Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (14 December 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Richard P. Signell

United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA 02543-1523, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1 508-457-2229
Interests: geoinformatics; coastal ocean dynamics; numerical modeling; sediment transport

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference provides a venue for commercial, academic, and government scientists and engineers from around the world to present and discuss the latest results and techniques in applied estuarine and coastal modeling. Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on a wide range of topic areas, including:

  • Pollutant Transport and Water Quality Prediction
  • Coastal Response to Climate Change
  • Modeling Techniques and Sensitivity Studies
  • Model Assessment
  • Modeling Specific Estuarine and Coastal Systems
  • Visualization and Analysis
  • Wave and Sediment Transport Modeling
  • Modeling of Chemicals and Floatables
  • Oil Spill Transport and Fate Modeling
  • Inverse Methods
  • Circulation Modeling
  • Facility Siting and CSO Studies
  • Data Assimilation
  • Nowcast/Forecast Modeling Systems
  • Modeling Systems with Strong Buoyancy Forcing
  • Modeling of Coupled Systems
  • Risk Analysis (Nuclear Reactors, Flood Forecasting)

This Special Issue presents a selection of papers from the conference; the papers give insight into current research and commercial developments while highlighting some of the areas where further research is required.

Dr. Richard P. Signell
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Coastal Modeling
  • Estuarine Modeling
  • Water Quality
  • Sediment Transport
  • Flood Forecasting
  • Operational Oceanography
  • Pollutant Transport
  • Coastal Response to Climate Change

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Visualization of Coastal Ocean Model Data in the Cloud
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7040110
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
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Abstract
The traditional flow of coastal ocean model data is from High-Performance Computing (HPC) centers to the local desktop, or to a file server where just the needed data can be extracted via services such as OPeNDAP. Analysis and visualization are then conducted using [...] Read more.
The traditional flow of coastal ocean model data is from High-Performance Computing (HPC) centers to the local desktop, or to a file server where just the needed data can be extracted via services such as OPeNDAP. Analysis and visualization are then conducted using local hardware and software. This requires moving large amounts of data across the internet as well as acquiring and maintaining local hardware, software, and support personnel. Further, as data sets increase in size, the traditional workflow may not be scalable. Alternatively, recent advances make it possible to move data from HPC to the Cloud and perform interactive, scalable, data-proximate analysis and visualization, with simply a web browser user interface. We use the framework advanced by the NSF-funded Pangeo project, a free, open-source Python system which provides multi-user login via JupyterHub and parallel analysis via Dask, both running in Docker containers orchestrated by Kubernetes. Data are stored in the Zarr format, a Cloud-friendly n-dimensional array format that allows performant extraction of data by anyone without relying on data services like OPeNDAP. Interactive visual exploration of data on complex, large model grids is made possible by new tools in the Python PyViz ecosystem, which can render maps at screen resolution, dynamically updating on pan and zoom operations. Two examples are given: (1) Calculating the maximum water level at each grid cell from a 53-GB, 720-time-step, 9-million-node triangular mesh ADCIRC simulation of Hurricane Ike; (2) Creating a dashboard for visualizing data from a curvilinear orthogonal COAWST/ROMS forecast model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling Tidal Datums and Spatially Varying Uncertainty in the Texas and Western Louisiana Coastal Waters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7020044
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 22 December 2018 / Published: 9 February 2019
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Abstract
Tidal datums are key components in NOAA’s Vertical Datum transformation project (VDatum), which enables effective vertical transformation of the water level between tidal, orthometric, and ellipsoid -based three-dimensional reference systems. An initial application of modeling tidal datums was developed for the coastal waters [...] Read more.
