Special Issue "Maritime Traffic Engineering and International Symposium Information on Ships Conference MTE-ISIS 2019"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Ocean Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 February 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Lucjan Gucma
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Maritime University of Szczecin, Faculty of Navigation, Waly Chrobrego St. 1, 70-500 Szczecin, Poland
Interests: ship navigation risk, port design, navigational systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are several research studies dealing with ship-to-ship collision investigations. Most of these are focused on costal and open seawaters where AIS empirical data are utilized and collision risk models are created. This Special Issue of JMSE will focus on ship-to-ship collision problems, related to accidents on complicated waterways like port approaches or congested coastal areas where the influence of ship traffic plays major role. The Special Issue will focus on:

  1. Modelling the risk of collisions in port approach areas,
  2. Causation accident analysis,
  3. The human factor in ship-to-ship collisions.

The issue will not be restricted, but will also focus on:

  1. New methods of modelling the consequences of collisions
  2. Collisions with offshore and fixed structures

Prof. Lucjan Gucma
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • modelling risk of collisions
  • causation accident analysis
  • the human factor in ship-to-ship collisions
  • new methods of modelling the consequences of collisions
  • collisions with offshore and fixed structures

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Dimensioning of Fairway Bends—Kinematic Method of Numerical Simulation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020138 (registering DOI) - 20 Feb 2020
Abstract
The article presents a new kinematic method of numerical simulation intended for establishing dimensions of safe manoeuvring areas of bends in various types of fairways for vessels of specific parameters. The method consists of multiple numerical simulations of a ship’s passage (ship’s centre [...] Read more.
The article presents a new kinematic method of numerical simulation intended for establishing dimensions of safe manoeuvring areas of bends in various types of fairways for vessels of specific parameters. The method consists of multiple numerical simulations of a ship’s passage (ship’s centre of gravity) through a bend, representing the entire physically possible movement of the ship, and an analysis of simulation results. The developed method was verified on the bends of the Świnoujście–Szczecin fairway, by comparing the results to the exact simulation method of a ship’s movements. The relatively high accuracy and low costs of the method allow it to be used in a concept design of built or modern waterway systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Underwater Hull Anti-Fouling Silicone Coating on a Ferry’s Fuel Consumption
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020122 - 15 Feb 2020
Abstract
There are well-known specifics of ro-pax ferry shipping, such as the time factor as a consequence of keeping a regular timetable and the priority given to minimizing heeling, pitching, and rolling caused by maximum focus on passenger comfort and ro-ro cargo safety. It [...] Read more.
There are well-known specifics of ro-pax ferry shipping, such as the time factor as a consequence of keeping a regular timetable and the priority given to minimizing heeling, pitching, and rolling caused by maximum focus on passenger comfort and ro-ro cargo safety. It is also extremely important to control the ferry’s fuel consumption, being one of the most important cost components. The aim of the article is to draw the attention of shipping company managers to the great potential that lies in the use of routine operational data, collected exclusively on board the ferries. It is worth noting that the research in this paper is based on standard office software packages rather than advanced statistical methods of data analysis, which are usually not accessible for shipping managers. Contrary to typical ocean-going vessels, there are a number of factors that need to be taken into consideration when analyzing ro-pax ferry fuel consumption. Moreover, these factors occur, in many cases, accidentally and, thus, they are difficult to observe on board the ferry without utilizing expensive and time-consuming methods. The possibility of fuel control is important not only for economic reasons but also due to air pollution caused by engine exhausts. The article presents an estimation of increased fuel consumption caused by the degradation of the hull silicone anti-fouling coating. The presented estimations of fuel consumption may be treated as the base for calculations of the economic effectiveness of ferries. The attempt to resolve the above-mentioned problem was made on the basis of research on a real ferry, which took place on the Świnoujście-Trelleborg line between 2007 and 2019. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Initial Description of Pilotage and Tug Services in the Context of e-Navigation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020116 - 13 Feb 2020
Abstract
The International Maritime Organization (IMO)’s Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), at its 101st session (5 to 14 June 2019), adopted Resolution MSC.467(101) on the guidance on the definition and harmonization of the format and structure of maritime services in the context of e-Navigation and [...] Read more.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO)’s Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), at its 101st session (5 to 14 June 2019), adopted Resolution MSC.467(101) on the guidance on the definition and harmonization of the format and structure of maritime services in the context of e-Navigation and agreed to consolidate the descriptions of maritime services and to consider them together with all involved international organizations and interested member states, in order to harmonize the provision and exchange of maritime information and data. In doing so, the MSC also approved the initial descriptions of maritime services in the context of e-Navigation (IMO MSC.1/Circ.1610), which had been prepared by the Sub-Committee on Navigation, Communications and Search and Rescue, at its sixth session (16 to 25 January 2019). The information contained in this paper constitutes the descriptions of two selected examples of maritime services, an initial contribution for the harmonization of the formats and structures of pilotage and tug services. The initial description of each of maritime services is expected to be next periodically updated, taking into account developments and related work on international harmonization. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Determination of Parameters Describing the Risk Areas of Ships Chaotic Rolling on the Example of LNG Carrier and OSV Vessel
