Special Issue "Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes"

A special issue of Instruments (ISSN 2410-390X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Saverio Braccini

Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +41-31-631-4065
Interests: medical applications of particle physics; particle accelerators; particle detectors; radiation protection
Guest Editor
Dr. Francisco Alves

ICNAS—Institute for Nuclear Sciences Applied to Health, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
E-Mail
Interests: medical cyclotrons; Positron Emission Tomography (PET); radioisotope production

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 17th Workshop on Targets and Target Chemistry (WTTC17) was held in Coimbra (Portugal) on 27-31 August 2018. A few months before, the 13th Workshop of the European Cyclotron Network (CYCLEUR) took place in Lisbon (Portugal) on 23–24 November 2017. These two events reassembled major experts in the field of radioisotope production, targets, target chemistry and cyclotrons. In the last few years, significant advances have been obtained in these fields with direct implications for science and society. Instruments and methods, originally developed for nuclear and particle physics, played a crucial role and further developments are expected. In particular, the production of radioisotopes for both medical diagnostics and therapy—the so-called “theranostics”—could produce a breakthrough in nuclear medicine. This Special Issue is intended to collect original scientific contributions on the latest developments on instruments and methods for medical and research cyclotrons as well as on target and target chemistry for the production of radioisotopes.

Prof. Dr. Saverio Braccini
Dr. Francisco Alves
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Cyclotrons
  • Radioisotope production
  • Solid, liquid and gas targets
  • Theranostics

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Open AccessCommunication
Can We Extract Production Cross-Sections from Thick Target Yield Measurements? A Case Study Using Scandium Radioisotopes
Instruments 2019, 3(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3020029
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 11 May 2019 / Published: 14 May 2019
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Abstract
In this work, we present an attempt to estimate the reaction excitation function based on the measurements of thick target yield. We fit a function to experimental data points and then use three fitting parameters to calculate the cross-section. We applied our approach [...] Read more.
In this work, we present an attempt to estimate the reaction excitation function based on the measurements of thick target yield. We fit a function to experimental data points and then use three fitting parameters to calculate the cross-section. We applied our approach to 43Ca(p,n)43Sc, 44Ca(p,n)44gSc, 44Ca(p,n)44mSc, 48Ca(p,2n)47Sc and 48Ca(p,n)48Sc reactions. A general agreement was observed between the reconstructions and the available cross-section data. The algorithm described here can be used to roughly estimate cross-section values, but it requires improvements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessCommunication
Vortex Target: A New Design for a Powder-in-Gas Target for Large-Scale Radionuclide Production
Instruments 2019, 3(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3020024
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 31 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents a design and working principle for a combined powder-in-gas target. The excellent surface-to-volume ratio of micrometer-sized powder particles injected into a forced carrier-gas-driven environment provides optimal beam power-induced heat relief. Finely dispersed powders can be controlled by a combined pump-driven [...] Read more.
This paper presents a design and working principle for a combined powder-in-gas target. The excellent surface-to-volume ratio of micrometer-sized powder particles injected into a forced carrier-gas-driven environment provides optimal beam power-induced heat relief. Finely dispersed powders can be controlled by a combined pump-driven inward-spiraling gas flow and a fan structure in the center. Known proton-induced nuclear reactions on isotopically enriched materials such as 68Zn and 100Mo were taken into account to be conceptually remodeled as a powder-in-gas target assembly, which was compared to thick target designs. The small irradiation chambers that were modeled in our studies for powdery ‘thick’ targets with a mass thickness (g/cm2) comparable to 68Zn and 100Mo resulted in the need to load 2.5 and 12.6 grams of the isotopically enriched target material, respectively, into a convective 7-bar pressured helium cooling circuit for irradiation, with ion currents and entrance energies of 0.8 (13 MeV) and 2 mA (20 MeV), respectively. Current densities of ~2 μA/mm2 (20 MeV), induces power loads of up to 4 kW/cm2. Moreover, the design work showed that this powder-in-gas target concept could potentially be applied to other radionuclide production routes that involve powdery starting materials. Although the modeling work showed good convective heat relief expectations for micrometer-sized powder, more detailed mathematical investigation on the powder-in-gas target restrictions, electrostatic behavior, and erosion effects during irradiation are required for developing a real prototype assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Medical Cyclotron Solid Target Preparation by Ultrathick Film Magnetron Sputtering Deposition
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010021
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
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Abstract
Magnetron sputtering is proposed here as an innovative method for the deposition of a material layer onto an appropriate backing plate for cyclotron solid targets aimed at medical radioisotopes production. In this study, a method to deposit thick, high-density, high-thickness-uniformity, and stress-free films [...] Read more.