Tidal datums are key components in NOAA’s Vertical Datum transformation project (VDatum), which enables effective vertical transformation of the water level between tidal, orthometric, and ellipsoid -based three-dimensional reference systems. An initial application of modeling tidal datums was developed for the coastal waters of Texas and western Louisiana in 2013. The goals of the current work include: (1) updating the tidal model by using the best available shoreline, bathymetry, and tide station data; (2) implementing a recently developed statistical interpolation method for interpolating modeled tidal datums and computing tidal datum uncertainties; and (3) using modeled tidal datums to upgrade non-tidal polygons for enhancing the quality of the VDatum marine grid population. The updated tidal model outperformed the previous tidal model in most cases. The statistical interpolation method is able to limit the interpolated tidal datums to within a user-defined model error (0.01 m in this work) and produce a spatially varying uncertainty field for each interpolated tidal datum field. The upgraded non-tidal polygons enhanced the quality of the VDatum marine grid population. This paper will introduce the detailed procedures of this modeling work, present and discuss the obtained results, share the effective methods used for improving model performance and lessons learned in the model assessments, and analyze the improvement of the current tidal model in comparison with the previous tidal model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lateral Circulation in a Partially Stratified Tidal Inlet
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040159
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 27 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 19 December 2018
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Abstract
Using a three-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive-equation ocean model, this study investigates the dynamics of lateral circulation in a partially stratified tidal inlet, the Barataria Pass in the Gulf of Mexico, over a 25.6 h diurnal tidal cycle. Model performance is assessed against observational data. [...] Read more.
Using a three-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive-equation ocean model, this study investigates the dynamics of lateral circulation in a partially stratified tidal inlet, the Barataria Pass in the Gulf of Mexico, over a 25.6 h diurnal tidal cycle. Model performance is assessed against observational data. During flood tide, the lateral circulation exhibits the characteristics similar to those induced by differential advection, i.e., lateral flow consists of two counter-rotating cells and is convergent at the surface. The analysis of momentum balance indicates that, in addition to the pressure gradient and vertical stress divergence, nonlinear advection and horizontal stress divergence are also important contributors. During ebb phase, the lateral circulation is mostly toward the right shoal (when looking into the estuary) for the whole water column and persisting for almost the whole period. The surface divergence suggested by the differential advection mechanism lasts for a very short period, if it ever exists. The main momentum balance across most of the transect during ebb is between the along-channel advection of cross-channel momentum and pressure gradient. The sectional averaged lateral velocity magnitude during ebb is comparable to that during flood, which is different from the idealized numerical experiment result. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Storm Surge Propagation and Flooding in Small Tidal Rivers during Events of Mixed Coastal and Fluvial Influence
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040158
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
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Abstract
The highly urbanized estuary of San Francisco Bay is an excellent example of a location susceptible to flooding from both coastal and fluvial influences. As part of developing a forecast model that integrates fluvial and oceanic drivers, a case study of the Napa [...] Read more.
The highly urbanized estuary of San Francisco Bay is an excellent example of a location susceptible to flooding from both coastal and fluvial influences. As part of developing a forecast model that integrates fluvial and oceanic drivers, a case study of the Napa River and its interactions with the San Francisco Bay was performed. For this application we utilize Delft3D-FM, a hydrodynamic model that computes conservation of mass and momentum on a flexible mesh grid, to calculate water levels that account for tidal forcing, storm surge generated by wind and pressure fields, and river flows. We simulated storms with realistic atmospheric pressure, river discharge, and tidal forcing to represent a realistic joint fluvial and coastal storm event. Storm conditions were applied to both a realistic field-scale Napa river drainage as well as an idealized geometry. With these scenarios, we determine how the extent, level, and duration of flooding is dependent on these atmospheric and hydrologic parameters. Unsurprisingly, the model indicates that maximal water levels will occur in a tidal river when high tides, storm surge, and large fluvial discharge events are coincident. Model results also show that large tidal amplitudes diminish storm surge propagation upstream and that phasing between peak fluvial discharges and high tide is important for predicting when and where the highest water levels will occur. The interactions between tides, river discharge, and storm surge are not simple, indicating the need for more integrated flood forecasting models in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Assessment of Two Models of Wave Propagation in an Estuary Protected by Breakwaters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040145
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Breakwaters influence coastal wave climate and circulation by blocking and dissipating wave energy. In a large harbor, these effects are combined with wave generation, refraction and reflection. Accurate representation of these processes is essential to the determination of coastal circulation and wave processes. [...] Read more.
