Advances in Physiology of Training

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2024) | Viewed by 14702

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

On behalf of JFMK, I am organizing a Special Issue on the physiological and psychophysiological advancements in exercise training. JFMK is a peer-reviewed, international, multidisciplinary, open access journal dedicated to all aspects and advancement of anatomy, histology, orthopedics and sports medicine, physical therapy, sports therapy, rehabilitation, and rheumatology. Exercise and sports performance are mediated by a myriad of factors. Arguably, the physiological foundations of training are essential for understanding sustaining performance and enhancing adaptations over time. While knowledge of training practices and physiology has grown in recent years, the physiological factors that lead to optimal performance and adaptation enhancement remain unclear. This Special Issue is seeking new studies to understand the cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, neurological, skeletal muscle, or metabolic factors that may underpin improvements in exercise training. The practical applications of these studies should be highlighted for the benefit of coaches, athletes, and performance analysts.

Dr. Christopher Ballmann
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise physiology
  • ergogenic aids
  • exercise training
  • resistance training
  • endurance performance

Published Papers (9 papers)

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10 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Net Heart Rate for Estimating Oxygen Consumption in Active Adults
by José A. Bragada, Pedro M. Magalhães, Eric São-Pedro, Raul F. Bartolomeu and Jorge E. Morais
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020066 - 7 Apr 2024
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of predicting oxygen consumption (O2) in predominantly aerobic activities based on net heart rate (netHR), sex, and body mass index (BMI) in active adults. NetHR is the value of the difference [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of predicting oxygen consumption (O2) in predominantly aerobic activities based on net heart rate (netHR), sex, and body mass index (BMI) in active adults. NetHR is the value of the difference between the resting HR (HRrest) and the average HR value obtained during a given session or period of physical activity. These activities must be continuous, submaximal, and of a stabilized intensity. The magnitude of the netHR depends mainly on the intensity of the exercise. The HR is measured in beats per minute (bpm). A total of 156 participants, 52 women and 104 men, between the ages of 18 and 81, had their netHR and net oxygen intake (netVO2) assessed. There were 79 participants in group 1 (prediction sample) (52 males and 27 females). There were 77 people in group 2 (validation sample) (52 males and 25 females). The results of the multiple linear regression showed that netVO2 (R2 = 85.2%, SEE = 3.38) could be significantly predicted by sex (p < 0.001), netHR (p < 0.001), and BMI (p < 0.001). The Bland–Altman plots satisfied the agreement requirements, and the comparison of the measured and estimated netVO2 revealed non-significant differences with a trivial effect size. We calculated the formula NetVO2 (mL/(kg·min)) = 16 + 3.67 (sex) + 0.27 (netHR) − 0.57 (BMI) to predict netVO2, where netVO2 is the amount of oxygen uptake (mL/(kg·min)) above the resting value, netHR is the heart rate (beats per minute) above the resting value measured during exercise, sex is equal to zero for women and one for men, and BMI is the body mass index. In addition, based on the knowledge of VO2, it was possible to estimate the energy expenditure from a particular training session, and to determine or prescribe the exercise intensity in MET (metabolic equivalent of task). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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16 pages, 2873 KiB  
Article
Influence of an Exercise-Specific Face Mask on Physiological and Perceptual Responses to Graded Exercise
by Aidan K. Comeau, Kelvin E. Jones, Eric C. Parent and Michael D. Kennedy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9010048 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1864
Abstract
The impact of exercise-specific face masks (ESFMs) in aerobically fit individuals on physiological, perceptual, respiratory, and performance responses remains unclear. How ESFMs mitigate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is also unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine how an ESFM altered within-exercise physiological, perceptual, respiratory, [...] Read more.
