Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Diseases".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 5 August 2024 | Viewed by 22406

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Guest Editor
Office of Research, Innovation and Commercialization (ORIC), Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU), Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Interests: clinical research; infectious diseases; drug resistance; vaccine response
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Humans continuously face the threat of infectious diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has shaken up economies and healthcare systems worldwide. Many research groups are currently analyzing post-COVID-19 complications.

Nearly half of the world’s population lives in areas at risk of dengue infection. Dengue virus is continuously mutating, showing a different clinical picture during the 2022 outbreak in certain countries. Prolonged infection, early bleeding and hepatitis complications have been observed in the most recent dengue outbreak.

Highly effective treatment is available for hepatitis C virus, but the world is still struggling to develop an effective drug for hepatitis B virus. Recently developed HCV drugs have been thoroughly analyzed in adult populations, but there are a lack of studies on the effects of these drugs in children.

Drug resistance is a common problem. In some countries, there is excessive, unnecessary and self-use of antibiotics, further exacerbating the issue. Even newborn drug resistance is found at very high rates in certain countries.

Tuberculosis also presents a major problem in lower- and middle-income countries. Herpes simplex virus 2 affects over 536 million people worldwide. There is no FDA-approved vaccine available for HSV, and few vaccines have reached phase 3 trials, but failed to excel further.

There is a need to study the clinical picture, drug treatment response, vaccine response and resistance pattern of different bacterial and viral diseases. This Special Issue will cover original articles, review papers and commentaries on the clinical picture of different infectious diseases.

Prof. Dr. Yasir Waheed
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • infectious diseases
  • drug treatment response
  • clinical research
  • reviews
  • vaccine response
  • hepatitis
  • dengue
  • mpox
  • COVID-19

