New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine Aquaculture".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 May 2023) | Viewed by 32470

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Special Issue Editors

Sanya Fisheries Research Institute, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing, China
Interests: aquaculture; artificial breeding; larval fish; fish and shellfish physiology; fish behavior; diseases control; nutrition; recirculation system; pond culture; offshore sea cage
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Guest Editor
College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Interests: aquaculture nutrition; biotechnology; water quality; algal culture; fish; mollusks; crustaceans
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The emergence of new techniques has driven the rapid development of aquaculture worldwide. This Special Issue updates the research and technological development of aquaculture in biotechnology, ecotechnology, feeding technology and environmental technology. Specifically, the coverage of this Special Issue includes biotechnology for the isolation and characterization of genes providing resistance to bacterial infection and environmental stress, feeding technology to improve immunity and stress resistance, the detection of thermal stress on marine fish immunity, light color manipulation to improve algal growth, and the use of integrated multi-trophic systems to improve production. This Special Issue uses recent research in marine fish, shrimp, sea cucumbers, sea urchins and algae to highlight new technological developments in aquaculture. These papers will lead to further research and extend these technologies to other species in aquaculture. 

Dr. Zhenhua Ma
Prof. Dr. Jianguang Qin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aquaculture nutrition
  • biotechnology
  • water quality
  • algal culture
  • fish
  • mollusks
  • crustaceans

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 202 KiB  
Editorial
New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture
by Zhenhua Ma and Jianguang Qin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122239 - 27 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
In recent years, the importance of marine aquaculture has been increasing globally, and new technologies are playing a significant role in this trend [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)

Research

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14 pages, 4630 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Genetic Structure and Diversity in Five Populations of Yellowtail Kingfish (Seriola aureovittata)
by Aijun Cui, Yongjiang Xu, Kiyoshi Kikuchi, Yan Jiang, Bin Wang, Takashi Koyama and Xuezhou Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(8), 1583; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11081583 - 12 Aug 2023
Viewed by 899
Abstract
To clarify the population genetic structure, intrapopulation diversity, and interpopulation differentiation of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola aureovittata), we sampled 143 individuals from five collections of yellowtail kingfish: farmed (n = 30) and wild (n = 33) collections in China, a wild collection [...] Read more.
To clarify the population genetic structure, intrapopulation diversity, and interpopulation differentiation of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola aureovittata), we sampled 143 individuals from five collections of yellowtail kingfish: farmed (n = 30) and wild (n = 33) collections in China, a wild collection in Japan (n = 20), and farmed (n = 31) and wild (n = 29) collections in Australia. Using 2b-RAD simplified genome sequencing, we obtained an average of 287,594 unique tags per population, with an average sequencing depth of 27.13×. Our final genotype dataset included 48,710 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms). The five collections were all in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and the interpopulation differentiation varied among the sample collections. The genetic differentiation coefficients (Fst) between the Chinese and Japanese yellowtail kingfish collections were low and the gene flow (Nm) values were high. These results suggest continuous gene flow occurs frequently between the collections, indicating that they belong to the same population. In contrast, genetic differentiation was high between the Australian collections and the Chinese and Japanese populations, suggesting different evolutionary origins and belonging to different populations. The farmed and wild Australian collections fell into distinct clades in a neighbor-joining phylogeny tree, suggesting farmed fish have begun to differentiate from the wild collection. A similar level of genetic diversity between the wild collections in China and Japan suggests that they originated from the same spawning ground. This, therefore, reminds us that in future aquaculture processes attention is needed regarding implementing targeted breeding strategies. In addition, our data will contribute to Chinese yellowtail kingfish genetic breeding and the sustainable use of Chinese yellowtail kingfish germplasms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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23 pages, 5957 KiB  
Article
FOXO-like Gene Is Involved in the Regulation of 20E Pathway through mTOR in Eriocheir sinensis
by Jiaming Li, Yuhan Ma, Zhichao Yang, Fengchi Wang, Jialin Li, Yusheng Jiang, Dazuo Yang, Qilin Yi and Shu Huang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1225; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061225 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
The Forkhead Box O (FOXO) gene plays a key role in various biological processes, such as growth, metabolism, development, immunity and longevity. Molting is an essential process for crustacean growth, which is mainly regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH). Although the [...] Read more.
