Special Issue "Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Cristiano Fragassa

Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Bologna, Italy
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Phone: +39-051-20-9-3266
Fax: +39-051-20-9-3412
Interests: Materials Engineering; Structural Design; Mechanics of Materials; Numerical Modelling; Experimental Mechanics; Reliability and Safety; Industrial Quality; Foundry; Cast Iron
Guest Editor
Dr. Elizaldo Domingues Dos Santos

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG
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Interests: fluid mechanics; heat transfer; thermodynamics; computational fluid dynamics
Guest Editor
Dr. Nenad Djordjevic

Institute of Materials and Manufacturing, College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences, Brunel University London
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineering mathematics is a branch of applied mathematics where mathematical methods and techniques are implemented for solving problems related to the engineering and industry. It also represents a multidisciplinary approach where theoretical and practical aspects are deeply merged with the aim at obtaining optimized solutions. In line with that, the present Special Issue, 'Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design', is focused, in particular, with the use of this sort of engineering science in the design of ships and vessels. Articles are welcome when applied science or computation science in ship design represent the core of the discussion.

Dr. Cristiano Fragassa
Dr. Elizaldo Domingues dos Santos
Dr. Nenad Djordjevic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Naval Engineering
  • Ship Design Process
  • Ship Motion, Flotation and Stability
  • Structural Analysis
  • Hydrostatic and, Hydrodynamics
  • Marine Propulsion
  • Shipbuilding
  • Applied Analysis
  • Mathematical Models, Methods and Techniques
  • Computational Engineering