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 1364 KiB  
Article
Hospitalizations for Acute Otitis and Sinusitis in Patients Living with HIV: A Retrospective Analysis of a Tertiary Center in Romania
by Vlad Ștefan Pleșca, Victor Daniel Miron, Adrian Gabriel Marinescu, Anca Cristina Drăgănescu, Anca Doina Pleșca, Oana Săndulescu, Cătălina Voiosu, Răzvan Hainăroșie and Anca Streinu-Cercel
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113346 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 254
Abstract
Background/Objectives: Acute or chronic ear, nose and throat (ENT) conditions in people living with HIV can lead to hospitalization and affect their quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of hospitalizations for acute sinusitis (AS) [...] Read more.
Background/Objectives: Acute or chronic ear, nose and throat (ENT) conditions in people living with HIV can lead to hospitalization and affect their quality of life. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of hospitalizations for acute sinusitis (AS) and acute otitis (AO) in people living with HIV. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis over the course of six years (from January 2018 to December 2023), assessing all hospitalizations for AS and/or AO occurring in patients living with HIV, at the largest infectious diseases hospital in Romania. Results: We identified a total of 179 cases, among which 149 cases (83.2%) were attributed to AS and 41 cases (22.9%) were due to AO. Among cases of AS, maxillary sinuses were most frequently involved (n = 140/149, 94.0%), and among cases of AO, acute congestive otitis media (n = 14, 34.1%) and acute purulent otitis media (n = 13, 31.7%) were the most common forms. The underlying HIV infection was classified as stage C3 in 57.5% of cases. In 19.6% of cases, it was possible to identify either the trigger or the etiological agent, and the most frequent bacterial pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study highlights that hospitalizations due to acute sinus and ear involvement are not isolated events in people living with HIV. A prospective follow-up is needed to gain a deeper and more dynamic understanding of how ENT health is affected in people with HIV infection. Furthermore, promoting prevention through vaccination may reduce to a certain extent the burden of ENT infections in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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16 pages, 1638 KiB  
Article
The German Multicenter Registry for ME/CFS (MECFS-R)
by Hannah Hieber, Rafael Pricoco, Katrin Gerrer, Cornelia Heindrich, Katharina Wiehler, Lorenz L. Mihatsch, Matthias Haegele, Daniela Schindler, Quirin Donath, Catharina Christa, Annika Grabbe, Alissa Kircher, Ariane Leone, Yvonne Mueller, Hannah Zietemann, Helma Freitag, Franziska Sotzny, Cordula Warlitz, Silvia Stojanov, Daniel B. R. Hattesohl, Anna Hausruckinger, Kirstin Mittelstrass, Carmen Scheibenbogen and Uta Behrendsadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(11), 3168; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13113168 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating multisystemic disease characterized by a complex, incompletely understood etiology. Methods: To facilitate future clinical and translational research, a multicenter German ME/CFS registry (MECFS-R) was established to collect comprehensive, longitudinal, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data [...] Read more.
Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating multisystemic disease characterized by a complex, incompletely understood etiology. Methods: To facilitate future clinical and translational research, a multicenter German ME/CFS registry (MECFS-R) was established to collect comprehensive, longitudinal, clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data from adults, adolescents, and children in a web-based multilayer-secured database. Results: Here, we present the research protocol and first results of a pilot cohort of 174 ME/CFS patients diagnosed at two specialized tertiary fatigue centers, including 130 (74.7%) adults (mean age 38.4; SD 12.6) and 43 (25.3%) pediatric patients (mean age 15.5; SD 4.2). A viral trigger was identified in 160/174 (92.0%) cases, with SARS-CoV-2 in almost half of them. Patients exhibited severe functional and social impairment, as reflected by a median Bell Score of 30.0 (IQR 30.0 to 40.0) and a poor health-related quality of life assessed with the Short Form-36 health survey, resulting in a mean score of 40.4 (SD 20.6) for physical function and 59.1 (SD 18.8) for mental health. Conclusions: The MECFS-R provides important clinical information on ME/CFS to research and healthcare institutions. Paired with a multicenter biobank, it facilitates research on pathogenesis, diagnostic markers, and treatment options. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05778006. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
The Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin, Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptors, and C-Reactive Protein in Diagnosing Urinary Tract Infections in the Emergency Department—A Diagnostic Accuracy Study
by Mathias Amdi Hertz, Isik Somuncu Johansen, Flemming S. Rosenvinge, Claus Lohman Brasen, Eline Sandvig Andersen, Anne Heltborg, Thor Aage Skovsted, Eva Rabing Brix Petersen, Mariana Bichuette Cartuliares, Stig Lønberg Nielsen, Christian Backer Mogensen and Helene Skjøt-Arkil
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(6), 1776; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13061776 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 759
Abstract
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a leading bacterial infection in the emergency department (ED). Diagnosing UTIs in the ED can be challenging due to the heterogeneous presentation; therefore, fast and precise tests are needed. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic precision [...] Read more.
Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a leading bacterial infection in the emergency department (ED). Diagnosing UTIs in the ED can be challenging due to the heterogeneous presentation; therefore, fast and precise tests are needed. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic precision of procalcitonin (PCT), soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptors (suPARs), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in diagnosing UTIs, grading the severity of UTIs, and ruling out bacteremia. Methods: We recruited adults admitted to three Danish EDs with suspected UTIs. PCT, suPAR, and CRP were used in index tests, while blood cultures, expert panel diagnosis, and severity grading were used in the reference tests. Logistic regression and area under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUROCs) were utilized to evaluate the models and determine the optimal cut-offs. Results: We enrolled 229 patients. PCT diagnosed UTI with an AUROC of 0.612, detected severe disease with an AUROC of 0.712, and ruled out bacteremia with an AUROC of 0.777. SuPAR had AUROCs of 0.480, 0.638, and 0.605, while CRP had AUROCs of 0.599, 0.778, and 0.646. Conclusions: The diagnostic performance of PCT, suPAR, or CRP for UTIs or to rule out severe disease was poor. However, PCT can safely rule out bacteremia in clinically relevant numbers in ED patients suspected of UTI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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20 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Intraspinal and Intracranial Neurotuberculosis, Clinical and Imaging Characteristics and Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients: A Cohort Study (2000–2022)
by Ana Luisa Corona-Nakamura, Martha Judith Arias-Merino, María Guadalupe Miranda-Novales, David Nava-Jiménez, Juan Antonio Delgado-Vázquez, Rafael Bustos-Mora, Aldo Guadalupe Cisneros-Aréchiga, José Francisco Aguayo-Villaseñor, Martha Rocio Hernández-Preciado and Mario Alberto Mireles-Ramírez
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4533; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134533 - 6 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Neurotuberculosis (neuroTB) is a devastating disease, and is difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics, and outcomes of a retrospective cohort (2000–2022) of hospitalized patients diagnosed with intraspinal and intracranial neuroTB. This work was [...] Read more.
Neurotuberculosis (neuroTB) is a devastating disease, and is difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics, and outcomes of a retrospective cohort (2000–2022) of hospitalized patients diagnosed with intraspinal and intracranial neuroTB. This work was designed through clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. Variables included: demographic data, history of tuberculosis, neurological complications, comorbidities and outcomes. Morbi-mortality risk factors were identified by univariate analysis. The cohort included: 103 patients with intraspinal and 82 with intracranial neuroTB. During the study period, in-hospital mortality of 3% for intraspinal and 29.6% for intracranial neuroTB was estimated. Motor deficit was found in all patients with intraspinal neuroTB. Risk factors for the unfavorable outcome of patients with intraspinal neuroTB were: age ≥ 40 years, diabetes mellitus (DM), diagnostic delay, kyphosis and spondylodiscitis ≥ 3 levels of involvement. Among the patients with intracranial neuroTB, 79/82 (96.3%) had meningitis and 22 patients had HIV infection (10 of them died). Risk factors for mortality from intracranial neuroTB were: HIV infection, hydrocephalus, stroke, lymphopenia and disseminated and gastrointestinal TB. Patients with intraspinal neuroTB had a significant number of destroyed vertebrae that determined their neurological deficit status. The mortality burden in intracranial neuroTB was conditioned by HIV infection and renal transplantation patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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Review