Breakwaters influence coastal wave climate and circulation by blocking and dissipating wave energy. In a large harbor, these effects are combined with wave generation, refraction and reflection. Accurate representation of these processes is essential to the determination of coastal circulation and wave processes. MIKE21SW and SWAN are two third-generation spectral wave models which are used widely in coastal research and engineering applications. Recently improved versions of the models are able to consider the influence of breakwater structures. In this study, we used available observations to evaluate the accuracy of model simulations of waves in New Haven Harbor, Connecticut, USA, an estuary with three detached breakwaters near the mouth. The models were executed on their optimum unstructured triangular grid. The boundary conditions were derived from a bottom mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) on the offshore side of the breakwaters. Wind forcing was applied using data from the Central Long Island Sound buoy. We found that both models were largely consistent with observations during storms. However, MIKE21SW predicted some of storm peaks slightly better. SWAN required the finer grid to achieve the optimum condition, but as it uses a fast, fully implicit algorithm, the computational times were similar. Also, the sensitivity analysis represents that wind forcing and the breakwaters have significant impact on the results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sediment Transport Model Including Short-Lived Radioisotopes: Model Description and Idealized Test Cases
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 144; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040144
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
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Abstract
Geochronologies derived from sediment cores in coastal locations are often used to infer event bed characteristics such as deposit thicknesses and accumulation rates. Such studies commonly use naturally occurring, short-lived radioisotopes, such as Beryllium-7 (7Be) and Thorium-234 (234Th), to [...] Read more.
Geochronologies derived from sediment cores in coastal locations are often used to infer event bed characteristics such as deposit thicknesses and accumulation rates. Such studies commonly use naturally occurring, short-lived radioisotopes, such as Beryllium-7 (7Be) and Thorium-234 (234Th), to study depositional and post-depositional processes. These radioisotope activities, however, are not generally represented in sediment transport models that characterize coastal flood and storm deposition with grain size patterns and deposit thicknesses. We modified the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) to account for reactive tracers and used this capability to represent the behavior of these short-lived radioisotopes on the sediment bed. This paper describes the model and presents results from a set of idealized, one-dimensional (vertical) test cases. The model configuration represented fluvial deposition followed by periods of episodic storm resuspension. Sensitivity tests explored the influence on seabed radioisotope profiles by the intensities of bioturbation and wave resuspension and the thickness of fluvial deposits. The intensity of biodiffusion affected the persistence of fluvial event beds as evidenced by 7Be. Both resuspension and biodiffusion increased the modeled seabed inventory of 234Th. A thick fluvial deposit increased the seabed inventory of 7Be and 234Th but mixing over time greatly reduced the difference in inventory of 234Th in fluvial deposits of different thicknesses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detailed Hydrodynamic Feasibility Assessment for Leque Island and Zis a Ba Restoration Projects
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040140
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 13 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Numerous restoration projects are underway in Puget Sound, Washington, USA with the goal of re-establishing intertidal wetlands that were historically lost due to dike construction for flood protection and agricultural development. One such effort is the restoration effort within the Stillaguamish Delta, benefitting [...] Read more.
Numerous restoration projects are underway in Puget Sound, Washington, USA with the goal of re-establishing intertidal wetlands that were historically lost due to dike construction for flood protection and agricultural development. One such effort is the restoration effort within the Stillaguamish Delta, benefitting from the cumulative effects from the Leque Island and zis a ba restoration projects. The preferred restoration design calls for the removal of perimeter dikes at the two sites and the creation of tidal channels to facilitate the drainage of tidal flows. A 3-D high-resolution unstructured-grid coastal ocean model based on FVCOM was developed to evaluate the hydrodynamic response of the estuary to restoration alternatives. A series of hydrodynamic modeling simulations were then performed to quantify the hydrodynamic response of the nearshore restoration project, such as periodic inundation, suitable currents, and desired habitat/salinity levels. Sediment impacts were also examined, including the potential for excessive erosion or sedimentation requiring maintenance. Simulation results indicate that the preferred alternative scenario provides the desired estuarine response, which is consistent with the planned design. A decrease in velocities and bed shear in the main river channels was noted for the restored condition associated with the increased inundation of tidal flat area and reduced tidal flows through the main channels. High bed shear near the restored tidal channel entrances indicates that the inlets may evolve in size until equilibrium is established. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Sensitivity Analysis of the Wind Forcing Effect on the Accuracy of Large-Wave Hindcasting
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040139
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
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Abstract
Deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) relies on consistent and accurate wave resource characterization, which is typically achieved through numerical modeling using deterministic wave models. The accurate predictions of large-wave events are critical to the success of wave resource characterization because of the [...] Read more.
Deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) relies on consistent and accurate wave resource characterization, which is typically achieved through numerical modeling using deterministic wave models. The accurate predictions of large-wave events are critical to the success of wave resource characterization because of the risk on WEC installation, maintenance, and damage caused by extreme sea states. Because wind forcing is the primary driver of wave models, the quality of wind data plays an important role in the accuracy of wave predictions. This study evaluates the sensitivity of large-wave prediction to different wind-forcing products, and identifies a feasible approach to improve wave model results through improved wind forcing. Using a multi-level nested-grid modeling approach, we perform a series of sensitivity tests at four representative National Data Buoy Center buoy locations on the U.S. East and West Coasts. The selected wind-forcing products include the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis global wind product and North American Regional Reanalysis regional wind product as well as the observed wind at the buoys. Sensitivity test results indicate a consistent improvement in model predictions for the large-wave events (e.g., >90th percentile of significant wave height) at all buoys when observed-wind data were used to drive the wave model simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Water Quality Model Calibration via a Full-Factorial Analysis of Algal Growth Kinetic Parameters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040137
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
The two-dimensional, laterally-averaged mechanistic eutrophication model CE-QUAL-W2 version 3.72 was used to predict chlorophyll-a concentrations across two different time periods in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Chlorophyll calibration was performed for two time periods simultaneously by performing a full-factorial experiment that tested [...] Read more.
The two-dimensional, laterally-averaged mechanistic eutrophication model CE-QUAL-W2 version 3.72 was used to predict chlorophyll-a concentrations across two different time periods in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Chlorophyll calibration was performed for two time periods simultaneously by performing a full-factorial experiment that tested seven algal kinetic growth parameters over three levels for a single algal group. A cluster of up to six computers each running between two and ten instances of the program was used to complete and manage the data for 2187 runs for each period. Six numeric criteria were used to determine which runs performed acceptably, yielding a group of 27 cases that met all of the criteria. Calibration performance of the set of cases outperformed a previously calibrated model using three algal groups that met only four of the six selection criteria. Calibration performed this way allowed for a more rational specification of model calibration performance and provided uncertainty estimates of model predictions, albeit at the cost of a considerable increase in computational requirements that necessitated the use of a computer cluster. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model Development and Hindcast Simulations of NOAA’s Integrated Northern Gulf of Mexico Operational Forecast System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040135
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Abstract
NOAA’s National Ocean Service is upgrading three existing northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) operational nowcast/forecast systems (OFS) by integrating them into one single system (INGOFS) and developing additional domain coverage to encompass the lower Mississippi River, Lake Pontchartrain, Texas coastal embayments, and Mexican [...] Read more.
NOAA’s National Ocean Service is upgrading three existing northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) operational nowcast/forecast systems (OFS) by integrating them into one single system (INGOFS) and developing additional domain coverage to encompass the lower Mississippi River, Lake Pontchartrain, Texas coastal embayments, and Mexican coastal waters. The system will produce real-time nowcast and short-range forecast guidance for water levels, 3-dimensional currents, water temperature, and salinity. INGOFS will be implemented using the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM). This paper describes the model configuration and results from a one-year (2 August 2016–1 August 2017) hindcast simulation. The model grid is composed of about 300,000 nodes and 600,000 elements, and has a spatial resolution ranging from 45 m near the coast to around 10 km on the open ocean boundary. It uses the FVCOM wetting and drying feature, the quadratic bottom friction scheme, and the two-equation model of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure scheme. The hindcast results of water levels, surface temperatures, and salinity were verified by comparing the model time series with in situ observations. The root-mean-squared errors are about 0.08 m for water levels, about 1.1 °C for temperatures, and about 3.7 psu for salinity. The hindcast configuration will be further tested in a nowcast/forecast environment for a one-year period. The upgraded system is anticipated to be in operational production in mid-2020. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Improvements for the Eastern North Pacific ADCIRC Tidal Database (ENPAC15)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040131
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
This research details the development and validation of the updated Eastern North Pacific (ENPAC) constituent tidal database, referred to as ENPAC15. The database was last updated in 2003 and was developed using the two-dimensional, depth integrated form of the ADvanced CIRCulation coastal hydrodynamic [...] Read more.