The Forkhead Box O (FOXO) gene plays a key role in various biological processes, such as growth, metabolism, development, immunity and longevity. Molting is an essential process for crustacean growth, which is mainly regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH). Although the role of FOXO in regulating the immune response of crustaceans is well documented, its involvement in controlling crustacean molting remains unclear. In this study, a FOXO-like gene (designed as EsFOXO-like) was identified in Eriocheir sinensis, and the regulation of the 20E pathway by EsFOXO-like was also investigated. The coding sequence of EsFOXO-like was 852 bp, which consisted of 283 amino acids including a conserved Forkhead (FH) domain. EsFOXO-like shared high similarity with FOXO genes from other crustaceans, and the mRNA expression levels of the EsFOXO-like gene were highest in the hepatopancreas and lowest in the hemocytes. However, transcription and protein expression of the EsFOXO-like gene were found to be up-regulated only during the pre-molt stage in the hepatopancreas, with lower expression levels observed at the post-molt stage. To explore the role of EsFOXO-like in the 20E pathway, EsFOXO-like was firstly inhibited by a specific FOXO inhibitor (AS1842856) and then through an EsFOXO-like dsRNA injection, respectively, and the results showed that the relative expression levels of EsFOXO-like were notably decreased in the hepatopancreas after both the inhibitor and dsRNA treatments. The 20E concentration, the mRNA expression levels of the 20E receptors including the ecdysone receptor (EcR) and the retinoid-X receptor (RXR) and EsmTOR transcription in the AS1842856 group or the EsFOXO-RNAi group were all significantly higher than that in the control group, while the mRNA expression level of EsMIH was significantly decreased after EsFOXO-like inhibition. To further investigate whether the EsFOXO-like acts through mTOR or not, Rapamycin was administered to inhibit mTOR activity in EsFOXO-like inhibited crabs. The results revealed a significant reduction in the concentration of 20E and the expression level of EsMIH in the AS1842856 + Rapamycin group compared to the AS1842856 + DMSO group, accompanied by an increase in EsEcR and EsRXR expression. These findings collectively suggest that EsFOXO-like regulates the 20E pathway through mTOR, which offered valuable insights into the understanding of the molting process in crustaceans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Artificial Reefs Reduce Morbidity and Mortality of Small Cultured Sea Cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus at High Temperature
by Huiyan Wang, Guo Wu, Fangyuan Hu, Ruihuan Tian, Jun Ding, Yaqing Chang, Yanming Su and Chong Zhao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(5), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11050948 - 28 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Summer mortality and morbidity are serious environment-related problems in cultured sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus). Air exposure probably worsens the impact of high temperature on cultured sea cucumbers. In this present study, two laboratory experiments were designed to investigate the effects of [...] Read more.
Summer mortality and morbidity are serious environment-related problems in cultured sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus). Air exposure probably worsens the impact of high temperature on cultured sea cucumbers. In this present study, two laboratory experiments were designed to investigate the effects of artificial reefs on mortality, morbidity, crawling, feeding, and adhesion behaviors of small sea cucumbers (~1 g of wet body weight) after air exposure and disease outbreaks at 25 °C, respectively. Significantly lower mortality and morbidity occurred in the group with artificial reefs compared with those in the group without artificial reefs in the two experiments. This present study found that the stressed sea cucumbers cultured inside artificial reefs showed a significantly higher adhesion index, feeding behavior, and crawling frequency than those cultured without artificial reefs. In disease challenge assays, small sea cucumbers cultured inside the artificial reefs showed a significantly higher adhesion index and crawling frequency than those cultured without artificial reefs at 25 °C. Feeding, crawling, and adhesion behaviors of sea cucumbers cultured outside artificial reefs were not significantly different from those cultured without artificial reefs. The experimental results indicate that sea cucumbers with good fitness-related behaviors may be less affected by the disease and more likely to move into the crevices of artificial reefs. Fitness-related behaviors were poor in sea cucumbers cultured outside artificial reefs, so we considered them as affected individuals. Thus, artificial reefs provide a place to reduce the physical contact between unaffected and diseased/affected individuals, showing a potential to reduce disease transmission. Our present study establishes a cost-effective approach to increasing the survival of small sea cucumbers in seed production at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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14 pages, 10943 KiB  
Article
Effects of Water Velocity on Growth, Physiology and Intestinal Structure of Coral Trout (Plectropomus leopardus)
by Zhenjia Qian, Jincheng Xu, Andong Liu, Jianjun Shan, Chenglin Zhang and Huang Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 862; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040862 - 19 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1315