Magnetron sputtering is proposed here as an innovative method for the deposition of a material layer onto an appropriate backing plate for cyclotron solid targets aimed at medical radioisotopes production. In this study, a method to deposit thick, high-density, high-thickness-uniformity, and stress-free films of high adherence to the backing was developed by optimizing the fundamental deposition parameters: sputtering gas pressure, substrate temperature, and using a multilayer deposition mode, as well. This method was proposed to realize Mo-100 and Y-nat solid targets for biomedical cyclotron production of Tc-99m and Zr-89 radionuclides, respectively. The combination of all three optimized sputtering parameters (i.e., 1.63 × 10−2 mbar Ar pressure, 500 °C substrate temperature, and the multilayer mode) allowed us to achieve deposition thickness as high as 100 µm for Mo targets. The 50/70-µm-thick Y targets were instead realized by optimizing the sputtering pressure only (1.36 × 10−2 mbar Ar pressure), without making use of additional substrate heating. These optimized deposition parameters allowed for the production of targets by using different backing materials (e.g., Mo onto copper, sapphire, and synthetic diamond; and Y onto a niobium backing). All target types tested were able to sustain a power density as high as 1 kW/cm2 provided by the proton beam of medical cyclotrons (15.6 MeV for Mo targets and 12.7 MeV for Y targets at up to a 70-µA proton beam current). Both short- and long-time irradiation tests, closer to the real production, have been realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Simple, Immediate and Calibration-Free Cyclotron Proton Beam Energy Determination Using Commercial Targets
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010020
Received: 5 January 2019 / Revised: 25 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
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Abstract
This work presents a simple method for determining the energy of the proton beam in biomedical cyclotrons, using no additional experimental set-up and only materials from radioisotope routine productions that are therefore available on-site. The developed method requires neither absolute efficiency calibration nor [...] Read more.
This work presents a simple method for determining the energy of the proton beam in biomedical cyclotrons, using no additional experimental set-up and only materials from radioisotope routine productions that are therefore available on-site. The developed method requires neither absolute efficiency calibration nor beam current measurements, thus avoiding two major sources of uncertainty. Two stacks composed of natural titanium thin foils, separated by an energy degrader of niobium, were mounted in a commercial target and irradiated. The resulting activities of 48V were assessed by a HPGe spectrometer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Thorium Metal Target for 225Ac Production at TRIUMF
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010018
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
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Abstract
With recent impressive clinical results of targeted alpha therapy using 225Ac, significant effort has been directed towards providing a reliable and sufficient supply of 225Ac to enable widespread using of 225Ac-radiopharmaceuticals. TRIUMF has begun production of 225Ac via spallation [...] Read more.