The impact of exercise-specific face masks (ESFMs) in aerobically fit individuals on physiological, perceptual, respiratory, and performance responses remains unclear. How ESFMs mitigate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is also unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine how an ESFM altered within-exercise physiological, perceptual, respiratory, and performance responses to graded treadmill exercise. Twenty-four individuals (11 females) completed a discontinuous graded exercise test on a treadmill under two conditions (ESFM and unmasked). Physiological, respiratory function, and perceptual measures were assessed. Performance was determined by time to exhaustion. Statistical analyses included linear mixed-effects modeling, repeated measures analysis of variance, and pairwise comparisons using an alpha value of 0.05. ESFM use significantly impaired performance (median = −150.5 s) and decreased arterial oxygen saturation at maximal intensity (mean = −3.7%). Perceptions of air hunger and work of breathing were elevated across submaximal and maximal intensities. Perceived exertion and breathing discomfort were significantly elevated submaximally but not maximally. Spirometry measures were not significantly different at termination but were significantly improved at submaximal intensities in participants with and without EIB. ESFM use in fit individuals increased perceptual discomfort, impaired performance, and augmented arterial desaturation. Respiratory function improvements were observed but were accompanied by adverse perceptual sensations. Despite this, performance impairments may limit the real-world utility of ESFMs for athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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12 pages, 1319 KiB  
Article
StepTest4all: Improving the Prediction of Cardiovascular Capacity Assessment in Young Adults
by Tatiana Sampaio, Jorge E. Morais and José A. Bragada
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9010030 - 8 Feb 2024
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Abstract
Cardiovascular capacity, expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a strong predictor of health and fitness and is considered a key measure of physiological function in the healthy adult population. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular capacity, expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a strong predictor of health and fitness and is considered a key measure of physiological function in the healthy adult population. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the physical activity levels (PAlevel) of participants in the StepTest4all (validated protocol for the estimation of VO2max in adults). The sample consisted of 69 participants, including 27 women (age 21.7 ± 3.6 years; body mass = 63.5 ± 14.8 kg; height = 1.64 ± 0.06 m; body mass index = 23.7 ± 5.3 kg/m2) and 42 men (aged 21.7 ± 3.4 years; body mass = 72.0 ± 7.3 kg; height = 1.77 ± 0.07 m; body mass index = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2). The participants were assigned to one of the two groups: (i) the VO2max prediction group and (ii) the prediction model validation group. In the multiple linear regression, the following predictors of VO2max remained significant: sex (p < 0.001), physical activity level (p = 0.014), and HRR60 (p = 0.020). The prediction equation (R2 = 74.0%, SEE = 4.78) showed a close and strong relationship between the measurements and can be expressed as follows: VO2max = 17.105 + 0.260·(HRR60) + 8.563·(sex) + 4.097·(PAlevel), in which HRR60 is the magnitude of the HR decrease (bpm) in one minute immediately after stopping the step, and sex: men = 1, women = 0, and PAlevel is level 1 (low), level 2 (moderate), and level 3 (high). The StepTest4all was shown to be a suitable method for estimating cardiovascular capacity, expressed as VO2max, in young adults. Retaining PAlevel as a significant predictor allows us to better individualize the participants’ VO2max. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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11 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Cross-Training and Resistance Exercise Routine on IL-15 in Adults with Type B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia during the Induction Phase: Randomized Pilot Study
by Adán Germán Gallardo Rodríguez, Irma Olarte Carrillo, Adolfo Martínez Tovar, Rafael Cerón Maldonado, Emmanuel Martínez Moreno and Christian Omar Ramos Peñafiel
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9010004 - 21 Dec 2023
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Abstract
IL-15 is a proinflammatory myokine essential for activating NK cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and its overexpression has been related to reducing overall survivorship in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Physical exercise has been shown to be safe, feasible, and beneficial in [...] Read more.
IL-15 is a proinflammatory myokine essential for activating NK cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and its overexpression has been related to reducing overall survivorship in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Physical exercise has been shown to be safe, feasible, and beneficial in hematological cancers. Exercise requires the activation of muscles that secrete cytokines, such as IL-15, causing immune mobilization. The objective was to compare the outcomes of two training routines on IL-15 and survival prognosis in adult patients diagnosed with ALL. A blind randomized clinical study was carried out where twenty-three peripheral blood samples were obtained pre and postexercise intervention from patients categorized into three types of intervention: the resistance exercise group (REG), the cross-training exercise group (CEG), and the control group (CG). Changes in IL-15 levels during the intervention were not significant in any of the groups (CG p = 0.237, REG p = 0.866, and CEG p = 0.678). However, 87.5% of patients who received an exercise intervention achieved remission, while only 21.73% experienced a relapse. There were no deaths during the study. Although IL-15 level adaptation in the REG and the CG performed similarly, the REG induced a better clinical outcome. Resistance exercises may help improve survival prognosis and reduce relapses in patients with ALL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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13 pages, 1207 KiB  
Article
Flywheel Romanian Deadlift: Intra- and Inter-Day Kinetic and Kinematic Reliability of Four Inertial Loads Using Cluster Sets
by Shane Ryan, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Declan Browne, Jeremy Moody and Paul J. Byrne
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9010001 - 19 Dec 2023
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Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-day reliability of flywheel cluster set training in concentric power (CON), eccentric power (ECC), and ECC overload during the Romanian deadlift exercise (RDL). A secondary aim was to assess the acute [...] Read more.