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different water velocities on the growth performance, blood physiology, and digestive capacity of coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) in a Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). One hundred and twenty healthy, uniformly sized coral trout (body [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of different water velocities on the growth performance, blood physiology, and digestive capacity of coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) in a Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). One hundred and twenty healthy, uniformly sized coral trout (body mass (92.01 ± 8.04) g; body length (15.40 ± 0.65) cm) were randomly assigned to three flow velocity groups (1 bl/s, 2 bl/s, and 2.5 bl/s) and one control group (0 bl/s). The results show that the weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of coral trout in the 2.5 bl/s water flow velocity group were significantly lower than those in the control group and 1 bl/s water flow velocity group (p < 0.05), while their feed coefficient (FC) values were significantly higher than those of the control group and 1 bl/s water flow velocity group (p < 0.05). The blood glucose (GLU) concentration of coral trout in the 2 bl/s water flow velocity group and the 2.5 bl/s water flow velocity group significantly decreased compared to those in the control group (p < 0.05), while the lactic acid (LD) concentration increased. As the cortisol (COR) concentration and lipase (LPS) enzyme activity of coral trout did not significantly change (p > 0.05), the α- AMS enzyme activity significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Under 2.5 bl/s water flow velocity, the intestinal structure of coral trout changed, and the number of goblet cells decreased. High-water flow velocities affect the physiological homeostasis and intestinal digestion of coral trout, resulting in a decrease in their growth performance, indicating that coral trout is more sensitive to high-water flow velocities. In actual RAS aquaculture, the flow rate should be controlled within 1 bl/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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21 pages, 4173 KiB  
Article
The Impacts of Dietary Curcumin on Innate Immune Responses and Antioxidant Status in Greater Amberjack (Seriola dumerili) under Ammonia Stress
by Chuanpeng Zhou, Zhong Huang, Shengjie Zhou, Jing Hu, Rui Yang, Jun Wang, Yun Wang, Wei Yu, Heizhao Lin and Zhenhua Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020300 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary curcumin on non-specific immune responses and antioxidative ability in Seriola dumerili under ammonia stress and post-recovery. Three diets were prepared to contain 0, 75, and 150 mg/kg of curcumin. A total of 225 greater [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary curcumin on non-specific immune responses and antioxidative ability in Seriola dumerili under ammonia stress and post-recovery. Three diets were prepared to contain 0, 75, and 150 mg/kg of curcumin. A total of 225 greater amberjack (initial weight: 100.90 ± 0.03 g) were distributed into nine cylindrical tanks, constituting an experimental design with three treatments and three replicates. After 56 days of feeding, plasma, intestinal, and hepatic enzyme activities were evaluated. Then, an acute ammonia challenge experiment was conducted. Ten fish per tank were subjected to acute ammonia stress (total ammonia-N: 1000 mg/L) for eight minutes followed by six minutes of recovery. The results indicated that dietary curcumin significantly promoted intestinal and hepatic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) levels as well as hepatic antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of greater amberjack. In addition, curcumin addition improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, T-AOC, GSH, GSH-Px, and catalase (CAT), and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver, spleen, head kidney, and brain tissues after post-recovery. The indexes related to immunity and antioxidant enzymes in the liver, gill, and spleen rose again to some extent, but they showed the worst recovery ability in the head kidney and brain tissue samples. These results indicate that dietary curcumin supplementation could increase non-specific immune responses, antioxidant ability, and enhance resistance to high ammonia stress in juvenile S. dumerili. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 3735 KiB  
Article
Pathology, Enzyme Activity and Immune Responses after Cryptocaryon irritans Infection of Golden Pompano Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758)
by Hua-Yang Guo, Wen-Fu Li, Ke-Cheng Zhu, Bao-Suo Liu, Nan Zhang, Bo Liu, Jing-Wen Yang and Dian-Chang Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020262 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) has become an economically important fish in China in the past decade. However, Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasitic ciliate, causes considerable economic losses in the mariculture of T. ovatus. To characterize the pathogenesis of C. irritans [...] Read more.
Golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) has become an economically important fish in China in the past decade. However, Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasitic ciliate, causes considerable economic losses in the mariculture of T. ovatus. To characterize the pathogenesis of C. irritans in T. ovatus, the pathological properties, immune-related enzyme activity and expression of the NEMO gene was analysed. The results from the histological sections showed that there was considerable metamorphosis and hyperplasia in the parasitized sites (skin) with leukocyte aggregation and mucous cell increases after C. irritans infection. Moreover, the activities of four enzymes, that is, alkaline phosphatase (AKP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LZM), were significantly increased in different tissues after C. irritans infection. Furthermore, the ORF of T. ovatus NF-kappa-B essential modulator (ToNEMO) measures 1650 bp, encoding 548 amino acids. The ToNEMO transcripts were universally expressed in all examined tissues, with higher levels being observed in the immune-relevant and central nervous tissues. The mRNA levels of ToNEMO after C. irritans infection were significantly increased in the gill, skin, liver, spleen and head kidney. These results suggested that ToNEMO might be involved in immune responses and helped to elucidate the physiological response after the C. irritans infection of fish. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 3845 KiB  
Article
Impact of Salinity Changes on the Antioxidation of Juvenile Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares)
by Shengjie Zhou, Ninglu Zhang, Zhengyi Fu, Gang Yu, Zhenhua Ma and Lei Zhao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010132 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
To understand the impacts of salinity stress on the antioxidation of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares, 72 fishes (646.52 ± 66.32 g) were randomly divided into two treatments (32‰ and 29‰) and sampled at four time points (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, [...] Read more.
