic and environmental impacts around the world. The coastal zone is home to over 10% of the global population and is one of the land zones that is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Therefore, the future of coasts and estuaries need to be managed not only for disaster reduction but also environmental conservation. Increased hazard levels will mean that coastal and estuary management will become more costly, and hence, risk-informed and effective adaptation measures that balance risk and reward will need to be developed and implemented. With a view to inspiring such innovative solutions, this Special Issue focuses on:

  • Projections of climate change related coastal hazards (e.g., sea level rise, storm surge, waves);
  • Projections of environmental changes due to climate change hazards (e.g., inundation, erosion, environmental damage);
  • Coastal vulnerability assessment;
  • Coastal disaster risk assessment;
  • Human vs. natural impacts on extreme and long term coastal/estuary change;
  • Adaptation measures to compact climate change impacts on coasts/estuaries.

We look forward to receiving exciting new research in the form of research papers, reviews, and short communications to this Special issue.

Dr. Keiko Udo
Prof. Dr. Roshanka Ranasinghe
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Sea level rise
  • Storm surge
  • Waves
  • Disaster
  • Ecosystem
  • Adaptation
  • Economic assessment
  • Cost–benefit analysis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Adaptation to Beach Loss Due to Climate Change in Japan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090715 - 15 Sep 2020
Abstract
To measure economic effects of changes in environmental quality caused by climate change in Japan, we estimate beach loss damage costs in Japan and in each prefecture and evaluate the economic effectiveness of hypothetical adaptation measures to restore sandy beaches. For analyses, we [...] Read more.
To measure economic effects of changes in environmental quality caused by climate change in Japan, we estimate beach loss damage costs in Japan and in each prefecture and evaluate the economic effectiveness of hypothetical adaptation measures to restore sandy beaches. For analyses, we use a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) that integrates a utility function with environmental quality factors as an independent variable derived from a recreation demand function in a travel cost method (TCM). We use future projections of beach loss rates in 2081–2100 based on ensemble-mean regional sea-level rise (SLR) for four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCPs) scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). The main findings of our study are presented as follows. (1) In 2081–2100, beach loss damage costs were estimated respectively as 398.54 million USD per year for RCP2.6, 468.96 (m.USD/year) for RCP4.5, 494.09 (m.USD/year) for RCP6.0, and 654.63 (m.USD/year) for RCP8.5. (2) For all RCPs, six prefectures for which the cost–benefit ratio exceeds 1.0 were Kanagawa, Osaka, Hyogo, Hiroshima, Saga, and Kumamoto. Our hypothetical adaptation measure of an artificial beach enhancement is expected to be quite effective as a public works project in these prefectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Coasts and Estuaries)
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Open AccessArticle
Beach Nourishment as an Adaptation to Future Sandy Beach Loss Owing to Sea-Level Rise in Thailand
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 659; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090659 - 26 Aug 2020
Abstract
A recent study suggested that significant beach loss may take place on the coasts of Thailand by the end of the 21st century as per projections of sea-level rise by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The present study adapts a framework [...] Read more.
A recent study suggested that significant beach loss may take place on the coasts of Thailand by the end of the 21st century as per projections of sea-level rise by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The present study adapts a framework and provides broad estimations for sand volumes and costs required to apply beach nourishment to each coastal zone in Thailand using a technique based on the Bruun rule assumption. Results indicate that a minimum of USD 2981 million (the best scenario) to a maximum of USD 11,409 million (the worst scenario) would be required to maintain all sandy beaches at their present width. Further, the effect of filling particle size on beach nourishment was analyzed in this study. The cost of beach nourishment ranges between USD 1983 and 14,208 million when considering filling particle size diameters of 0.5 and 0.2 mm. A zonal sand volume map for all 51 sandy beach zones in Thailand was created for use as an overview to help decision makers develop a more feasible adaptation plan to deal with the future sea-level rise for Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Coasts and Estuaries)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of SLR on Beach-Tourism Resort Revenue at Sahl Hasheesh and Makadi Bay, Red Sea, Egypt; A Hedonic Pricing Approach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(6), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8060432 - 12 Jun 2020
Abstract
Coastal erosion and inundation represent the main impacts of climate change and the consequential sea level rise (SLR) on beaches. The resultant deterioration of coastal habitats and decline in beach tourism revenue has been a primary concern for coastal managers and researchers. Nevertheless, [...] Read more.