This research details the development and validation of the updated Eastern North Pacific (ENPAC) constituent tidal database, referred to as ENPAC15. The database was last updated in 2003 and was developed using the two-dimensional, depth integrated form of the ADvanced CIRCulation coastal hydrodynamic model, ADCIRC. Regional databases, such as ENPAC15, are capable of providing higher resolution near the coast, allowing users to more accurately define tidal forcing for smaller sub-regions. This study follows the same methodology as the EC2015 updates for the eastern coast of the United States and six main areas of improvement in the modeling configurations are examined: (1) placement of the open ocean boundary; (2) higher coastal resolution; (3) updated global bathymetry; (4) updated boundary forcing using two global tidal databases; (5) updated bottom friction formulations; and (6) improved model physics by incorporating the advective terms in ADCIRC. The skill of the improved database is compared to that of its predecessor and is calculated using harmonic data from three sources. Overall, the ENPAC15 database significantly (52% globally) reduces errors in the ENPAC03 database and improves the quality of tidal constituents available for sub-regional models in the ENPAC region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modelling Behaviour of the Salt Wedge in the Fraser River and Its Relationship with Climate and Man-Made Changes
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040130
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 3 November 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Agriculture is an important industry in the Province of British Columbia, especially in the Lower Mainland where fertile land in the Fraser River Delta combined with the enormous water resources of the Fraser River Estuary support extensive commercial agriculture, notably berry farming. However, [...] Read more.
Agriculture is an important industry in the Province of British Columbia, especially in the Lower Mainland where fertile land in the Fraser River Delta combined with the enormous water resources of the Fraser River Estuary support extensive commercial agriculture, notably berry farming. However, where freshwater from inland meets saltwater from the Strait of Georgia, natural and man-made changes in conditions such as mean sea level, river discharge, and river geometry in the Fraser River Estuary could disrupt the existing balance and pose potential challenges to maintenance of the health of the farming industry. One of these challenges is the anticipated decrease in availability of sufficient freshwater from the river for irrigation purposes. The main driver for this challenge is climate change, which leads to sea level rise and to reductions in river flow at key times of the year. Dredging the navigational channel to allow bigger and deeper vessels in the river may also affect the availability of fresh water for irrigation. In this study, the salinity in the river was simulated using H3D, a proprietary three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model which computes the three components of velocity (u,v,w) in three dimensions (x,y,z) on a curvilinear grid developed specially for Fraser River, as well as scalar fields such as salinity and temperature. The results indicate various levels of impact to the salinity in the river and adaptive measures must be established to maintain the long-term viability of the industry. This study found that sea level rise and changes in river discharge would have a larger impact on the availability of fresh water than would channel deepening at the present sea water level. In a low river discharge regime, the impact from sea level change is more significant than in the high river discharge regime. On the other hand, the influence from changes in river discharge on withdrawal appears to increase when water level is lowered. Dredging the channel to accommodate larger vessels with deeper draft would further affect the salinity and shorten the withdrawal window; the effect of channel deepening becomes more pronounced in the lower flow period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Ice Forecasting in the Next-Generation Great Lakes Operational Forecast System (GLOFS)
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040123
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 21 October 2018
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Abstract
Ice Cover in the Great Lakes has significant impacts on regional weather, economy, lake ecology, and human safety. However, forecast guidance for the lakes is largely focused on the ice-free season and associated state variables (currents, water temperatures, etc.) A coupled lake-ice model [...] Read more.
