Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Nephrology & Urology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 9407

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Department of Internal Medicine and IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, University of Genova, Genova, Italy
Interests: glomerulonephritis; immunity and inflammatory processes in renal diseases; hemodialysis; kidney transplantation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Renal diseases encompass a wide spectrum of conditions, from primary and secondary glomerulonephritis and acute and chronic kidney disease to renal replacement therapies (including kidney transplantation).

The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms, including dysregulation of both innate and adaptative immune systems, hypoxia, oxidative stress, inflammatory processes, metabolic alterations, and changes in cellular and molecular pathways, are multifaceted and strictly inter-related.

Historically, immunity and inflammatory processes have been recognized to play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases and contribute significantly to the development of complications and disease progression.

However, increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies highlights that these processes are more complex than previously thought and may be implicated in emerging renal-disease-related complications, such as early senescence and vascular calcification.

The characterization of new pathogenetic mechanisms and advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of renal diseases might provide new therapeutic targets to improve the management of these high-clinical-impact conditions.

For this Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine, we invite the submission of original research papers and review articles on the involvement of immunity and inflammatory processes in specific areas of investigation, including:

- the pathogenesis of primary or secondary glomerular disease;

- therapeutic approaches to primary or secondary glomerular disease;

- risk of infection or cancer in renal patients;

- vascular calcification;

- diabetes kidney disease;

- acute or chronic kidney disease;

- renal anemia;

- muscle atrophy;

- complications of hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis; and

- complications of kidney transplantation,

You may choose our Joint Special Issue in Transplantology.

Prof. Dr. Pasquale Esposito
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • glomerulonephritis
  • acute kidney injury
  • chronic kidney disease
  • kidney transplantation
  • renal replacement therapy
  • cytokines
  • T cell subsets
  • inflammation
  • innate immunity
  • costimulation
  • inflammasome
  • senescense