Coastal erosion and inundation represent the main impacts of climate change and the consequential sea level rise (SLR) on beaches. The resultant deterioration of coastal habitats and decline in beach tourism revenue has been a primary concern for coastal managers and researchers. Nevertheless, the extent of SLR on beach tourism in Egypt remains relatively unknown. Therefore, this study investigates the relationship between beach width shrinkage due to SLR and the loss in tourist resort revenue. We use the hedonic pricing approach, which combines economic and environmental variables, to determine the environmental impact on beach tourism along 14 km of the coast of Sahl Hasheesh and Makadi Bay, Hurghada, Egypt. The resort revenue depends on the cumulative benefits from the market price of the resort rooms, which is a function of morphological variables and tourism variables. Three regression models (semi-log, double-log, and custom-log) were used to select the most appropriate functional hedonic model. Three coastal slopes were considered (0.03, 0.06, and 0.12) to address the uncertainty in beach width. When 0.06 coastal slope is used, the expected losses in revenue are 84,000, 220,000, and 546,000 USD/day period (representing 3%, 7%, and 18%) for 2030, 2050, and 2100, respectively, considering the lowest scenario representative concentration pathway (RCP2.6); for the worst case (RCP8.5 SLR), the expected losses are 142,000, 369,000, and 897,000 USD/day period (representing 5%, 12%, and 30%) for 2030, 2050, and 2100, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Coasts and Estuaries)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
The Impact of Storm-Induced Breaches on Barrier Coast Systems Subject to Climate Change—A Stochastic Modelling Study
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(4), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8040271 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Storms can have devastating impacts on barrier coasts causing coastal erosion, partial inundation, and possibly the breaching of barrier islands. The breaching of barrier islands provides a mechanism for the creation of new tidal inlets that connect the backbarrier basin (or lagoon) and [...] Read more.
Storms can have devastating impacts on barrier coasts causing coastal erosion, partial inundation, and possibly the breaching of barrier islands. The breaching of barrier islands provides a mechanism for the creation of new tidal inlets that connect the backbarrier basin (or lagoon) and the outer sea. As a new tidal inlet affects both the basin and the hydrodynamics of existing inlets, it is important to understand why an initial breach either closes or may evolve into a new tidal inlet. To this end, we performed a Monte Carlo analysis using an idealized model capable of simulating the long-term morphological evolution of multiple tidal inlets connected to a single backbarrier basin. To do so required the creation of a stochastic shell, as a new element around this existing barrier coast model. Our results demonstrate that barrier coast systems tend towards an equilibrium value for the number of inlets per kilometer of barrier coast and total inlet cross section. This even holds with the continuous stochastic forcing of storm-induced breaches. This finding implies that if a new breach opens in a coast that is already in equilibrium, existing inlets will shrink and may close if the new breach remains open. Furthermore, we find that climate-driven changes in storm frequency will modify the timescales in which barrier coasts reach their equilibrium state. Finally, we find that the distance between a new breach and its nearest neighbor is more important for its survival than the size of the breach or the degree of saturation of the barrier coast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Coasts and Estuaries)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the El Niño Phenomenon on Shoreline Evolution. Case Study: Callao Bay, Perú
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020090 - 02 Feb 2020
Abstract
Analyzing the long-term behavior of the coastlines in the vicinity of river mouths and estuaries usually relies on the mean (predicted) values of the sediment discharge from the river. However, this approach does not consider low frequency, severe events, such as El Niño [...] Read more.
Analyzing the long-term behavior of the coastlines in the vicinity of river mouths and estuaries usually relies on the mean (predicted) values of the sediment discharge from the river. However, this approach does not consider low frequency, severe events, such as El Niño (EN), that can have a large effect on coastlines. While the effects of an EN on flooding and droughts are well studied, little information exists about its effects on coastal zones, and especially on the evolution of coastlines. In early 2017, an EN occurred in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, and the country of Peru was affected with high precipitation levels, and extreme river discharges and flooding. During this event, in the district of Lima, the Rimac River discharged a huge amount of sediment into the Callao Bay, and the shoreline accreted approximately 1 km, demonstrating the significant effects that an EN can have on coastal zones. To explore these effects, this paper studies the influence of an EN on shoreline evolution in the Callao Bay by analyzing Landsat images from 1985–2019 to understand the shoreline evolution and identify changes to the coastline. Results show that when an extraordinary EN occurs (e.g., 1982–1983, 1997–1998, and 2017), the shoreline experiences high accretion compared to when a smaller, or no EN occurs. During these events, a significant delta forms at the south end of the bay, and the redistribution of the accumulated sediment by wave action causes the accretion of the adjacent coastlines for as far as 7 km north of the river mouth. This shows the importance of these events for the wellbeing of coastlines adjacent to river mouths affected by EN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Coasts and Estuaries)
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