With recent impressive clinical results of targeted alpha therapy using 225Ac, significant effort has been directed towards providing a reliable and sufficient supply of 225Ac to enable widespread using of 225Ac-radiopharmaceuticals. TRIUMF has begun production of 225Ac via spallation of thorium metal with 480 MeV protons. As part of this program, a new 225Ac-production target system capable of withstanding the power deposited by the proton beam was designed and its performance simulated over a range of potential operating parameters. Special attention was given to heat transfer and stresses within the target components. The target was successfully tested in two irradiations with a 72–73 µA proton beam for a duration of 36.5 h. The decay corrected activity at end of irradiation (average ± standard deviation) was (524 ± 21) MBq (14.2 mCi) and (86 ± 13) MBq (2.3 mCi) for 225Ac and 225Ra, respectively. These correspond to saturation yields of 72.5 MBq/µA for 225Ac and 17.6 MBq/µA for 225Ra. Longer irradiations and production scale-up are planned in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Recovery of Molybdenum Precursor Material in the Cyclotron-Based Technetium-99m Production Cycle
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010017
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 13 February 2019
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Abstract
A closed-loop technology aiming at recycling the highly 100Mo-enriched molybdenum target material has been developed in the framework of the international research efforts on the alternative, cyclotron-based 99mTc radionuclide production. The main procedure steps include (i) 100Mo-based target manufacturing; (ii) [...] Read more.
A closed-loop technology aiming at recycling the highly 100Mo-enriched molybdenum target material has been developed in the framework of the international research efforts on the alternative, cyclotron-based 99mTc radionuclide production. The main procedure steps include (i) 100Mo-based target manufacturing; (ii) irradiation under proton beam; (iii) dissolution of 100Mo layer containing Tc radionuclides (produced by opened nuclear reaction routes) in concentrated H2O2 solution; and (iv) Mo/Tc separation by the developed radiochemical module, from which the original 100Mo comes as the “waste” alkaline aqueous fraction. Conversion of the residual 100Mo molybdates in this fraction into molybdic acids and MoO3 has been pursued by refluxing in excess of HNO3. After evaporation of the solvent to dryness, the molybdic acids and MoO3 may be isolated from NaNO3 by exploiting their different solubility in water. When dried in vacuum at 40 °C, the combined aqueous fractions provided MoO3 as a white powder. In the last recovery step MoO3 has been reduced using a temperature-controlled reactor under hydrogen overpressure. An overall recovery yield of ~90% has been established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessCommunication
Solid Target System with In-Situ Target Dissolution
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010014
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 11 February 2019
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Abstract
A significant number of medical radioisotopes use solid, often metallic, parent materials. These materials are deposited on a substrate to facilitate the cooling and handling of the target during placing, irradiation, and processing. The processing requires the transfer of the target to a [...] Read more.
A significant number of medical radioisotopes use solid, often metallic, parent materials. These materials are deposited on a substrate to facilitate the cooling and handling of the target during placing, irradiation, and processing. The processing requires the transfer of the target to a processing area outside the irradiation area. In this new approach the target is processed at the irradiation site for liquid only transport of the irradiated target material to the processing area. The design features common to higher energy production target systems are included in the target station. The target is inclined at 14 degrees to the beam direction. The system has been designed to accept an incident beam of 15 to 16 mm diameter and a beam power between 2 and 5 kW. Thermal modeling is presented for targets of metals and compounds. A cassette of five or 10 prepared targets is housed at the target station as well as a target dissolution assembly. Only the dissolved target material is transported to the chemistry laboratory so that the design does not require additional irradiation area penetrations. This work presents the design, construction, and modeling details of the assembly. A full performance characterization will be reported after the unit is moved to a cyclotron facility for beam related measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement and Validation of a 3D-Printed Solid Target Holder at a Cyclotron Facility in Perth, Australia
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010012
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
A 3D-printed metal solid target using additive manufacturing process is a cost-effective production solution to complex and intricate target design. The initial proof-of-concept prototype solid target holder was 3D-printed in cast alloy, Al–7Si–0.6Mg (A357). However, given the relatively low thermal conductivity for A357 [...] Read more.