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8020091 - 03 Feb 2020
Abstract
One of the significant problems in the safe operation of vessels is the behavior of the ship on the wave. Of all degrees of freedom, the greatest threat to the safety of a ship is associated with excessive rolling. One of the best [...] Read more.
One of the significant problems in the safe operation of vessels is the behavior of the ship on the wave. Of all degrees of freedom, the greatest threat to the safety of a ship is associated with excessive rolling. One of the best methods to improve the safety of a ship in this field is to carry out experiments on the ship model, performed at her design stage. The problem is that the model tests are costly. An alternative is to conduct simulation tests based on numerical models. The primary goal of the article is to present the results of the simulation regarding the determination of parameters describing the risk areas of chaotic rolling for the ship designed for transporting liquefied natural gas (LNG carrier) and offshore support vessel (OSV). The first discusses the state of knowledge on mathematical modeling of oscillations. Then, the theory of nonlinear differential equations is presented, and the mathematical model of ship rolling is described. This model is used to prepare and conduct a numerical simulation in the Mathematica package. The results of these studies and their discussion constitute the central part of the article. Finally, the conclusions are presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Navigators’ Behavior Analysis Using Data Mining
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010050 - 17 Jan 2020
Abstract
One of the ways to prevent accidents at sea is to detect risks caused by humans and to counteract them. These tasks can be executed through an analysis of ship maneuvers and the identification of behavior considered to be potentially dangerous, e.g., based [...] Read more.
One of the ways to prevent accidents at sea is to detect risks caused by humans and to counteract them. These tasks can be executed through an analysis of ship maneuvers and the identification of behavior considered to be potentially dangerous, e.g., based on data obtained online from the automatic identification system (AIS). As a result, additional measures or actions can be taken, e.g., passing at a distance greater than previously planned. The detection of risks at sea requires a prior definition of behavior patterns and the criteria assigned to them. Each pattern represents a specific navigator’s safety profile. The criteria assigned to each pattern for the identification of the navigator’s safety profile were determined from previously recorded AIS data. Due to a large amount of data and their complex relationships, these authors have proposed to use data mining tools. This work continues previous research on this subject. The conducted analysis covered data recorded in simulation tests done by navigators. Typical ship encounter situations were included. Based on additional simulation data, the patterns of behavior were verified for the determination of a navigator’s safety profile. An example of using the presented method is given. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability Analysis of Different Configurations of Master and Back-Up Systems Used in Maritime Navigation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010034 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a comparison of the reliability of various configurations of electronic navigation appliances, from a single system not duplicated (without back-up) to complex systems built of a master system and different numbers of reserve (back-up) systems. For reliability analysis, we created [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparison of the reliability of various configurations of electronic navigation appliances, from a single system not duplicated (without back-up) to complex systems built of a master system and different numbers of reserve (back-up) systems. For reliability analysis, we created a model of an electronic navigation system reflecting the influence of the number of reserve systems on the entire system reliability. Navigation systems were analyzed as multistate systems. Assuming that they degrade from the state of full reliability to entire failure, their basic reliability characteristics were determined. We also conducted a comparison of system lifetimes in certain reliability state subsets, for different system configurations depending on the number of back-up systems. Additionally, the relationship between the costs associated with setting up a system with a certain configuration and its mean lifetime in reliability state subsets is shown. We also propose procedures for determining the moment of exceeding the allowed limit of system safety, with the use of reliability functions determined for different configurations of the system. One of the major conclusions arising from the reliability analysis is that setting a navigation system with a certain number of back-up solutions is of key importance to improve the system’s reliability in the initial period of operation, while the number of back-up systems has a minor influence on the overall system lifetime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Accuracy of a Marine Satellite Compass under Terrestrial Urban Conditions
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010018 - 31 Dec 2019
Abstract
When used at sea, satellite compasses are capable of determining the course of a sailing vessel with high accuracy. It is difficult to verify the accuracy declared by the device manufacturer under such conditions, as it is difficult to define a reliable reference. [...] Read more.