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

10 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
Spectrum of Kidney Disorders Associated with T-Cell Immunoclones
by Alexis Piedrafita, François Vergez, Julie Belliere, Nais Prades, Magali Colombat, Antoine Huart, Jean-Baptiste Rieu, Stéphanie Lagarde, Arnaud Del Bello, Nassim Kamar, Dominique Chauveau, Camille Laurent, Lucie Oberic, Loïc Ysebaert, David Ribes and Stanislas Faguer
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(3), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11030604 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2384
Abstract
Large granular T-cell leukemia is a clonal hematological condition often associated with autoimmune disorders. Whether small-sized T-cell clones that are otherwise asymptomatic can promote immune kidney disorders remains elusive. In this monocentric retrospective cohort in a tertiary referral center in France, we reviewed [...] Read more.
Large granular T-cell leukemia is a clonal hematological condition often associated with autoimmune disorders. Whether small-sized T-cell clones that are otherwise asymptomatic can promote immune kidney disorders remains elusive. In this monocentric retrospective cohort in a tertiary referral center in France, we reviewed characteristics of 29 patients with T-cell clone proliferation and autoimmune kidney disorders. Next-generation sequencing of the T-cell receptor of circulating T-cells was performed in a subset of patients. The T-cell clones were detected owing to systematic screening (mean count 0.32 × 109/L, range 0.13–3.7). Strikingly, a common phenotype of acute interstitial nephropathy was observed in 22 patients (median estimated glomerular filtration rate at presentation of 22 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range 0–56)). Kidney biopsies showed polymorphic inflammatory cell infiltration (predominantly CD3+ T-cells, most of them demonstrating positive phospho-STAT3 staining) and non-necrotic granuloma in six cases. Immune-mediated glomerulopathy only or in combination with acute interstitial nephropathy was identified in eight patients. Next-generation sequencing (n = 13) identified a major T-cell clone representing more than 1% of the T-cell population in all but two patients. None had a mutation of STAT3. Twenty patients (69%) had two or more extra-kidney autoimmune diseases. Acute interstitial nephropathies were controlled with corticosteroids, cyclosporin A, or tofacitinib. Thus, we showed that small-sized T-cell clones (i.e., without lymphocytosis) undetectable without specific screening are associated with various immune kidney disorders, including a previously unrecognized phenotype characterized by severe inflammatory kidney fibrosis and lymphocytic JAK/STAT activation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)
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19 pages, 1617 KiB  
Article
Renal Outcome of IgM Nephropathy: A Comparative Prospective Cohort Study
by Yura Chae, Hye Eun Yoon, Yoon Kyung Chang, Young Soo Kim, Hyung Wook Kim, Bum Soon Choi, Cheol Whee Park, Ho Cheol Song, Young Ok Kim, Eun Sil Koh and Sungjin Chung
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(18), 4191; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10184191 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2961
Abstract
Immunoglobulin M nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic glomerulonephritis characterized by diffuse deposits of IgM in the glomerular mesangium. However, its renal prognosis remains unknown. We compared renal outcomes of IgMN patients with those of patients with minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis [...] Read more.
Immunoglobulin M nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic glomerulonephritis characterized by diffuse deposits of IgM in the glomerular mesangium. However, its renal prognosis remains unknown. We compared renal outcomes of IgMN patients with those of patients with minimal change disease (MCD), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), or mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) from a prospective observational cohort, with 1791 patients undergoing native kidney biopsy in eight hospitals affiliated with The Catholic University of Korea between December 2014 and October 2020. IgMN had more mesangial proliferation and matrix expansion than MsPGN and more tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis than MCD. IgMN patients had decreased eGFR than MCD patients in the earlier follow-up. However, there was no significant difference in urine protein or eGFR among all patients at the last follow-up. When IgMN was divided into three subtypes, patients with FSGS-like IgMN tended to have lower eGFR than those with MCD-like or MsPGN-like IgMN but higher proteinuria than MsPGN-like IgMN without showing a significant difference. The presence of hypertension at the time of kidney biopsy predicted ≥20% decline of eGFR over two years in IgMN patients. Our data indicate that IgMN would have a clinical course and renal prognosis similar to MCD, FSGS, and MsPGN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)
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10 pages, 394 KiB  
Article
Effects of Different Dialysis Strategies on Inflammatory Cytokine Profile in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized Trial
by Pasquale Esposito, Leda Cipriani, Daniela Verzola, Maria Antonietta Grignano, Mara De Amici, Giorgia Testa, Fabrizio Grosjean, Elisa Russo, Giacomo Garibotto, Teresa Rampino and Francesca Viazzi
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1383; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071383 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3070
Abstract
Uncontrolled inflammation plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Here, we studied the time trend of inflammatory markers in a population of hemodialysis (HD) patients affected by COVID-19, undergoing two different dialysis approaches. In a prospective study, thirty-one maintenance [...] Read more.
Uncontrolled inflammation plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Here, we studied the time trend of inflammatory markers in a population of hemodialysis (HD) patients affected by COVID-19, undergoing two different dialysis approaches. In a prospective study, thirty-one maintenance HD patients with COVID-19 were randomized to expanded HD (HDx), performed using a medium cut-off membrane, or standard treatment using a protein-leaking dialyzer (PLD). Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-10 (IL-10), soluble TLR4 (sTLR4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), were collected at diagnosis, and one and two weeks after. Compared with 14 non-infected HD patients, COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and higher ferritin and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Moreover, COVID-19 patients had higher levels of IL-10 (15.2 (12.5) vs. 1.2 (1.4) pg/mL, p = 0.02). Twenty-nine patients were randomized to HDx (n = 15) or PLD (n = 14). After a single treatment, IL-8 showed a significant reduction in both groups, whereas IL-10 decreased only in HDx. All over the study, there were no significant modifications in circulating cytokine levels between the two groups, except for a parallel increase of IL-8 and IL-10 at one week control in the HDx group. No correlations were found between cytokine levels and clinical outcomes. In maintenance HD patients, COVID-19 is not related to a sustained inflammatory response. Therefore, modulation of inflammation seems not to be a suitable therapeutic target in this specific population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunity and Inflammatory Processes in Renal Diseases)
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