A 3D-printed metal solid target using additive manufacturing process is a cost-effective production solution to complex and intricate target design. The initial proof-of-concept prototype solid target holder was 3D-printed in cast alloy, Al–7Si–0.6Mg (A357). However, given the relatively low thermal conductivity for A357 (κmax, 160 W/m·K), replication of the solid target holder in sterling silver (SS925) with higher thermal conductivity (κmax, 361 W/m·K) was investigated. The SS925 target holder enhances the cooling efficiency of the target design, thus achieving higher target current during irradiation. A validation production of 64Cu using the 3D-printed SS925 target holder indicated no loss of enriched 64Ni from proton bombardment above 80 µA, at 11.5 MeV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessCommunication
Molybdenum Sinter-Cladding of Solid Radioisotope Targets
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010011
Received: 28 December 2018 / Revised: 19 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
In solid targets for radioisotope production, the parent materials—mostly metallic—are usually attached to a substrate (metal part, often copper or silver) to support it during handling and irradiation and to facilitate liquid or gas cooling to remove the heat generated by the particle [...] Read more.
In solid targets for radioisotope production, the parent materials—mostly metallic—are usually attached to a substrate (metal part, often copper or silver) to support it during handling and irradiation and to facilitate liquid or gas cooling to remove the heat generated by the particle beam. This cladding process is most frequently done by electroplating. One of the biggest challenges of preparing solid, high-current, 100Mo targets is the difficulty of cladding the substrate with molybdenum—metal that cannot be electroplated. A number of cladding techniques are used with varying degrees of complexity, success, and cost. A simple cladding process, especially suitable for the production of radioisotope targets, was developed. The process uses a metal slurry (metal powder and binder) painted on the substrate and heated in a hydrogen atmosphere where the metal is sintered and diffusion-bound to the substrate in a single step. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Fused Zinc Target for the Production of Gallium Radioisotopes
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010010
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
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Abstract
Gallium-68 is a popular radioisotope for positron emission tomography. To make gallium-68 more accessible, we developed a new solid target for medical cyclotrons. Fused zinc targets promise a new, efficient, and reliable technique without the downsides of other commonly used time-consuming methods for [...] Read more.
Gallium-68 is a popular radioisotope for positron emission tomography. To make gallium-68 more accessible, we developed a new solid target for medical cyclotrons. Fused zinc targets promise a new, efficient, and reliable technique without the downsides of other commonly used time-consuming methods for solid target fabrication, such as electroplating and sputtering. We manufactured targets by fusing small pressed zinc pellets into a recess in aluminum backings. Using a simple hotplate, the fusing could be accomplished in less than two minutes. Subsequently, the targets were cooled, polished, and used successfully for test irradiations at Ep = 12.8 MeV and up to 20 µA proton current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Boron Nitride Nanotube Cyclotron Targets for Recoil Escape Production of Carbon-11
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were investigated as a target media for cyclotron production of 11C for incident beam energy at or below 11 MeV. Both the 11B(p,n)11C and 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reactions were utilized. A sweep gas [...] Read more.
Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were investigated as a target media for cyclotron production of 11C for incident beam energy at or below 11 MeV. Both the 11B(p,n)11C and 14N(p,α)11C nuclear reactions were utilized. A sweep gas of nitrogen or helium was used to collect recoil escape atoms with a desired form of 11CO2. Three prototype targets were tested using an RDS-111 cyclotron. Target geometry and density were shown to impact the saturation yield of 11C and percent of yield recovered as carbon dioxide. Physical damage to the BNNT target media was observed at beam currents above 5 μA. Additional studies are needed to identify operating conditions suitable for commercial application of the method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
New Cross-Sections for natMo(α,x) Reactions and Medical 97Ru Production Estimations with Radionuclide Yield Calculator
Received: 17 December 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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Abstract
The production of 97Ru, a potential Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radioisotope, was studied at ARRONAX. The cross-section of natMo(α,x)97Ru reaction was investigated in the range of 40–67 MeV irradiating the natMo and Al stacked-foils. The activities [...] Read more.