To understand the impacts of salinity stress on the antioxidation of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares, 72 fishes (646.52 ± 66.32 g) were randomly divided into two treatments (32‰ and 29‰) and sampled at four time points (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h). The salinity of the control group (32‰) was based on natural filtered seawater and the salinity of the stress group (29‰) was reduced by adding tap water with 24 h aeration to the natural filtered seawater. The superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) from liver, gill, and muscle tissues were used as the antioxidant indexes in this study. The results showed that the changes of SOD and GSH-Px in the gills were first not significantly different from the control group (p > 0.05) and finally significantly higher than the control group (SOD: 50.57%, GSH-Px: 195.95%, p < 0.05). SOD activity in fish liver was not significantly changed from 0 h to 48 h (p > 0.05), and was not significantly different between the stress group and control group (p > 0.05). With the increase in stress time, GSH-Px and MDA activities in the liver of juvenile yellowfin tuna increased first (GSH-Px: 113.42%, MDA: 137.45%) and then reduced (GSH-Px: −62.37%, MDA: −16.90%) to levels similar to the control group. The SOD activity in the white and red muscle of juvenile yellowfin tuna first decreased (white muscle: −27.51%, red muscle: −15.52%) and then increased (white muscle: 7.30%, red muscle: 3.70%) to the level of the control group. The activities of GSH-Px and MDA in white and red muscle increased first (white muscle GSH-Px: 81.96%, red muscle GSH-Px: 233.08%, white muscle MDA: 26.89%, red muscle MDA: 64.68%) and then decreased (white muscle GSH-Px: −48.03%, red muscle GSH-Px: −28.94%, white muscle MDA: −15.93%, red muscle MDA: −28.67%) to the level observed in the control group. The results from the present study indicate that low salinity may lead to changes in the antioxidant function of yellowfin tuna juveniles. In contrast, yellowfin tuna juveniles have strong adaptability to the salinity of 29‰. However, excessive stress may consume the body’s reserves and reduce the body’s resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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14 pages, 2951 KiB  
Article
Aquaculture in an Offshore Ship: An On-Site Test of Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea)
by Youbin Yu, Wenyun Huang, Fei Yin, Huang Liu and Mingchao Cui
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010101 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1918
Abstract
Ship aquaculture platforms are expected to become a meaningful way to expand offshore farming. The growth performance and nutritional composition of the large yellow croaker reared in an offshore ship aquaculture system and nearshore traditional cage system was evaluated in this study. The [...] Read more.
Ship aquaculture platforms are expected to become a meaningful way to expand offshore farming. The growth performance and nutritional composition of the large yellow croaker reared in an offshore ship aquaculture system and nearshore traditional cage system was evaluated in this study. The results showed that the aquaculture ship could effectively avoid the harsh environment such as typhoons and red tides. The test large yellow croaker adapted to the ship culture system in a short time. No serious stress events occurred during the whole rearing process. During the culture experimental period, the fish fed normally, and disease was controlled. The aquaculture ship has good environment conditions during breeding with a water temperature of 21.5–28.5 °C, salinity 20.7–31.8‰, pH 7.6–8.4, dissolved oxygen 7.2–12.8 mg/L, ammonia nitrogen < 0.08 mg/L, and the number of bacteria and vibrio in water were 1.2 ∗ 103–1.6 ∗ 103 CFU/mL and 1.2 ∗ 102–1.8 ∗ 102 CFU/mL, respectively. The survival, weight gain rate, and monthly weight gain of the large yellow croaker in the ship were 99.02%, 41.48%, and 67.52 g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of cage culture. The crude protein content of the large yellow croaker raised in the ship was significantly higher than that in the cage group, and the crude fat content was significantly lower than that in the cage group. These results indicated that the growth performance and nutritional composition of the large yellow croaker reared in offshore ship were better than those of the fish in the cage. These findings enhanced our understanding of an offshore ship aquaculture model of large yellow croaker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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15 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
Daily Rhythmicity of Hepatic Rhythm, Lipid Metabolism and Immune Gene Expression of Mackerel Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) under Different Weather
by Wenwen Wang, Jing Hu, Zhengyi Fu, Gang Yu and Zhenhua Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10122028 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
