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Special Issue "Advances in Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Therapy"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Nuclear Medicine & Radiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 June 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Constantin Lapa

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: PET; PET/CT; theranostics; novel radionuclide therapies; oncology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nuclear medicine has experienced a number of unprecedented developments in recent years. Above all, the concept of "theranostics", the combination of a predictive biomarker with a therapeutic agent, has been a central part of this success. For example, a phase III randomized, controlled trial provided unequivocal evidence of the effectiveness of 177Lu-DOTATATE for treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, and there have been multiple reports of the benefits of prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted PET imaging and radio-ligand therapy in prostate cancer. Other new exciting theranostic applications include, among many others, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4, as well as cancer-associated fibroblasts. These can be specifically addressed by inhibitors of the fibroblast activation protein and represent a particularly promising target for nuclear medicine theranostics. This Special Issue aims to present the most recent advances in the field of nuclear medicine imaging and therapy, as well as their implications for future patient care.

Dr. Constantin Lapa
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Clinical Medicine is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • PET
  • Theranostics
  • PSMA
  • SSTR
  • CXCR4
  • FAP
  • Radio-ligand therapy
  • Nuclear medicine

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Selection Criteria for Determination of Optimal Reconstruction Method for Cu-64 Trastuzumab Dosimetry on Siemens Inveon PET Scanner
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040512
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 3 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 14 April 2019
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to suggest criteria for the determination of the optimal image reconstruction algorithm for image-based dosimetry of Cu-64 trastuzumab PET in a mouse model. Image qualities, such as recovery coefficient (RC), spill-over ratio (SOR), and non-uniformity (NU), were [...] Read more.
The goal of this study was to suggest criteria for the determination of the optimal image reconstruction algorithm for image-based dosimetry of Cu-64 trastuzumab PET in a mouse model. Image qualities, such as recovery coefficient (RC), spill-over ratio (SOR), and non-uniformity (NU), were measured according to National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU4-2008. Mice bearing a subcutaneous tumor ( 200   mm 3 , HER2 NCI N87) were injected with monoclonal antibodies (trastuzumab) with Cu-64. Preclinical mouse PET images were acquired at 4 time points after injection (2, 15, 40 and 64 h). Phantom and Cu-64 trastuzumab PET images were reconstructed using various reconstruction algorithms (filtered back projection (FBP), 3D reprojection algorithm (FBP-3DRP), 2D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM 2D), and OSEM 3D maximum a posteriori (OSEM3D-MAP)) and filters. The absorbed dose for the tumor and the effective dose for organs for Cu-64 trastuzumab PET were calculated using the OLINDA/EXM program with various reconstruction algorithms. Absorbed dose for the tumor ranged from 923 mGy/MBq to 1830 mGy/MBq with application of reconstruction algorithms and filters. When OSEM2D was used, the effective osteogenic dose increased from 0.0031 to 0.0245 with an increase in the iteration number (1 to 10). In the region of kidney, the effective dose increased from 0.1870 to 1.4100 when OSEM2D was used with iteration number 1 to 10. To determine the optimal reconstruction algorithms and filters, a correlation between RC and NU was plotted and selection criteria (0.9 < RC < 1.0 and < 10% of NU) were suggested. According to the selection criteria, OSEM2D (iteration 1) was chosen for the optimal reconstruction algorithm. OSEM2D (iteration 10) provided 154.7% overestimated effective dose and FBP with a Butterworth filter provided 20.9% underestimated effective dose. We suggested OSEM2D (iteration 1) for the calculation of the effective dose of Cu-64 trastuzumab on an Inveon PET scanner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle
Diffusely Increased 18F-FDG Uptake in the Thyroid Gland and Risk of Thyroid Dysfunction: A Cohort Study
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(4), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040443
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
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Abstract
The impact of incidentally identified diffuse thyroid FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan on the incidence of thyroid dysfunction remains unclear. We examined the association of diffuse thyroid FDG uptake with the development of thyroid dysfunction. This cohort study involved 39,098 Korean [...] Read more.
The impact of incidentally identified diffuse thyroid FDG uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT scan on the incidence of thyroid dysfunction remains unclear. We examined the association of diffuse thyroid FDG uptake with the development of thyroid dysfunction. This cohort study involved 39,098 Korean adults who were free of malignancy and thyroid disease at baseline and underwent regular health checkup examinations including an 18F-FDG whole body PET/CT scan, thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine. The participants were annually or biennially followed for up to 5 years. A parametric proportional hazard model was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Diffuse thyroid uptake was positively associated with increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in both the cross-sectional and cohort studies. During 104,261.4 person-years of follow-up, 102 incident hypothyroidism cases and 172 hyperthyroidism cases were identified. Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) for incident hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism comparing diffuse thyroid uptake to no uptake were 15.72 (9.23–26.77) and 7.38 (4.23–12.87), respectively. In this large cohort, incidentally, identified diffuse thyroid uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT was associated with increased risk of both prevalent and incident thyroid dysfunction. Therefore, baseline and follow-up evaluations in individuals with diffuse thyroid uptake may help identify individuals with thyroid dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Therapy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Specific Bacteria Imaging: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(2), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020197
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 4 February 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
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Abstract
Background: Bacterial infections are still one of the main factors associated with mortality worldwide. Many radiopharmaceuticals were developed for bacterial imaging, both with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) isotopes. This review focuses on PET radiopharmaceuticals, performing a [...] Read more.
Background: Bacterial infections are still one of the main factors associated with mortality worldwide. Many radiopharmaceuticals were developed for bacterial imaging, both with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) isotopes. This review focuses on PET radiopharmaceuticals, performing a systematic literature review of published studies between 2005 and 2018. Methods: A systematic review of published studies between 2005 and 2018 was performed. A team of reviewers independently screened for eligible studies. Because of differences between studies, we pooled the data where possible, otherwise, we described separately. Quality of evidence was assessed by Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) approach. Results: Eligible papers included 35 published studies. Because of the heterogeneity of animal models and bacterial strains, we classified studies in relation to the type of bacterium: Gram-positive, Gram-negative, Gram-positive and negative, others. Conclusions: Results highlighted the availability of many promising PET radiopharmaceuticals for bacterial imaging, despite some bias related to animal selection and index test, but few have been translated to human subjects. Results showed a lack of standardized infection models and experimental settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Medicine Imaging and Therapy)
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J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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