Ice Cover in the Great Lakes has significant impacts on regional weather, economy, lake ecology, and human safety. However, forecast guidance for the lakes is largely focused on the ice-free season and associated state variables (currents, water temperatures, etc.) A coupled lake-ice model is proposed with potential to provide valuable information to stakeholders and society at large about the current and near-future state of Great Lakes Ice. The model is run for three of the five Great Lakes for prior years and the modeled ice cover is compared to observations via several skill metrics. Model hindcasts of ice conditions reveal reasonable simulation of year-to-year variability of ice extent, ice season duration, and spatial distribution, though some years appear to be prone to higher error. This modeling framework will serve as the basis for NOAA’s next-generation Great Lakes Operational Forecast System (GLOFS); a set of 3-D lake circulation forecast modeling systems which provides forecast guidance out to 120 h. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrodynamic Zone of Influence Due to a Floating Structure in a Fjordal Estuary—Hood Canal Bridge Impact Assessment
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040119
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Floating structures such as barges and ships affect near-field hydrodynamics and create a zone of influence (ZOI). Extent of the ZOI is of particular interest due to potential obstruction to and impact on out-migrating juvenile fish. Here, we present an assessment of ZOI [...] Read more.
Floating structures such as barges and ships affect near-field hydrodynamics and create a zone of influence (ZOI). Extent of the ZOI is of particular interest due to potential obstruction to and impact on out-migrating juvenile fish. Here, we present an assessment of ZOI from Hood Canal (Floating) Bridge, located within the 110-km-long fjord-like Hood Canal sub-basin in the Salish Sea, Washington. A field data collection program allowed near-field validation of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Hood Canal with the floating bridge section embedded. The results confirm that Hood Canal Bridge, with a draft of 4.6 m covering ~85% of the width of Hood Canal, obstructs the brackish outflow surface layer. This induces increased local mixing near the bridge, causes pooling of water (up-current) during ebb and flood, and results in shadow/sheltering of water (down-current). The change in ambient currents, salinity, and temperature is highest at the bridge location and reduces to background levels with distance from the bridge. The ZOI extends ~20 m below the surface and varies from 2–3 km for currents, from 2–4 km for salinity, and from 2–5 km for temperature before the deviations with the bridge drop to <10% relative to simulated background conditions without the bridge present. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Baroclinic Effect on Modeling Deep Flow in Brown Passage, BC, Canada
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040117
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
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Abstract
Brown Passage is a deep (up to 200 m) ocean channel connecting the western offshore waters of Hecate Strait and Dixon Entrance on the Pacific continental shelf with the eastern inland waters of Chatham Sound in Northern British Columbia, Canada. A high-resolution 3D [...] Read more.
Brown Passage is a deep (up to 200 m) ocean channel connecting the western offshore waters of Hecate Strait and Dixon Entrance on the Pacific continental shelf with the eastern inland waters of Chatham Sound in Northern British Columbia, Canada. A high-resolution 3D finite difference hydrodynamic model, COastal CIRculation and SEDiment transport Model (COCIRM-SED), was developed in 2010 and 2013 to determine the tidal and wind-driven currents of this area. The barotropic model results for ocean currents were found to be in reasonably good agreement with the historical ocean current observations at near-surface and middle depth available for Brown Passage. Operated from October 2014 to April 2015, the first modern oceanographic measurement program in Brown Passage found surprisingly strong near-bottom currents (the 99th percentile current speed reaches 53 cm/s at 196 m). As a result, the COCIRM-SED model was modified and rerun, with the most important change incorporating water density/salinity fields as modeled variables. This change led to considerable improvements in the ability of the model to generate episodes of relatively strong currents in the bottom layers. The bottom intensification in ocean currents in Brown Passage is shown to be due to semi-diurnal internal tides, which were not previously included in the barotropic version of the 3D model. This finding for the near-bottom flow from the qualitative modeling study is important for applications of the potential sediment deposition and resuspension studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Tidal Datums with Spatially Varying Uncertainty in North-East Gulf of Mexico for VDatum Application
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040114
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
We conducted a VDatum-spatially varying uncertainty study for the North-East Gulf of Mexico. The newly developed tide model incorporated the latest available National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetry survey data and National Geodetic Survey (NGS) shoreline data, and the datum products reflected the updated [...] Read more.