The production of 97Ru, a potential Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radioisotope, was studied at ARRONAX. The cross-section of natMo(α,x)97Ru reaction was investigated in the range of 40–67 MeV irradiating the natMo and Al stacked-foils. The activities of 97Ru and other radioactive contaminants were measured via gamma spectroscopy technique. A global good agreement is observed between obtained cross-section results, previously reported values and TENDL-2017 predictions. Additionally, Radionuclide Yield Calculator, a software that we made available for free, dedicated to quickly calculate yields and plan the irradiation for any radioisotope production, was introduced. The yield of investigated nuclear reactions indicated the feasibility of 97Ru production for medical applications with the use of α beam and Mo targets opening the way to a theranostic approach with 97Ru and 103Ru. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
New Ion Source Filament for Prolonged Ion Source Operation on A Medical Cyclotron
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
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Abstract
Cyclotrons are an important tool for accelerator sciences including the production of medical isotopes for imaging and therapy. For their successful and cost-efficient operation, the planned and unplanned down time of the cyclotron needs to be kept at a minimum without compromising reliability. [...] Read more.
Cyclotrons are an important tool for accelerator sciences including the production of medical isotopes for imaging and therapy. For their successful and cost-efficient operation, the planned and unplanned down time of the cyclotron needs to be kept at a minimum without compromising reliability. One of the often required maintenance activities is the replacement of the filament in the ion source. Here, we are reporting on a new ion source filament tested on a medical cyclotron and its prolonging effect on the ion source operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurement of the Beam Energy Distribution of a Medical Cyclotron with a Multi-Leaf Faraday Cup
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 30 December 2018 / Accepted: 1 January 2019 / Published: 4 January 2019
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Abstract
Accurate knowledge of the beam energy distribution is crucial for particle accelerators, compact medical cyclotrons for the production of radioisotopes in particular. For this purpose, a compact instrument was developed, based on a multi-leaf Faraday cup made of thin aluminum foils interleaved with [...] Read more.
Accurate knowledge of the beam energy distribution is crucial for particle accelerators, compact medical cyclotrons for the production of radioisotopes in particular. For this purpose, a compact instrument was developed, based on a multi-leaf Faraday cup made of thin aluminum foils interleaved with plastic absorbers. The protons stopping in the aluminum foils produce a measurable current that is used to determine the range distribution of the proton beam. On the basis of the proton range distribution, the beam energy distribution is assessed by means of stopping-power Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we report on the design, construction, and testing of this apparatus, as well as on the first measurements performed with the IBA Cyclone 18-MeV medical cyclotron in operation at the Bern University Hospital. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of New Target Stations for the South African Isotope Facility
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040029
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The development of new target stations for radioisotope production based on a dedicated 70 MeV commercial cyclotron (for protons) is described. Currently known as the South African Isotope Facility (SAIF), this initiative will free the existing separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) at iThemba LABS (near [...] Read more.
The development of new target stations for radioisotope production based on a dedicated 70 MeV commercial cyclotron (for protons) is described. Currently known as the South African Isotope Facility (SAIF), this initiative will free the existing separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) at iThemba LABS (near Cape Town) to mainly pursue research activities in nuclear physics and radiobiology. It is foreseen that the completed SAIF facility will realize a three-fold increase in radioisotope production capacity compared to the current programme based on the SSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Automated Purification of Radiometals Produced by Liquid Targets
Instruments 2018, 2(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2030017
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
An automated process for the production and purification of radiometals produced by irradiating liquid targets in a medical cyclotron, using a commercially available module, has been developed. The method is suitable for the production and purification of radiometals such as 68Ga, 64 [...] Read more.
