Topical Collection "Neurorehabilitation: Progress and Challenges"

Editors

Dr. Akiyoshi Matsugi
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Faculty of Rehabilitation, Shijonawate Gakuen University, Osaka, Japan
Interests: neurophysiology; neuroplasticity; electromyography; brain stimulation; neuromodulation; TMS; nerve stimulation; H-reflex
Prof. Dr. Naoki Yoshida
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Okayama Healthcare Professional University, Okayama, Japan
Interests: rehabilitation engineering; motor control; motion analysis; occupational therapy
Dr. Hideki Nakano
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyoto Tachibana University, Kyoto, Japan
Interests: neurorehabilitation; neural plasticity; electroencephalography; neuromodulation; neurofeedback; motor learning; motor control; stroke; aging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Yohei Okada
E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Faculty of Health Science, Kio University, Nara, Japan
Interests: rehabilitation; physiotherapy; motor control, postural control; gait analysis; movement disorders; Parkinson's disease; neurophysiology

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Movement disorders caused by neurological diseases, such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, and degenerative spinocerebellar ataxia, can cause significant limitations in daily living. Neurorehabilitation is provided to reduce the burden associated with movement disorders, lessen the limitations in daily living activities, and enhance participation in the social sphere. To achieve progress in neurorehabilitation approaches, it is necessary to investigate the mechanisms of movement disorders, pathological hypotheses, and new intervention studies. For this Topical Collection, we welcome research on a wide range of topics, including basic research that contributes to the elucidation of movement disorders, measurement technology to evaluate these disorders, new interventional research using neuromodulation techniques, and clinical research combining regenerative medicine and physiotherapy. We also welcome narrative analyses of single cases, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses regarding neurorehabilitation.

Dr. Akiyoshi Matsugi
Prof. Dr. Naoki Yoshida
Dr. Hideki Nakano
Dr. Yohei Okada
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

• neurorehabilitation
• physiotherapy
• occupational therapy
• movement disorders
• stroke
• ataxia
• gait
• postural control
• neuromodulation
• assistive technology

Published Papers (10 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Review
Neurorehabilitation in Multiple Sclerosis—A Review of Present Approaches and Future Considerations
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(23), 7003; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11237003 - 27 Nov 2022
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis is an increasingly prevalent disease, representing the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disease in Europe and North America. The most common symptoms include gait deficits, balance and coordination impairments, fatigue, spasticity, dysphagia and an overactive bladder. Neurorehabilitation therapeutic approaches aim to [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis is an increasingly prevalent disease, representing the leading cause of non-traumatic neurological disease in Europe and North America. The most common symptoms include gait deficits, balance and coordination impairments, fatigue, spasticity, dysphagia and an overactive bladder. Neurorehabilitation therapeutic approaches aim to alleviate symptoms and improve the quality of life through promoting positive immunological transformations and neuroplasticity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current treatments for the most debilitating symptoms in multiple sclerosis, identify areas for future improvement, and provide a reference guide for practitioners in the field. It analyzes the most cited procedures currently in use for the management of a number of symptoms affecting the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis, from different training routines to cognitive rehabilitation and therapies using physical agents, such as electrostimulation, hydrotherapy, cryotherapy and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, it investigates the quality of evidence for the aforementioned therapies and the different tests applied in practice to assess their utility. Lastly, the study looks at potential future candidates for the treatment and evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis and the supposed benefits they could bring in clinical settings. Full article
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Article
Hand Ownership Is Altered in Teenagers with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(16), 4869; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164869 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
We explored hand ownership in teenagers with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) compared with typically developing teenagers. Eighteen participants with UCP and 16 control teenagers participated. We used the rubber hand illusion to test hand ownership (HO). Both affected/non-affected hands (UCP) and dominant/non-dominant hands [...] Read more.