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Study on the Contribution of External Forces to Ship Behavior
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7030072
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Computational modeling has become a prominent tool to simulate physical processes for research and development projects. The coastal region of southern Brazil is very susceptible to oil spill accidents. Currently, oil is intensively transported in the region due to the presence of the [...] Read more.
Computational modeling has become a prominent tool to simulate physical processes for research and development projects. The coastal region of southern Brazil is very susceptible to oil spill accidents. Currently, oil is intensively transported in the region due to the presence of the Rio Grande Harbor, the Transpetro Waterway Terminal (Petrobras) and the Riograndense S/A Oil Refinery. Therefore, simulations under ideal navigation conditions for ships with potentially polluting loads are important because their use can reduce oil spills and toxic compound accidents in the environment. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to present a preliminary study of the contribution of external forces to a ship’s behavior over a simulation period of 5 h. The methodology is based on the development of a numerical model using LaGrangian formalism and the calculus of variations, besides Maneuvering Modeling Group (MMG Model). The external forces considered were the wind acting directly on the ship, waves driven by wind, the rudder, the force acting on the hull, inertial forces, and seawater density. The results indicate that at the beginning of the simulation, the inertial forces were of primary importance for controlling the trajectory of the ship. After 5 h of simulations, the ship had completely changed its trajectory due to forces suffered by the ship, classified according to MMG Model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Study of Turbulent Air and Water Flows in a Nozzle Based on the Coanda Effect
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020021
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
In the present work it is performed a numerical study for simulation of turbulent air and water flows in a nozzle based on the Coanda effect named H.O.M.E.R. (High-Speed Orienting Momentum with Enhanced Reversibility). The main purposes of this work are the development [...] Read more.
In the present work it is performed a numerical study for simulation of turbulent air and water flows in a nozzle based on the Coanda effect named H.O.M.E.R. (High-Speed Orienting Momentum with Enhanced Reversibility). The main purposes of this work are the development of a numerical model for simulation of the main operational principle of the H.O.M.E.R. nozzle, verify the occurrence of the physical principle in a device using water as working fluid and generate theoretical recommendations about the influence of the difference of mass flow rate in two inlets and length of septum over the fluid dynamic behavior of water flow. The time-averaged conservation equations of mass and momentum are solved with the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and turbulence closure is tackled with the k-ε model. Results for air flow show a good agreement with previous predictions in the literature. Moreover, it is also noticed that this main operational principle is promising for future applications in maneuverability and propulsion systems in marine applications. Results obtained here also show that water jets present higher deflection angles when compared with air jets, enhancing the capability of impose forces to achieve better maneuverability. Moreover, results indicated that the imposition of different mass flow rates in both inlets of the device, as well as central septum insertion have a strong influence over deflection angle of turbulent jet flow and velocity fields, indicating that these parameters can be important for maneuverability in marine applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
An Approach for Predicting the Specific Fuel Consumption of Dual-Fuel Two-Stroke Marine Engines
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020020
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
Increasing environmental demands, alongside the planned penetration of natural gas as marine fuel, have rendered dual-fuel engines as an attractive prime mover alternative. In this context, knowing the specific fuel consumption is essential to selecting the most efficient engine. The specific fuel consumption [...] Read more.
Increasing environmental demands, alongside the planned penetration of natural gas as marine fuel, have rendered dual-fuel engines as an attractive prime mover alternative. In this context, knowing the specific fuel consumption is essential to selecting the most efficient engine. The specific fuel consumption can be approached by simulation models with varying levels of complexity that are either implemented by basic programming languages or simulated by dedicated packages. This study aims to develop a simplified model to predict the specific fuel consumption of dual-fuel two-stroke marine engines driving fixed or controllable pitch propellers. The model relies on clear trends approachable by polynomials that were revealed by normalizing specific fuel consumption. This model requires only the value of specific fuel consumption at a nominal maximum continuous rating to predict the engine consumption at any specified rating, including at partial engine load. The outcome of the study shows that the maximum deviations regarding the two simulated engines did not exceed −3.6%. In summary, the proposed model is a fast and effective tool for optimizing the selection of dual-fuel, two-stroke Diesel engines regarding fuel consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Geometric Evaluation of Stiffened Steel Plates Subjected to Transverse Loading for Naval and Offshore Applications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7010007
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
This work searched for the optimal geometrical configuration of simply supported stiffened plates subjected to a transverse and uniformly distributed load. From a non-stiffened reference plate, different geometrical configurations of stiffened plates, with the same volume as the reference plate, were defined through [...] Read more.
This work searched for the optimal geometrical configuration of simply supported stiffened plates subjected to a transverse and uniformly distributed load. From a non-stiffened reference plate, different geometrical configurations of stiffened plates, with the same volume as the reference plate, were defined through the constructal design method. Thus, applying the exhaustive search technique and using the ANSYS software, the mechanical behaviors of all the suggested stiffened plates were compared to each other to find the geometrical configuration that provided the minimum deflection in the plate’s center when subjected to this loading. The optimum geometrical configuration of stiffeners is presented at the end of this work, allowing a reduction of 98.57% for the central deflection of the stiffened plate if compared to the reference plate. Furthermore, power equations were adjusted to describe the deflections for each combination of longitudinal and transverse stiffeners as a function of the ratio between the height and the thickness of the stiffeners. Finally, a unique equation for determining the central deflections of the studied stiffened plates based only on the number of longitudinal stiffeners without significantly losing accuracy has been proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
On Air-Cavity Formation during Water Entry of Flexible Wedges
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040155
Received: 18 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract
Elastic bodies entering water might experience fluid–structure interaction phenomena introduced by the mutual interaction between structural deformation and fluid motion. Cavity formation, often misleadingly named cavitation, is one of these. This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on the water entry [...] Read more.
Elastic bodies entering water might experience fluid–structure interaction phenomena introduced by the mutual interaction between structural deformation and fluid motion. Cavity formation, often misleadingly named cavitation, is one of these. This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on the water entry of deformable wedges impacting a quiescent water surface with pure vertical velocity in free fall. The experimental campaign is conducted on flexible wedges parametrically varying the flexural stiffness, deadrise angle, and drop height. It is found that, under given experimental conditions, cavity pockets form beneath the wedge. Their generation mechanism might be ascribed to a differential between structural and fluid velocities, which is introduced by structural vibrations. Results show that the impact force during water entry of stiff wedges are always opposing gravity, while, in case flexible wedges temporarily reverse their direction, with the body that is being sucked into the water within the time frame between the cavity formation and its collapse. Severe impact might also generate a series of cavity generation and collapses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Pre-Damaged PZT Sensors under Impact Traction