In order to investigate the rhythmic changes in gene expression in the liver of mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) under sunny and cloudy conditions, this experiment had four sampling times (6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00) set on sunny and cloudy days to [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the rhythmic changes in gene expression in the liver of mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) under sunny and cloudy conditions, this experiment had four sampling times (6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00) set on sunny and cloudy days to determine the expression of their immune, metabolic and rhythmic genes. The results showed that daily rhythmicity was present within most of the rhythm genes (CREB1, CLOCK, PER1, PER2, PER3, REVERBA, CRY2 and BMAL1), metabolic genes (SIRT1 and SREBP1) and immune genes (NF-kB1, MHC-I, ALT, IFNA3, ISY1, ARHGEF13, GCLM and GCLC) in this study under the sunny and cloudy condition (p < 0.05). The expression levels of CREB1, PER1, PER3, RORA, REVERBA, CRY1 and BMAL1 within rhythm genes were significantly different (p < 0.05) in the same time point comparison between sunny and cloudy conditions at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00; metabolic genes had the expression levels of LPL at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 in the same time point comparison (p < 0.05); immune genes only had significant differences in the expression levels of IFNA3 at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00 and 24:00 (p < 0.05). This study has shown that rhythm, lipid metabolism and immune genes in the livers of mackerel tuna are affected by time and weather and show significant changes in expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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9 pages, 942 KiB  
Article
Establishment and Application of Microsatellite Multiplex PCR System for Cheilinus undulatus
by Fangcao Zhao, Liang Guo, Nan Zhang, Kecheng Zhu, Jingwen Yang, Baosuo Liu, Huayang Guo and Dianchang Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 2000; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10122000 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1346
Abstract
Cheilinus undulatus is a valuable seawater economic fish with tender meat, fresh taste, and high nutritional value; however, its population is rapidly declining because of massive fishing and habitat destruction. Assessing changes in genetic diversity and inbreeding levels is a very valuable monitoring [...] Read more.
Cheilinus undulatus is a valuable seawater economic fish with tender meat, fresh taste, and high nutritional value; however, its population is rapidly declining because of massive fishing and habitat destruction. Assessing changes in genetic diversity and inbreeding levels is a very valuable monitoring tool, and multiplex PCR has the advantages of being time-efficient and economical. Here, we selected 12 pairs of polymorphic microsatellite loci, developed two multiplex PCR amplification systems based on these microsatellites, and used them to examine 30 C. undulatus specimens. The number of alleles (Na) for the 12 microsatellite markers ranged from 2 to 8. The effective allele number (Ne) ranged from 1.724 to 4.592. The expected heterozygosity (He) and observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.420 to 0.782 and 0.100 to 0.900, respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.422 to 0.746, with a mean value of 0.557. 5 loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, p < 0.05 after Bonferroni correction). The multiplex PCR amplification system established in this study provides a basis for germplasm identification, genetic diversity analysis, and assessment of the effects of accretion and release of C. undulatus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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10 pages, 637 KiB  
Article
DNA Barcoding Is a Useful Tool for the Identification of the Family Scaridae in Hainan
by Bo Liu, Yali Yan, Nan Zhang, Huayang Guo, Baosuo Liu, Jingwen Yang, Kecheng Zhu and Dianchang Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1915; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121915 - 06 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Species markers can be quickly and accurately assessed using DNA barcoding. We investigated samples from the parrotfish family Scaridae using DNA barcoding in Hainan. A total of 401 DNA barcodes were analyzed, including 51 new barcodes generated from fresh material, based on a [...] Read more.
Species markers can be quickly and accurately assessed using DNA barcoding. We investigated samples from the parrotfish family Scaridae using DNA barcoding in Hainan. A total of 401 DNA barcodes were analyzed, including 51 new barcodes generated from fresh material, based on a 533 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene. There were 350 CO I barcode clusters that matched 43 species from the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) and GenBank databases. The results showed the following average nucleotide compositions for the complete dataset: adenine (A, 22.7%), thymine (T, 29.5%), cytosine (C, 29.5%), and guanine (G, 18.2%). The mean genetic distance between confamilial species was nearly 53-fold greater than that between individuals within the species. In the neighbor-joining tree of CO I sequences, Chlorurus sordidus and C. spilurus clustered together, and all other individuals clustered by species. Our results indicated that DNA barcoding could be used as an effective molecular tool for monitoring, protecting, and managing fisheries, and for elucidating taxonomic problem areas that require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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12 pages, 4167 KiB  
Article
A Na+/H+-Exchanger Gene from Penaeus monodon: Molecular Characterization and Expression Analysis under Ammonia Nitrogen Stress
by Yundong Li, Shigui Jiang, Hongdi Fan, Qibin Yang, Song Jiang, Jianhua Huang, Lishi Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Xu Chen and Falin Zhou
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121897 - 05 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) assumes a significant part in different particle transport in creatures. A clone of Penaeus monodon NHE cDNA was examined in this study (PmNHE), and its impact on high-concentration ammonia nitrogen stress was researched. The 877-amino [...] Read more.
Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) assumes a significant part in different particle transport in creatures. A clone of Penaeus monodon NHE cDNA was examined in this study (PmNHE), and its impact on high-concentration ammonia nitrogen stress was researched. The 877-amino acid (aa) protein was encoded by a full-length PmNHE cDNA that was 2788 base pairs (bp) long and had a 2643-bp open reading frame (ORF). The findings show that PmNHE was expressed in all of the P. monodon organs that were tested, including the intestine, muscle, hemolymph, heart, hepatopancreas, stomach, epidermis, gill, testis, and ovary, and the intestine and muscle were found to have the highest levels of PmNHE expression. The expression of PmNHE in the gill tissue of P. monodon was significantly up-regulated under high levels of ammonia nitrogen stress. The expression of PmNHE in the intestine of P. monodon under high-concentration ammonia nitrogen stress was significant. When exposed to high concentrations of ammonia nitrogen stress, P. monodon exhibited shorter survival times than the two control groups. Hence, it is suggested in the present study that PmNHE may have a significant impact on the environment with high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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11 pages, 1775 KiB  
Article
A New Approach to Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture System of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius
by Fangyuan Hu, Huiyan Wang, Ruihuan Tian, Jujie Gao, Guo Wu, Donghong Yin and Chong Zhao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1875; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121875 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1716
Abstract
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius are two commercially important species and are widely cultured in China. Here, a laboratory experiment was conducted for 34 days to assess whether the survival, growth and behavior performances are better in [...] Read more.
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius are two commercially important species and are widely cultured in China. Here, a laboratory experiment was conducted for 34 days to assess whether the survival, growth and behavior performances are better in the new commercially valuable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system (group M, 90 S. intermedius and 37 A. japonicus/10,638 cm3 of stocking density) than those in the control group for sea urchins (group U, 90 S. intermedius/10,638 cm3 of stocking density) and the control group for sea cucumbers (group C, 37 A. japonicus/10,638 cm3 of stocking density). We found that feeding behavior, crawling behavior, body length and body weight of sea cucumbers were significantly greater in group M than those in group C. These results suggest that the new IMTA system improves fitness-related behaviors and consequently leads to a better growth in A. japonicus while maintaining a high biomass. We further found that group M showed significantly larger body size and Aristotle’s lantern reflex as well as significantly lower mortality and morbidity in sea urchins, compared to those in group U. This suggests that the new IMTA system greatly improves feeding behavior and body growth, and survival of cultured S. intermedius. This IMTA system is a promising candidate to promote the production efficiency of juvenile A. japonicus (as primary species) and S. intermedius (as subsidiary species) in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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16 pages, 3082 KiB  
Article
Effects of Acute High-Temperature Stress on Physical Responses of Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares)
by Hongyan Liu, Zhengyi Fu, Gang Yu, Zhenhua Ma and Humin Zong
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1857; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121857 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1549
Abstract
To understand the physiological reactions of juvenile yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) under acute high-temperature stress, this study measured the changes in biochemical indexes of serum, liver, gill, and muscle of yellowfin tuna under acute high-temperature stress (HT, 34 °C) and a [...] Read more.