We explored hand ownership in teenagers with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) compared with typically developing teenagers. Eighteen participants with UCP and 16 control teenagers participated. We used the rubber hand illusion to test hand ownership (HO). Both affected/non-affected hands (UCP) and dominant/non-dominant hands (controls) were tested during synchronous and asynchronous strokes. HO was assessed by measuring the proprioceptive drift toward the fake hand (as a percentage of arm length) and conducting a questionnaire on subjective HO. Both groups had significantly higher proprioceptive drift in the synchronous stroking condition for both hands. Teenagers with UCP showed a significantly higher proprioceptive drift when comparing their paretic hand (median 3.4% arm length) with the non-dominant hand of the controls (median 1.7% arm length). The questionnaires showed that synchronous versus asynchronous stroking generated a robust change in subjective HO in the control teenagers, but not in the teenagers with UCP. Teenagers with UCP have an altered sense of HO and a distorted subjective experience of HO that may arise from the early dysfunction of complex sensory–motor integration related to their brain lesions. HO may influence motor impairment and prove to be a target for early intervention. Full article
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Review
An sEMG-Controlled Forearm Bracelet for Assessing and Training Manual Dexterity in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(11), 3119; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11113119 - 31 May 2022
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is essential to preserving functional independence and quality of life. In recent years, rehabilitation strategies based on new technologies, such as MYO Armband®, have been implemented to improve dexterity in people [...] Read more.
Background: The ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is essential to preserving functional independence and quality of life. In recent years, rehabilitation strategies based on new technologies, such as MYO Armband®, have been implemented to improve dexterity in people with upper limb impairment. Over the last few years, many studies have been published focusing on the accuracy of the MYO Armband® to capture electromyographic and inertial data, as well as the clinical effects of using it as a rehabilitation tool in people with loss of upper limb function. Nevertheless, to our knowledge, there has been no systematic review of this subject. Methods: A systematically comprehensive literature search was conducted in order to identify original studies that answered the PICO question (patient/population, intervention, comparison, and outcome): What is the accuracy level and the clinical effects of the MYO Armband® in people with motor impairment of the upper limb compared with other assessment techniques or interventions or no intervention whatsoever? The following data sources were used: Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, and the Cochrane Library. After identifying the eligible articles, a cross-search of their references was also completed for additional studies. The following data were extracted from the papers: study design, disease or condition, intervention, sample, dosage, outcome measures or data collection procedure and data analysis and results. The authors independently collected these data following the CONSORT 2010 statement when possible, and eventually reached a consensus on the extracted data, resolving disagreements through discussion. To assess the methodological quality of papers included, the tool for the critical appraisal of epidemiological cross-sectional studies was used, since only case series studies were identified after the search. Additionally, the articles were classified according to the levels of evidence and grades of recommendation for diagnosis studies established by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. Also, The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used by two independent reviewers to assess risk of bias, assessing the six different domains. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was followed to carry out this review. Results: 10 articles with a total 180 participants were included in the review. The characteristics of included studies, sample and intervention characteristics, outcome measures, the accuracy of the system and effects of the interventions and the assessment of methodological quality of the studies and risk of bias are shown. Conclusions: Therapy with the MYO Armband® has shown clinical changes in range of motion, dexterity, performance, functionality and satisfaction. It has also proven to be an accurate system to capture signals from the forearm muscles in people with motor impairment of the upper limb. However, further research should be conducted using bigger samples, well-defined protocols, comparing with control groups or comparing with other assessment or therapeutic tools, since the studies published so far present a high risk of bias and low level of evidence and grade of recommendation. Full article
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Article
Upper Body Physical Rehabilitation for Children with Ataxia through IMU-Based Exergame
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 1065; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11041065 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Background: Children with ataxia experience balance and movement coordination difficulties and needs intensive physical intervention to maintain functional abilities and counteract the disorder. Exergaming represents a valuable strategy to provide engaging physical intervention to children with ataxia, sustaining their motivation to perform the [...] Read more.
Background: Children with ataxia experience balance and movement coordination difficulties and needs intensive physical intervention to maintain functional abilities and counteract the disorder. Exergaming represents a valuable strategy to provide engaging physical intervention to children with ataxia, sustaining their motivation to perform the intervention. This paper aims to describe the effect of a home-conducted exergame-based exercise training for upper body movements control of children with ataxia on their ataxic symptoms, walking ability, and hand dexterity. Methods: Eighteen children with ataxia were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to follow a 12-week motor activity program at home using the Niurion® exergame. Blind assessments of participants’ ataxic symptoms, dominant and non-dominant hand dexterity, and walking ability were conducted. Results: On average, the participants performed the intervention for 61.5% of the expected time. At the end of the training, participants in the intervention group showed improved hand dexterity that worsened in the control group. Conclusion: The presented exergame enhanced the participants’ hand dexterity. However, there is a need for exergames capable of maintaining a high level of players’ motivation in playing. It is advisable to plan a mixed intervention to take care of the multiple aspects of the disorder. Full article
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Article
Estimation of Gross Motor Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy Using Zebris FDM-T Treadmill
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(4), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11040954 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
A standardized observational instrument designed to measure change in gross motor function over time in children with cerebral palsy is the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The process of evaluating a value for the GMFM index can be time consuming. It typically takes [...] Read more.