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040142
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 11 November 2018 / Accepted: 11 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Ships are usually under vibration, impact, and other kinds of static and dynamic loads. These loads arise from water flow across the hull or surfaces, the propeller cavitation, and so on. For optimal design purposes and reliable performance, experimental measurements are necessary. These [...] Read more.
Ships are usually under vibration, impact, and other kinds of static and dynamic loads. These loads arise from water flow across the hull or surfaces, the propeller cavitation, and so on. For optimal design purposes and reliable performance, experimental measurements are necessary. These sensors are often used under or near the water, working conditions that improve the risk of sensor damage. This paper aims at investigating, by the use of finite elements, the behavior of damaged piezoelectric sensors under traction and impact loads. The numerical method was calibrated using results available in the literature regarding piezoelectric and elastic plates with a central crack. After calibration, the simulation was used on two types of Lead-Zirconium-Titanium oxide (PZT) sandwich panel structures reinforced by aluminum skins. The results proved that the damage size and impact energy are important factors affecting the response of piezoelectric sensors; therefore, special attention might be considered when using these sensors for marine applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
A Validation of Symmetric 2D + T Model Based on Single-Stepped Planing Hull Towing Tank Tests
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040136
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current article, the hydrodynamic forces of single-stepped planing hulls were evaluated by an analytical method and compared against towing tank tests. Using the 2D + T theory, the pressure distribution over the wedge section entering the water and the normal forces [...] Read more.
In the current article, the hydrodynamic forces of single-stepped planing hulls were evaluated by an analytical method and compared against towing tank tests. Using the 2D + T theory, the pressure distribution over the wedge section entering the water and the normal forces acting on the 2D sections have been computed. By integrating the 2D sectional normal forces over the entire wetted length of the vessel, the lift force acting on it has been obtained. Using lift forces as well as the consequence pitch moment, the equilibrium condition for the single-stepped planing hull is found and then resistance, dynamic trim, and the wetted surface are computed. The obtained hydrodynamic results have been compared against the experimental data and it has been observed that the presented mathematical model has reasonable accuracy, in particular, up to Froude number 2.0. Furthermore, this mathematical model can be a useful and fast tool for the stepped hull designers in the early design stage in order to compare the different hull configurations. It should also be noted that the mathematical model has been developed in such a way that it has the potential to model the sweep-back step and transverse the vertical motions of single-stepped planing hulls in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Assessment of Roll Motion Characteristics and Damping Coefficient of a Ship
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(3), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030101
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 21 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (20825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate calculation of the roll damping moment at resonance condition is essential for roll motion prediction. Because at the resonance condition, the moment of inertia counteracts restoring moment and only the damping moment resists increase in the roll angle. There are various methods [...] Read more.
Accurate calculation of the roll damping moment at resonance condition is essential for roll motion prediction. Because at the resonance condition, the moment of inertia counteracts restoring moment and only the damping moment resists increase in the roll angle. There are various methods to calculate the roll damping moment which are based on potential flow theory. These methods have limitations to taking into account the viscous effects in estimating the roll motion, while, CFD as a numerical method is capable of considering the viscous effects. In this study, a CFD method based on a harmonic excited roll motion (HERM) technique is used to compute the roll motion and the roll damping moment of a containership’s model in different conditions. The influence of excitation frequency, forward speed and degrees of freedom at beam-sea and oblique-sea realizations are considered in estimating the roll damping coefficients. The results are validated against model tests, where a good agreement is found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Survey on Experimental and Numerical Approaches to Model Underwater Explosions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7010015
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of predicting material failure is essential for adequate structural dimensioning in every mechanical design. For ships, and particularly for military vessels, the challenge of optimizing the toughness-to-weight ratio at the highest possible value is essential to provide agile structures that can [...] Read more.
The ability of predicting material failure is essential for adequate structural dimensioning in every mechanical design. For ships, and particularly for military vessels, the challenge of optimizing the toughness-to-weight ratio at the highest possible value is essential to provide agile structures that can safely withstand external forces. Exploring the case of underwater explosions, the present paper summarizes some of the fundamental mathematical relations for foreseeing the behavior of naval panels to such solicitation. A broad state-of-the-art survey links the mechanical stress-strain response of materials and the influence of local reinforcements in flexural and lateral-torsional buckling to the hydrodynamic relations that govern the propagation of pressure waves prevenient from blasts. Numerical simulation approaches used in computational modeling of underwater explosions are reviewed, focusing on Eulerian and Lagrangian fluid descriptions, Johnson-Cook and Gurson constitutive materials for naval panels, and the solving methods FEM (Finite Element Method), FVM (Finite Volume Method), BEM (Boundary Element Method), and SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics). The confrontation of experimental tests for evaluating different hull materials and constructions with formulae and virtual reproduction practices allow a wide perception of the subject from different yet interrelated points of view. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Environmental Management Systems and Balanced Scorecard: An Integrated Analysis of the Marine Transport
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7040119
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
Critical aspects of the environment can reduce the efficiency of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) when applied to Marine Transport. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the improvement of the traditional EMS approach through the usage of Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The BSC represents a managing [...] Read more.
Critical aspects of the environment can reduce the efficiency of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) when applied to Marine Transport. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the improvement of the traditional EMS approach through the usage of Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The BSC represents a managing tool able to measure and increase organizational performance, taking into consideration environmental aspects. The proposed method, based on the ISO 14001 standard, allows management of environmental metrics through conventional BSC systems and it is applied to the biggest organization for marine transport in Montenegro as a case study methodology. In this qualitative investigation, particular attention was paid to creating EMS criteria able to orient the complete business operation of the organization but also to test their potential linkage to the conventional BSC approach. Four models of the BSC were created, each one including to a different extent the issue of environmental protection. Finally, an expert’s evaluation of model efficiency, based on the ISO 9126, was carried out. As a result, the best ranked model is recommended for the selection of an approach toward environmental protection based on the use of the EMS metric in a conventional BSC system. This method—in short ECO-BSC—was developed for the specific benefit of those organizations operating on the marine transport market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Mathematics in Ship Design)
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