To understand the physiological reactions of juvenile yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) under acute high-temperature stress, this study measured the changes in biochemical indexes of serum, liver, gill, and muscle of yellowfin tuna under acute high-temperature stress (HT, 34 °C) and a control group (28 °C) for 0 h and 6 h, 24 h and 48 h. The rising speed of water temperature in the HT group was 2 °C/h and the timing started when the temperature reached 34 °C. In the HT group, there was no significant difference between the four adjacent times in cortisol and lactic acid concentration. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase concentration were significantly different from the four adjacent times. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the liver and gills increased at 6 h and 24 h, and the gills and liver had antioxidant reactions in a short time. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the gills changed significantly at 6 h, while that in the liver did not change significantly. The gills were more sensitive to temperature stress than the liver and muscle. Acute high-temperature stress affected yellowfin tuna’s antioxidant enzymes and metabolic indexes, resulting negative trend in physiological indexes, indicating that yellowfin tuna juveniles are susceptible to elevated temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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20 pages, 4053 KiB  
Article
Dietary Curcumin Supplementation Enhanced Ammonia Nitrogen Stress Tolerance in Greater Amberjack (Seriola dumerili): Growth, Serum Biochemistry and Expression of Stress-Related Genes
by Jiawei Hong, Zhengyi Fu, Jing Hu, Shengjie Zhou, Gang Yu and Zhenhua Ma
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111796 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1390
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine whether curcumin has a positive effect in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), especially the ammonia nitrogen stress tolerance ability. The results showed that the stress recovery process of digestive enzymes amylase and trypsin, as well as [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine whether curcumin has a positive effect in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili), especially the ammonia nitrogen stress tolerance ability. The results showed that the stress recovery process of digestive enzymes amylase and trypsin, as well as absorptive enzymes Na+/K+-ATPase, γ-GT and CK, was accelerated. Lysozyme activity increased in the fish fortified with both curcumin diets. Aspartate aminotransferase activity restriction was activated at a low curcumin level. However, alanine aminotransferase activity restriction happened only at 0.02% dietary curcumin. Facilitation of lipid metabolism by curcumin was very clear, as triglyceride and total cholesterol content was basically maintained at the original level or even showed a slight decrease after recovery. HSP70 and HSP90 genes were not evidently stimulated to express in liver, kidney and spleen tissues. In addition, curcumin showed its inhibition capacity on IL1β and IFN-γ and a promoting effect on TGF-β1. The expression of NF-κB1 decreased in a higher degree in fish fed with 0.02% dietary curcumin, while 0.01% dietary curcumin accelerated the recovery pace of C3 and lgT after stress. This study showed that dietary curcumin supplementation can enhance ammonia nitrogen stress tolerance in greater amberjack, and its application prospect can be confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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13 pages, 1497 KiB  
Article
Effect of Different Colored LED Lighting on the Growth and Pigment Content of Isochrysis zhanjiangensis under Laboratory Conditions
by Bu Lv, Ziling Liu, Yu Chen, Shuaiqin Lan, Jing Mao, Zhifeng Gu, Aimin Wang, Feng Yu, Xing Zheng and Hebert Ely Vasquez
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111752 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3563
Abstract
Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and reproduction of algae. In this study, the effect of various LED colors on the productivity, chlorophyll (Chl-a, Chl-b, and total Chl), protein, and carbohydrate content of [...] Read more.
Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the growth and reproduction of algae. In this study, the effect of various LED colors on the productivity, chlorophyll (Chl-a, Chl-b, and total Chl), protein, and carbohydrate content of Isochrysis zhanjiangensis in indoor culture was investigated. Microalgae monocultures were cultivated under five different colors (red, green, blue, yellow, and white) for twenty-one days. The microalgae cultured under red light exhibited a higher specific growth rate (0.4431 ± 0.0055 µ day−1), and under white light a higher productivity (0.0728 ± 0.0013 g L−1 day−1). The poorest performance was observed under yellow and green lights. Interestingly, green light exhibited the highest levels of chlorophylls (Chl-a, 1.473 ± 0.037 mg L−1; Chl-b, 1.504 ± 0.001 mg L−1; total Chl, 2.827 ± 0.083 mg L−1). The highest protein content was observed under the white light (524.1935 ± 6.5846 mg L−1), whereas the carbohydrate content was remarkably high under the blue light (24.4697 ± 0.0206 mg L−1). This study is important in terms of the selection of light at the appropriate color (wavelength) to increase the content of organic compounds desired to be obtained indoors with the potential for commercially produced cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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14 pages, 4081 KiB  
Article
Molecular Technology for Isolation and Characterization of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4 from Penaeus monodon, and the Response to Bacterial Infection and Low-Salinity Challenge