A standardized observational instrument designed to measure change in gross motor function over time in children with cerebral palsy is the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). The process of evaluating a value for the GMFM index can be time consuming. It typically takes 45 to 60 min for the patient to complete all tasks, sometimes in two or more sessions. The diagnostic procedure requires trained and specialized therapists. The paper presents the estimation of the GMFM measure for patients with cerebral palsy based on the results of the Zebris FDM-T treadmill. For this purpose, the regression analysis was used. Estimations based on the Generalized Linear Regression were assessed using different error metrics. The results obtained showed that the GMFM score can be estimated with acceptable accuracy. Because the Zebris FDM-T is a widely used device in gait rehabilitation, our method has the potential to be widely adopted for objective diagnostics of children with cerebral palsy. Full article
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Review
Therapeutic Effects of the Pilates Method in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030683 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1815
Abstract
The Pilates Method is a rehabilitation tool with verified benefits in pain management, physical function, and quality of life in many different physiotherapy areas. It could be beneficial for patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The aim of the study was to summarize current [...] Read more.
The Pilates Method is a rehabilitation tool with verified benefits in pain management, physical function, and quality of life in many different physiotherapy areas. It could be beneficial for patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The aim of the study was to summarize current evidence for the effectiveness of Pilates in pwMS. A comprehensive search of Cinahl, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDro, and PubMed (including PubMed Central and Medline) was conducted to examine randomized controlled trials (RCT) that included Pilates intervention in multiple sclerosis. The PEDro scale and the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, RoB-2, were used to evaluate risk of bias for RCT. Twenty RCT (999 patients) were included. Ten were of good quality (PEDro), and seven had low risk of bias (RoB-2). Pilates improves balance, gait, physical-functional conditions (muscular strength, core stability, aerobic capacity, and body composition), and cognitive functions. Fatigue, quality of life, and psychological function did not show clear improvement. There was good adherence to Pilates intervention (average adherence ≥ 80%). Cumulative data suggest that Pilates can be a rehabilitation tool for pwMS. High adherence and few adverse effects were reported. Future research is needed to develop clinical protocols that could maximize therapeutic effects of Pilates for pwMS. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
Effectiveness of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy and Visual Feedback Balance Training on Lower Limb Post-Stroke Spasticity, Trunk Performance, and Balance: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(1), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11010147 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Stroke remains one of the leading causes of disability in adults, and lower limb spasticity, affected stance, and balance impact everyday life and activities of such patients. Robotic therapy and assessment are becoming important tools to clinical evaluation for post-stroke rehabilitation. The aim [...] Read more.
Stroke remains one of the leading causes of disability in adults, and lower limb spasticity, affected stance, and balance impact everyday life and activities of such patients. Robotic therapy and assessment are becoming important tools to clinical evaluation for post-stroke rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine in a more objective manner the effects of visual feedback balance training through a balance trainer system and radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT), along with conventional physiotherapy, on lower limb post-stroke spasticity, trunk control, and static and dynamic balance through clinical and stabilometric assessment. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The experimental group underwent conventional physiotherapy, visual feedback balance training, and rESWT. The control group underwent conventional physiotherapy, visual feedback training and sham rESWT. The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Software and MATLAB. Primary clinical outcome measures were The Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), passive range of motion (PROM), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Clonus score. Secondary outcome measures were trunk performance, sensorimotor, and lower limb function. Stabilometric outcome measures were trunk control, static balance, and dynamic balance. Visual feedback training using the Prokin system and rESWT intervention, along with conventional physiotherapy, yielded statistically significant improvement both on clinical and stabilometric outcome measures, enhancing static and dynamic balance, trunk performance, sensorimotor outcome, and limb function and considerably diminishing lower limb spasticity, pain intensity, and clonus score in the experimental group. Full article
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Article
Effectiveness of a New 3D-Printed Dynamic Hand–Wrist Splint on Hand Motor Function and Spasticity in Chronic Stroke Patients
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(19), 4549; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194549 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Spasticity, a common stroke complication, can result in impairments and limitations in the performance of activities and participation. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a new dynamic splint on wrist and finger flexor muscle spasticity in chronic stroke survivors, using a [...] Read more.
