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Article

Worldwide Availability of Maritime Medium-Frequency Radio Infrastructure for R-Mode-Supported Navigation

German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Communications and Navigation, Kalkhorstweg 53, 17235 Neustrelitz, Germany
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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030209
Received: 10 January 2020 / Revised: 6 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
The Ranging Mode (R-Mode), a maritime terrestrial navigation system under development, is a promising approach to increase the resilient provision of position, navigation and timing (PNT) information for bridge instruments, which rely on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The R-Mode utilizes existing maritime radio infrastructure such as marine radio beacons, which support maritime traffic with more reliable and accurate PNT data in areas with challenging conditions. This paper analyzes the potential service, which the R-Mode could provide to the mariner if worldwide radio beacons were upgraded to broadcast R-Mode signals. The authors assumed for this study that the R-Mode is available in the service area of the 357 operational radio beacons. The comparison with the maritime traffic, which was generated from a one-day worldwide Automatic Identification System (AIS) Class A dataset, showed that on average, 67% of ships would operate in a global R-Mode service area, 40% of ships would see at least three and 25% of ships would see at least four radio beacons at a time. This means that R-Mode would support 25% to 40% of all ships with position and 67% of all ships with PNT integrity information. The relatively high number of supported ships compared to the total radio beacon coverage of about 9% of the earth’s surface is caused by the good coverage of busy ports and areas such as the coast of China, North Sea and Baltic Sea. These numbers emphasize the importance of marine radio beacons for the R-Mode system. View Full-Text
Keywords: R-Mode; backup system; radio-beacon coverage; maritime traffic; AIS; medium frequency R-Mode; backup system; radio-beacon coverage; maritime traffic; AIS; medium frequency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koch, P.; Gewies, S. Worldwide Availability of Maritime Medium-Frequency Radio Infrastructure for R-Mode-Supported Navigation. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030209

AMA Style

Koch P, Gewies S. Worldwide Availability of Maritime Medium-Frequency Radio Infrastructure for R-Mode-Supported Navigation. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(3):209. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030209

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koch, Paul; Gewies, Stefan. 2020. "Worldwide Availability of Maritime Medium-Frequency Radio Infrastructure for R-Mode-Supported Navigation" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8, no. 3: 209. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030209

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