by Yundong Li, Falin Zhou, Hongdi Fan, Song Jiang, Qibin Yang, Jianhua Huang, Lishi Yang, Xu Chen, Wenwen Zhang and Shigui Jiang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111642 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) is a component of the JNK signaling pathway and plays an important role in immunity and stress resistance. In this study, MKK4 cDNA was cloned, and its bacterial infection and low-salinity challenge responses were researched. The full-length [...] Read more.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) is a component of the JNK signaling pathway and plays an important role in immunity and stress resistance. In this study, MKK4 cDNA was cloned, and its bacterial infection and low-salinity challenge responses were researched. The full-length PmMKK4 cDNA was 1582 bp long, with an 858-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 285-amino acid (aa) protein. Results showed that PmMKK-4 was expressed in all examined tissues of P. monodon. The PmMKK4 expression level was found to be lowest in eyestalk ganglion and highest in muscle (approximately 41.25 times than in eyestalk ganglion). Following the infection of Staphylococcus aureus, PmMKK4 was up-regulated in both hepatopancreatic and gill tissues. However, after infection with Vibrio harveyi, PmMKK4 was down-regulated for a period of time in gill tissue, with fluctuating up- and down-regulation in hepatopancreas tissue. Furthermore, after infection with Vibrio anguillarum, gill tissue and hepatopancreas tissue showed a continuous downward trend. The PmMKK4 gene in the gill tissue and hepatopancreas tissue of P. monodon was activated after low-salinity stress. The expression change of PmMKK4 in gill tissue was more significant. The research showed that the PmMKK4 gene plays an important role in both innate immunities after pathogen infection and adaptation in a low-salt environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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10 pages, 2360 KiB  
Article
Genetic Diversity Analysis of Different Populations of Lutjanus kasmira Based on SNP Markers
by Fangcao Zhao, Liang Guo, Nan Zhang, Jingwen Yang, Kecheng Zhu, Huayang Guo, Baosuo Liu, Bo Liu, Dianchang Zhang and Shigui Jiang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1547; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101547 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1433
Abstract
Lutjanus kasmira belongs to the family Lutjanidae. Over the past 20 years, the L. kasmira population in the South China Sea has been shrinking due to climate change, pressure from human activities, and inadequate food supplies. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) [...] Read more.
Lutjanus kasmira belongs to the family Lutjanidae. Over the past 20 years, the L. kasmira population in the South China Sea has been shrinking due to climate change, pressure from human activities, and inadequate food supplies. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data obtained from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) were used to assess the genetic diversity of L. kasmira in Zhubi Dao (ZB) and Meiji Dao (MJ). The genome-wide nucleotide diversity (π) of the ZB population and MJ population was 0.02478 and 0.02154, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient (Fis) of the ZB population and MJ population was −0.18729 and 0.03256, respectively. The genetic differentiation (Fst) between the ZB and MJ subpopulations was 0.00255102. The expected heterozygosity (He) of individuals from ZB and MJ was 0.33585 and 0.22098, respectively. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) of individuals from the ZB population and MJ population was 0.46834 and 0.23103, respectively. Although the ZB and MJ populations did not have significant genetic differences, the genetic differentiation between them was confirmed using population structure, phylogenetic, and principal component analyses. These results indicated that the genetic diversity of the ZB and MJ populations was relatively low at the genome level, and that their genetic differences were small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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28 pages, 10435 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study on an Integrated System Composed of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine and an Octagonal Fishing Cage
by Chenglin Zhang, Jincheng Xu, Jianjun Shan, Andong Liu, Mingchao Cui, Huang Liu, Chongwu Guan and Shuangyi Xie
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101526 - 18 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2357
Abstract
To maximize the utilization of ocean resources, shorten the return period of investment and directly supply energy to the fishing cage, this paper performs a preliminary study for a state-of-the-art concept integrating a floating offshore wind turbine with a fishing cage. An octagonal [...] Read more.
To maximize the utilization of ocean resources, shorten the return period of investment and directly supply energy to the fishing cage, this paper performs a preliminary study for a state-of-the-art concept integrating a floating offshore wind turbine with a fishing cage. An octagonal semisubmersible rigid fishing cage with a slack catenary mooring system is designed to match the NREL 5 MW offshore baseline wind turbine. Combined with the blade pitch controller, fully coupled aero-hydro-elastic-servo-mooring simulations are performed through FAST and AQWA to explore the dynamic performance of the integrated system. Free decay conditions, uniform wind with irregular and regular waves, and turbulent wind with irregular waves are tested. The results showed that the integrated system works normally at the operating conditions and exhibits different dynamic characteristics for various scenarios. Additionally, the study on the influence of mooring line length indicates that the increasing line length can significantly affect the cage surge motion and the maximum and mean values of the upwind line tension at fairlead. Specifically, the maximum surge motion with a 924-m-long line is 404.8% larger than that with an 880-m-long line. When the line length increases by 5%, the maximum and mean line tensions decrease by 45.7% and 47.7%, respectively, while when the line length increases by 10%, the maximum and mean line tension decrease by 52.9% and 54.2%, respectively. It should be noted that the main purpose of this work is to conduct a preliminary study on this integrated system, aiming to provide an idea for the conceptual design, modeling and simulation analysis of this integrated system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Techniques in Marine Aquaculture)
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