We conducted a VDatum-spatially varying uncertainty study for the North-East Gulf of Mexico. The newly developed tide model incorporated the latest available National Ocean Service (NOS) bathymetry survey data and National Geodetic Survey (NGS) shoreline data, and the datum products reflected the updated tidal datum data from the Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS). A gridding technique based on the wavelength of long waves in the deep ocean was applied to improve model efficiency. In this study, we highlight the creation of the tidal datum products and associated spatially varying uncertainty, which was developed by blending the model results, observations, and measurement errors together using a spatially varying uncertainty method based on a variational approach. The study found that model errors, measurement errors, and lack of observations can contribute to large uncertainty in the tidal datum products. The need for high quality bathymetry data in coastal areas is essential for reducing model error. As for the large uncertainty due to lack of observations or large measurement error, this can be improved by placement of new observations with high precision. Compared to a single uncertainty value, the spatially varying uncertainty provides more accurate representation of the uncertainty for the tidal datum products in VDatum. The uncertainty results will be used to help with decision-making on placement of new tide gauges to further reduce the uncertainty in the VDatum products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Hybrid Lagrangian–Eulerian Particle Model for Ecosystem Simulation
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6040109
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 26 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current numerical methods for simulating biophysical processes in aquatic environments are typically constructed in a grid-based Eulerian framework or as an individual-based model in a particle-based Lagrangian framework. Often, the biogeochemical processes and physical (hydrodynamic) processes occur at different time and space scales, [...] Read more.
Current numerical methods for simulating biophysical processes in aquatic environments are typically constructed in a grid-based Eulerian framework or as an individual-based model in a particle-based Lagrangian framework. Often, the biogeochemical processes and physical (hydrodynamic) processes occur at different time and space scales, and changes in biological processes do not affect the hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, it is possible to develop an alternative strategy to grid-based approaches for linking hydrodynamic and biogeochemical models that can significantly improve computational efficiency for this type of linked biophysical model. In this work, we utilize a new technique that links hydrodynamic effects and biological processes through a property-carrying particle model (PCPM) in a Lagrangian/Eulerian framework. The model is tested in idealized cases and its utility is demonstrated in a practical application to Sandusky Bay. Results show the integration of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches allows for a natural coupling of mass transport (represented by particle movements and random walk) and biological processes in water columns which is described by a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) biological model. This method is far more efficient than traditional tracer-based Eulerian biophysical models for 3-D simulation, particularly for a large domain and/or ensemble simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Transport and Fate of Sediments Released from Marine Construction Projects in the Coastal Waters of British Columbia, Canada
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse6030103
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 27 August 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Major marine construction projects, resulting in the release of sediments, are subject to environmental assessment and other regulatory approval processes. An important tool used for this is the development of specialized numerical methods for these marine activities. An integrated set of numerical methods [...] Read more.
Major marine construction projects, resulting in the release of sediments, are subject to environmental assessment and other regulatory approval processes. An important tool used for this is the development of specialized numerical methods for these marine activities. An integrated set of numerical methods addresses four distinct topics: (1) The near-field release and mixing of suspended sediments into the water column (i.e., the initial dilution zone); (2) the transport of the suspended sediments under the influence of complex ocean currents in the far-field; (3) the settling of the transported suspended sediments onto the seabed; and (4) the potential for resuspension of the deposited sediments due to sporadic occurrences of unusually large near-bottom currents. A review of projects subjected to environmental assessment in the coastal waters of British Columbia, from the year 2006 to 2017, is presented to illustrate the numerical models being used and their ongoing development. Improvements include higher resolution model grids to better represent the near-field, the depiction of particle size dependent vertical settling rates and the computation of resuspension of initially deposited sediments, especially in relation to temporary subsea piles of sediments arising from trenching for marine pipelines. The ongoing challenges for this numerical modeling application area are also identified. Full article
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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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