Spasticity, a common stroke complication, can result in impairments and limitations in the performance of activities and participation. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a new dynamic splint on wrist and finger flexor muscle spasticity in chronic stroke survivors, using a randomized controlled trial. Thirty chronic stroke survivors were recruited and randomly allocated to either an experimental or control group; 25 completed the 6-week intervention program. The participants in the experimental group were asked to wear the dynamic splint at least 6 h/day at home, for the entire intervention. The participants in the control group did not wear any splint. All the participants were evaluated 1 week before, immediately, and after 3 and 6 weeks of splint use, with the modified Ashworth scale and the Fugl−Meyer assessment for upper extremity. User experience was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire after the 6-week intervention. The timed within-group assessments showed a significant reduction in spasticity and improvements in functional movements in the experimental group. We found differences, in favor of the experimental group, between the groups after the intervention. The splint users indicated a very good satisfaction rating for muscle tone reduction, comfort, and ease of use. Therefore, this new splint can be used for at-home rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients with hemiparesis. Full article
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Article
Sensory Nerve Conduction Velocity Predicts Improvement of Hand Function with Nerve Gliding Exercise Following Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4121; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184121 - 13 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5778
Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effects of nerve gliding exercise following carpal tunnel release surgery (NGE-CTRS) and the probing factors affecting the effect of NGE-CTRS on hand function. A total of 86 patients after CTRS participated. Grip strength (grip-s), pinch strength (pinch-s), [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate the effects of nerve gliding exercise following carpal tunnel release surgery (NGE-CTRS) and the probing factors affecting the effect of NGE-CTRS on hand function. A total of 86 patients after CTRS participated. Grip strength (grip-s), pinch strength (pinch-s), Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test (SWMT), two-point discrimination (2PD), numbness, pain, and Phalen test (Phalen) were measured and compared between pre- and post-NGE-CTRS. The results showed that the combination of surgery and NGE significantly improved the postoperative grip-s, pinch-s, SWMT, 2PD, numbness, and Phalen; however, no improvement was observed in pain. Background factors that influenced the improved grip-s and pinch-s included gender and preoperative sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Additionally, numbness and Phalen were not affected by age, gender, fault side, bilateral, trigger finger, dialysis, thenar eminence atrophy, motor nerve conduction velocity, SCV, the start of treatment, and occupational therapy intervention. In conclusion, the combination of surgical procedures and NGE showed a high improvement. SCV and time-to-start treatment of intervention for carpal tunnel syndrome may be useful in predicting the function after the intervention. Full article
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Article
Effect of Posterior Pelvic Tilt Taping on Pelvic Inclination, Muscle Strength, and Gait Ability in Stroke Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(11), 2381; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112381 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
Objective: Pelvic alignment asymmetry in stroke patients negatively affects postural control ability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of posterior pelvic tilt taping on pelvic inclination, muscle strength, and gait ability in stroke patients. Methods: Forty stroke patients were recruited and randomly [...] Read more.
Objective: Pelvic alignment asymmetry in stroke patients negatively affects postural control ability. This study aimed to investigate the effect of posterior pelvic tilt taping on pelvic inclination, muscle strength, and gait ability in stroke patients. Methods: Forty stroke patients were recruited and randomly divided into the following two groups: the posterior pelvic tilt taping (PPTT) group (n = 20) and the control group (n = 20). All participants underwent sitting-to-standing, indoor walking, and stair walking training (30 min per day, 5 days per week, for 6 weeks). The PPTT group applied posterior pelvic tilt taping during the training period, while the control group did not receive a tape intervention. Pelvic inclination was measured using a palpation meter (PALM). A hand-held dynamometer and the 10-meter walk test were used to measure muscle strength and gait ability. Results: Significantly greater improvements in the pelvic anterior tilt were observed in the PPTT group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Muscle strength in the PPTT group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Significantly greater improvements in gait speed were observed in the PPTT group than the control group. Conclusions: According to our results, posterior pelvic tilt taping may be used to improve the anterior pelvic inclination, muscle strength, and gait ability in stroke patients. Full article
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