The primary aim of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-day reliability of flywheel cluster set training in concentric power (CON), eccentric power (ECC), and ECC overload during the Romanian deadlift exercise (RDL). A secondary aim was to assess the acute effect of internal and external attentional focus instructions on mean power when performing the flywheel RDL. Fourteen collegiate male field sport athletes (age, 23.3 ± 3.7 years; mass, 80.8 ± 9.9 kg; height, 1.79 ± 0.06 m) were randomized into internal (n = 7) or external (n = 7) attentional focus groups and attended four testing sessions, with a between-session separation of 7 days. Sessions consisted of four cluster sets of fifteen repetitions “excluding momentum repetitions” (4 × (5 + 5 + 5)) using a specific inertial load (0.025, 0.050, 0.075, and 0.100 kg·m−2) for a given set in a randomized ascending or descending order. Cluster sets were separated by a 45 s intra-set rest period. Both instructional focus groups attained familiarization, although the time taken to achieve familiarization (outcome stability) differed between groups. The external instructional group attained familiarization post-session 2 (Cohen’s d (ES), ES = 0.11–0.65) with little volatility between performance measures (CV% = 4.61–9.59). Additionally, the internal group reported inconsistencies among all inertial loads, reporting large differences in MP in the 0.100 kg·m−2 inertial load from day 2 to day 3 (ES = 1.22) and both 0.050 kg·m2 (p = 0.010) and 0.075 kg·m−2 (p = 0.016) between day 3 and day 4. The flywheel RDL cluster set approach is a reliable training modality for maintaining mean power output during cluster set repetitions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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19 pages, 3851 KiB  
Article
Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): Evidences from Laboratory and In-Field Studies
by Maristella Gussoni, Sarah Moretti, Alessandra Vezzoli, Valerio Genitoni, Guido Giardini, Costantino Balestra, Gerardo Bosco, Lorenza Pratali, Elisabetta Spagnolo, Michela Montorsi and Simona Mrakic-Sposta
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8040146 - 13 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Intense, long exercise can increase oxidative stress, leading to higher levels of inflammatory mediators and muscle damage. At the same time, fatigue has been suggested as one of the factors giving rise to delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Intense, long exercise can increase oxidative stress, leading to higher levels of inflammatory mediators and muscle damage. At the same time, fatigue has been suggested as one of the factors giving rise to delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a specific electrical stimulation (ES) treatment (without elicited muscular contraction) on two different scenarios: in the laboratory on eleven healthy volunteers (56.45 ± 4.87 years) after upper limbs eccentric exercise (Study 1) and in the field on fourteen ultra-endurance athletes (age 47.4 ± 10.2 year) after an ultra-running race (134 km, altitude difference of 10,970 m+) by lower exercising limbs (Study 2). Subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental tasks in cross-over: Active or Sham ES treatments. The ES efficacy was assessed by monitoring the oxy-inflammation status: Reactive Oxygen Species production, total antioxidant capacity, IL-6 cytokine levels, and lactate with micro-invasive measurements (capillary blood, urine) and scales for fatigue and recovery assessments. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in the time course of recovery and/or pre–post-race between Sham and Active groups in both study conditions. A subjective positive role of sham stimulation (VAS scores for muscle pain assessment) was reported. In conclusion, the effectiveness of ES in treating DOMS and its effects on muscle recovery remain still unclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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11 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in Ghanaian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Descriptive Study
by Mohammed Amin, Debra Kerr, Yacoba Atiase, Yusif Yakub and Andrea Driscoll
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030127 - 5 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1371
Abstract
Despite a relatively low prevalence rate, sub-Saharan Africa bears a substantial diabetes burden. Physical activity (PA) plays a crucial role in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, PA levels among this population remain suboptimal. This study aimed to explore patients’ perspectives on [...] Read more.