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34 pages, 494 KiB  
Review
Ten Issues for Updating in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: An Expert Review
by Francisco Javier Candel, Miguel Salavert, Miren Basaras, Marcio Borges, Rafael Cantón, Emilia Cercenado, Catian Cilloniz, Ángel Estella, Juan M. García-Lechuz, José Garnacho Montero, Federico Gordo, Agustín Julián-Jiménez, Francisco Javier Martín-Sánchez, Emilio Maseda, Mayra Matesanz, Rosario Menéndez, Manuel Mirón-Rubio, Raúl Ortiz de Lejarazu, Eva Polverino, Pilar Retamar-Gentil, Luis Alberto Ruiz-Iturriaga, Susana Sancho and Leyre Serranoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(21), 6864; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12216864 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4199
Abstract
Community-acquired pneumonia represents the third-highest cause of mortality in industrialized countries and the first due to infection. Although guidelines for the approach to this infection model are widely implemented in international health schemes, information continually emerges that generates controversy or requires updating its [...] Read more.
Community-acquired pneumonia represents the third-highest cause of mortality in industrialized countries and the first due to infection. Although guidelines for the approach to this infection model are widely implemented in international health schemes, information continually emerges that generates controversy or requires updating its management. This paper reviews the most important issues in the approach to this process, such as an aetiologic update using new molecular platforms or imaging techniques, including the diagnostic stewardship in different clinical settings. It also reviews both the Intensive Care Unit admission criteria and those of clinical stability to discharge. An update in antibiotic, in oxygen, or steroidal therapy is presented. It also analyzes the management out-of-hospital in CAP requiring hospitalization, the main factors for readmission, and an approach to therapeutic failure or rescue. Finally, the main strategies for prevention and vaccination in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
30 pages, 891 KiB  
Review
Ten Issues to Update in Nosocomial or Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia: An Expert Review
by Francisco Javier Candel, Miguel Salavert, Angel Estella, Miquel Ferrer, Ricard Ferrer, Julio Javier Gamazo, Carolina García-Vidal, Juan González del Castillo, Víctor José González-Ramallo, Federico Gordo, Manuel Mirón-Rubio, Javier Pérez-Pallarés, Cristina Pitart, José Luís del Pozo, Paula Ramírez, Pedro Rascado, Soledad Reyes, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Borja Suberviola, Pablo Vidal and Rafael Zaragozaadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(20), 6526; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12206526 - 14 Oct 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4574
Abstract
Nosocomial pneumonia, or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important health problems worldwide, with both being associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. HAP is currently the main cause of death from nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. Although guidelines for the [...] Read more.
Nosocomial pneumonia, or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important health problems worldwide, with both being associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. HAP is currently the main cause of death from nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. Although guidelines for the approach to this infection model are widely implemented in international health systems and clinical teams, information continually emerges that generates debate or requires updating in its management. This scientific manuscript, written by a multidisciplinary team of specialists, reviews the most important issues in the approach to this important infectious respiratory syndrome, and it updates various topics, such as a renewed etiological perspective for updating the use of new molecular platforms or imaging techniques, including the microbiological diagnostic stewardship in different clinical settings and using appropriate rapid techniques on invasive respiratory specimens. It also reviews both Intensive Care Unit admission criteria and those of clinical stability to discharge, as well as those of therapeutic failure and rescue treatment options. An update on antibiotic therapy in the context of bacterial multiresistance, in aerosol inhaled treatment options, oxygen therapy, or ventilatory support, is presented. It also analyzes the out-of-hospital management of nosocomial pneumonia requiring complete antibiotic therapy externally on an outpatient basis, as well as the main factors for readmission and an approach to management in the emergency department. Finally, the main strategies for prevention and prophylactic measures, many of them still controversial, on fragile and vulnerable hosts are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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17 pages, 983 KiB  
Review
Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis—An Overview of Guidelines and the Latest Treatment Methods
by Małgorzata Satora, Arkadiusz Grunwald, Bartłomiej Zaremba, Karolina Frankowska, Klaudia Żak, Rafał Tarkowski and Krzysztof Kułak
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(16), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12165376 - 18 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common condition associated with discomfort in affected women. Due to the presence of different forms of the disease, diverse treatment regimens are developed; the newest ones include oteseconazole and ibrexafungerp. Here, we focus on the most up-to-date recommendations [...] Read more.
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common condition associated with discomfort in affected women. Due to the presence of different forms of the disease, diverse treatment regimens are developed; the newest ones include oteseconazole and ibrexafungerp. Here, we focus on the most up-to-date recommendations regarding VVC treatment, as well as novel treatment options. Topical and oral azoles are the drugs of choice in uncomplicated mycosis. The efficacy of probiotics and substances such as TOL-463 and chlorhexidine is indicated as satisfactory; however, there are no relevant guidelines. Although the majority of researchers agree that the treatment of non-albicans VVC should be long-lasting, the recommendations are inconsistent. Another clinical problem is the treatment of VVC with azole intolerance or resistance, for which literature proposes the use of several drugs including oteseconazole, ibrexafungerp, and voriconazole. The treatment schedules for recurrent VVC include mainly fluconazole; however, alternative options such as immunotherapeutic vaccine (NDV-3A) or designed antimicrobial peptides (dAMPs) were also described. We also focused on VVC affecting pregnant women, which is a substantial challenge in clinical practice, also due to the heterogeneous relevant guidelines. Thus far, few precise recommendations are available in the literature. Future studies should focus on atypical VVC forms to elucidate the inconsistent findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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32 pages, 7502 KiB  
Review
Interleukins (Cytokines) as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer: Progression, Detection, and Monitoring
by Sajida Maryam, Katarzyna Krukiewicz, Ihtisham Ul Haq, Awal Ayaz Khan, Galal Yahya and Simona Cavalu
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3127; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12093127 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
Cancer is the primary cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause in developing countries. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Risk factors for CRC include obesity, a diet low in fruits [...] Read more.
Cancer is the primary cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause in developing countries. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Risk factors for CRC include obesity, a diet low in fruits and vegetables, physical inactivity, and smoking. CRC has a poor prognosis, and there is a critical need for new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to reduce related deaths. Recently, studies have focused more on molecular testing to guide targeted treatments for CRC patients. The most crucial feature of activated immune cells is the production and release of growth factors and cytokines that modulate the inflammatory conditions in tumor tissues. The cytokine network is valuable for the prognosis and pathogenesis of colorectal cancer as they can aid in the cost-effective and non-invasive detection of cancer. A large number of interleukins (IL) released by the immune system at various stages of CRC can act as “biomarkers”. They play diverse functions in colorectal cancer, and include IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-11, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, IL-33, TNF, TGF-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are pro-tumorigenic genes. However, there are an inadequate number of studies in this area considering its correlation with cytokine profiles that are clinically useful in diagnosing cancer. A better understanding of cytokine levels to establish diagnostic pathways entails an understanding of cytokine interactions and the regulation of their various biochemical signaling pathways in healthy individuals. This review provides a comprehensive summary of some interleukins as immunological biomarkers of CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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Other