When used at sea, satellite compasses are capable of determining the course of a sailing vessel with high accuracy. It is difficult to verify the accuracy declared by the device manufacturer under such conditions, as it is difficult to define a reliable reference. This study analyses the accuracy of the satellite compass in an urban setting, with the satellite signal being obscured to various extents. It is an important point in the study to refer the measurement results to a reference route, which is the axis of a tramway track, determined by the precise GNSS RTK method. The measurement data were processed in the original software developed by the authors. The results demonstrate a high 2D positioning accuracy with low height determination accuracy. The course determination errors exceed the limit values declared by the manufacturer. However, specific measurement conditions must be taken into account, which differ considerably from the typical applications of a satellite compass. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Situation Assessment—An Essential Functionality for Resilient Navigation Systems
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010017 - 30 Dec 2019
Abstract
This paper discusses the application of resilience engineering principles by shipborne navigation systems. As a technological system, the ship navigation system comprises all the communication and navigation equipment required to operate a ship. If examined as a socio-technological system, one has to additionally [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the application of resilience engineering principles by shipborne navigation systems. As a technological system, the ship navigation system comprises all the communication and navigation equipment required to operate a ship. If examined as a socio-technological system, one has to additionally consider the use of the ship navigation system by the bridge teams in order to perform the nautical profession in terms of safe and efficient ship navigation, taking into account environmental information received by communication. The first part of this work discusses the theoretical background of resilience engineering and situation awareness. Case studies are used to illustrate under which conditions the application of resilience principles may result in an improvement of the operational reliability. With the help of simulations, it is shown that a sub-optimal implementation and utilization of resilience principles may decrease the robustness of the technical ship navigation system, as well as the reliability and adaptability of the ship navigation system in use. The examples illustrate once again that monitoring is one of the four cornerstones of resilience: anticipating, monitoring, learning, and responding. This is due to the effectiveness of most resilience principles depending on the availability and trustworthiness of situational information in relation to system status and environmental conditions, irrespective of whether the generation and use of the situational information is machine-made or human-made. Therefore, the establishment of situation awareness is an essential accompanying functionality to be considered in design, operation, and use of resilient systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
AIS-Based Multiple Vessel Collision and Grounding Risk Identification based on Adaptive Safety Domain
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010005 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
The continuous growth in maritime traffic and recent developments towards autonomous navigation have directed increasing attention to navigational safety in which new tools are required to identify real-time risk and complex navigation situations. These tools are of paramount importance to avoid potentially disastrous [...] Read more.
The continuous growth in maritime traffic and recent developments towards autonomous navigation have directed increasing attention to navigational safety in which new tools are required to identify real-time risk and complex navigation situations. These tools are of paramount importance to avoid potentially disastrous consequences of accidents and promote safe navigation at sea. In this study, an adaptive ship-safety-domain is proposed with spatial risk functions to identify both collision and grounding risk based on motion and maneuverability conditions for all vessels. The algorithm is designed and validated through extensive amounts of Automatic Identification System (AIS) data for decision support over a large area, while the integration of the algorithm with other navigational systems will increase effectiveness and ensure reliability. Since a successful evacuation of a potential vessel-to-vessel collision, or a vessel grounding situation, is highly dependent on the nearby maneuvering limitations and other possible accident situations, multi-vessel collision and grounding risk is considered in this work to identify real-time risk. The presented algorithm utilizes and exploits dynamic AIS information, vessel registry and high-resolution maps and it is robust to inaccuracies of position, course and speed over ground records. The computation-efficient algorithm allows for real-time situation risk identification at a large-scale monitored map up to country level and up to several years of operation with a very high accuracy. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Ocean-Going Autonomous Ship—Challenges and Threats
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8010041 - 15 Jan 2020
Abstract
Unmanned vehicles have become a part of everyday life, not only in the air, but also at sea. In the case of sea, until now this usually meant small platforms operating near shores, usually for surveying or research purposes. However, experiments with larger [...] Read more.
Unmanned vehicles have become a part of everyday life, not only in the air, but also at sea. In the case of sea, until now this usually meant small platforms operating near shores, usually for surveying or research purposes. However, experiments with larger cargo vessels, designed to operate on the high seas are already being carried out. In this context, there are questions about the threats that this solution may pose for other sea users, as well as the safety of the unmanned vehicle itself and the cargo or equipment on board. The problems can be considered in the context of system reliability as well as the resilience to interference or other intentional actions directed against these objects—for example, of a criminal nature. The paper describes the dangers that arise from the specificity of systems that can be used to solve navigational problems, as well as the analysis of the first experiences of the authors arising from the transit of an unmanned surface vessel (USV) from the United Kingdom to Belgium and back, crossing the busiest world shipping route—the English Channel. Full article
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