Despite a relatively low prevalence rate, sub-Saharan Africa bears a substantial diabetes burden. Physical activity (PA) plays a crucial role in managing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, PA levels among this population remain suboptimal. This study aimed to explore patients’ perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to PA participation among Ghanaian adults with T2DM. Thirteen adults with T2DM were recruited from Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana, for this qualitative descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and the data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes (personal factors and socio-structural factors) and 10 sub-themes relating to PA barriers and facilitators were identified. Participants had limited awareness of the recommended PA guidelines for T2DM management. Chronic illness-related factors hindered exercise participation. Difficulty differentiating between PA and exercise impeded the achievement of PA targets. Socio-structural barriers include concerns about social ridicule or embarrassment, safety during outdoor activities, a lack of culturally appropriate exercise facilities, and high social and work demands. Despite these barriers, participants were motivated by their understanding of the health benefits of PA. They emphasized integrating PA into daily routines through walking, work-related tasks, and household chores. Motivation and PA education from healthcare professionals are valued supports in achieving PA targets. Our findings showed that PA behaviour in Ghanaian adults with T2DM is influenced by both personal and external factors. Tailored PA interventions for this population should address identified barriers while leveraging facilitators to implement successful PA programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
11 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
A Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Adult Subjects: The Relationship between Phase Angle and Body Cell Mass
by Fabiano Cimmino, Lidia Petrella, Gina Cavaliere, Katia Ambrosio, Giovanna Trinchese, Vincenzo Monda, Margherita D’Angelo, Cristiana Di Giacomo, Alessandro Sacconi, Giovanni Messina, Maria Pina Mollica and Angela Catapano
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2023, 8(3), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk8030107 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
The correct assessment of body composition is essential for an accurate diagnostic evaluation of nutritional status. The body mass index (BMI) is the most widely adopted indicator for evaluating undernutrition, overweight, and obesity, but it is unsuitable for differentiating changes in body composition. [...] Read more.
The correct assessment of body composition is essential for an accurate diagnostic evaluation of nutritional status. The body mass index (BMI) is the most widely adopted indicator for evaluating undernutrition, overweight, and obesity, but it is unsuitable for differentiating changes in body composition. In recent times, bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) have been proven as a more accurate procedure for the assessment of body composition. Furthermore, the efficiency of bioelectrical impedance vector analyses, as an indicator of nutritional status and hydration, has been demonstrated. By applying a bioimpedance analysis, it is possible to detect fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), phase angle, and body cell mass (BCM). It is important to point out that phase angle and BCM are strongly associated with health status. The aim of this research was to examine body composition and the association between the phase angle and BCM in 87 subjects (14 males and 73 females), aged between 23 and 54 years, with BMIs ranging from 17.0 to 32.0 kg/m2, according to sex. The BMI results revealed that the majority of the assessed subjects were within the normal range and had a normal percentage of FM. Our data indicate that a direct relation exists between phase angle and cellular health and that these values increase almost linearly. Consequently, a high phase angle may be related to increased BCM values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Physiology of Training)
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11 pages, 1159 KiB  
Protocol
Mechanisms Leading to Increased Insulin-Stimulated Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Obesity and Insulin Resistance: A High-Fat Diet and Exercise Training Intervention PET Study with Rats (CROSRAT)
by Anna Jalo, Jatta S. Helin, Jaakko Hentilä, Tuuli A. Nissinen, Sanna M. Honkala, Marja A. Heiskanen, Eliisa Löyttyniemi, Tarja Malm and Jarna C. Hannukainen
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2024, 9(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk9020058 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the brain. Thus, insulin sensitivity seems to work differently in the brain compared to the peripheral tissues like skeletal muscles, but the underlying mechanisms remain [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) in the brain. Thus, insulin sensitivity seems to work differently in the brain compared to the peripheral tissues like skeletal muscles, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Regular exercise training improves skeletal muscle and whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, the effect of exercise on glucose metabolism in the brain and internal organs is less well understood. The CROSRAT study aims to investigate the effects of exercise training on brain glucose metabolism and inflammation in a high-fat diet-induced rat model of obesity and insulin resistance. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 144) are divided into nine study groups that undergo different dietary and/or exercise training interventions lasting 12 to 24 weeks. Insulin-stimulated GU from various tissues and brain inflammation are investigated using [18F]FDG-PET/CT and [11C]PK11195-PET/CT, respectively. In addition, peripheral tissue, brain, and fecal samples are collected to study the underlying mechanisms. The strength of this study design is that it allows examining the effects of both diet and exercise training on obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation. As the pathophysiological changes are studied simultaneously in many tissues and organs at several time points, the study provides insight into when and where these pathophysiological changes occur. Full article
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