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9 pages, 1048 KiB  
Brief Report
Impact of Povidone Application to Nares in Addition to Chlorhexidine Bath in Critically Ill Patients on Nosocomial Bacteremia and Central Line Blood Stream Infection
by Raquel Nahra, Shahrzad Darvish, Snehal Gandhi, Suzanne Gould, Diane Floyd, Kathy Devine, Henry Fraimow, John E. Dibato and Jean-Sebastien Rachoin
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13092647 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 620
Abstract
Nosocomial Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia results in a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We aimed to analyze the impact of applying 10% povidone iodine (PI) twice daily to both nares in addition to chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing on nosocomial [...] Read more.
Nosocomial Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia results in a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. We aimed to analyze the impact of applying 10% povidone iodine (PI) twice daily to both nares in addition to chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing on nosocomial (MRSA) bacteremia in critically ill patients. A quality improvement study was completed with pre and post-design. The study period was from January 2018 until February 2020 and February 2021 and June 2021. The control period (from January 2018 to May 2019) consisted of CHG bathing alone, and in the intervention period, we added 10% PI to the nares of critically ill patients. Our primary outcome is rates of nosocomial MRSA bacteremia, and our secondary outcome is central line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) and potential cost savings. There were no significant differences in rates of MRSA bacteremia in critically ill patients. Nosocomial MRSA bacteremia was significantly lower during the intervention period on medical/surgical areas (MSA). CLABSIs were significantly lower during the intervention period in critically ill patients. There were no Staphylococcus aureus CLABSIs in critical care area (CCA)during the intervention period. The intervention showed potential significant cost savings. The application of 10% povidone iodine twice a day in addition to CHG bathing resulted in a significant decrease in CLABSIs in critically ill patients and a reduction in nosocomial MRSA in the non-intervention areas. Further trials are needed to tease out individual patients who will benefit from the intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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6 pages, 185 KiB  
Case Report
Encephalitis in the Course of HHV-7 Infection in an Infant
by Justyna Moppert, Eliza Łężyk-Ciemniak and Małgorzata Pawłowska
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(2), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13020418 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 781
Abstract
Most cases of acute infections caused by human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) are asymptomatic or very mild. Clinical symptoms disappear spontaneously; however, the infection becomes latent and persists for life with periodic asymptomatic reactivation. Little is known about the virus’s ability to cross the [...] Read more.
Most cases of acute infections caused by human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) are asymptomatic or very mild. Clinical symptoms disappear spontaneously; however, the infection becomes latent and persists for life with periodic asymptomatic reactivation. Little is known about the virus’s ability to cross the blood–brain barrier. Our case of an immunocompetent infant indicates that HHV-7 infection should be considered a cause of neuroinfection, not only in immunocompromised patients but also in the youngest immunocompetent patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
11 pages, 15626 KiB  
Case Report
Complicated Clinical Course of a Patient with Multivisceral Cystic Echinococcosis Requiring Extensive Surgical and Medical Treatment
by Gabriela Loredana Popa, Alexandru Cosmin Popa, Bogdan Mastalier, Carmen Michaela Crețu and Mircea Ioan Popa
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(17), 5596; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12175596 - 27 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis is an often-overlooked condition that otherwise negatively impacts both the individual and the community, prompting major public health concerns. Early diagnosis and treatment, as well as collaboration between specialties including surgery and parasitology, are essential for avoiding complications and disease relapse. [...] Read more.
Cystic echinococcosis is an often-overlooked condition that otherwise negatively impacts both the individual and the community, prompting major public health concerns. Early diagnosis and treatment, as well as collaboration between specialties including surgery and parasitology, are essential for avoiding complications and disease relapse. To better illustrate this, we present the case of an elderly person with a rare localization of the disease at the muscular level. The patient underwent numerous surgical interventions, and received multiple courses of antiparasitic treatment over the course of 40 years as a result of the multivisceral dissemination of the parasite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Aspects of Infectious Diseases)
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