An automated process for the production and purification of radiometals produced by irradiating liquid targets in a medical cyclotron, using a commercially available module, has been developed. The method is suitable for the production and purification of radiometals such as 68Ga, 64Cu and 61Cu through irradiation of liquid targets and is important for producing high specific activity radioisotopes with a substantial reduction in processing time and cost when compared with the solid target approach. The “liquid target” process also eliminates the need for pre- and post-irradiation target preparation and simplifies the transfer of irradiated material from target to hotcell. A 68GaCl3 solution can be obtained in about 35 min with an average yield of 73.9 ± 6.7% in less than 10 mL of volume. 64CuCl2 solutions can be obtained with an average yield of 81.2 ± 7.8% in about 1 h of processing time. A dedicated single-use disposable kit is used on a commercial IBA Synthera® extension module. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
First Steps at the Cyclotron of Orléans in the Radiochemistry of Radiometals: 52Mn and 165Er
Instruments 2018, 2(3), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2030015
Received: 17 April 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
This work describes the first real developments in radiochemistry around exotic radionuclides at the cyclotron of Orléans focusing on the radiochemistry of two radiometals 165Er and 52Mn. For these developments, targets were irradiated during 0.5–2 h at a maximum current of [...] Read more.
This work describes the first real developments in radiochemistry around exotic radionuclides at the cyclotron of Orléans focusing on the radiochemistry of two radiometals 165Er and 52Mn. For these developments, targets were irradiated during 0.5–2 h at a maximum current of 2 µA. All activities have been determined by radiotracer method. The production of 165Er from a natural Ho target that was irradiated is described. Higher activities of 165Er were obtained via deuteron irradiation then proton with lower ratio 165Er/166Ho (400/1 to 8/1). By using LN2 resin, the separation of adjacent lanthanides was made on various concentrations of HNO3 (0.3 to 5 M). Weight coefficients (Dw) were defined in a batch test. Then, the first tests of separation on a semi-automated system were made: the ratio 166+natHo/165Er in an isolated fraction was significantly reduced (1294 ± 1183 (n = 3)) but the reliability and reproducibility of the system must be improved. Then, a new Cr powder-based target for 52Mn production was designed. Its physical aspects such as mechanics, thermal resistance and porosity have been studied. Dw for various compositions of eluent Ethanol/HCl were evaluated by reducing contact time (1 h) comparative to the literature. A first evaluation of semi-automated separation Cr/Mn has been made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Treatment and Recovery of Irradiated [18O]-Water in the Production of [18F]-Fluoride
Instruments 2018, 2(3), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2030012
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Enriched [18O]-water is the target material for [18F]-fluoride production. Due to its high price and scarce availability, an increased interest and necessity has arisen to recycle the used water, in order to use it multiple times as a target [...] Read more.
Enriched [18O]-water is the target material for [18F]-fluoride production. Due to its high price and scarce availability, an increased interest and necessity has arisen to recycle the used water, in order to use it multiple times as a target material for [18F]-fluoride production. This paper presents an efficient treatment and reprocessing procedure giving rise to high chemical quality [18O]-water, thereby maintaining its enrichment grade. The reprocessing is subdivided into two main steps. In the first step, the [18F]-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose) synthesis preparation was modified to preserve the enrichment grade. Anhydrous acetonitrile is used to dry tubing systems and cartridges in the synthesis module. Applying this procedure, the loss in the enrichment throughout the reprocessing is <1%. The second step involves a fractional distillation in which the major part of the [18O]-water was recycled. Impurities such as solvents, ions, and radioactive nuclides were almost completely separated. Due to the modified synthesis preparation using acetonitrile, the first distillation fraction contains a larger amount of an azeotropic [18O]-water/acetonitrile mixture. This fraction is not further distillable. Contents of the remaining [18O]-water were separated from the azeotropic mixture by using a molecular sieve desiccant. This process represents a fast, easy, and inexpensive method for reprocessing used [18O]-water into new [18O]-water quality for further application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle
A Target-Temperature Monitoring System for Cyclotron Targets: Safety Device and Tool to Experimentally Validate Targetry Studies
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
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Abstract
The present work describes an experimental system enabling temperature measurement in cyclotron targets’ cooling water during bombardment. The developed system provides sensible and immediate response to variations of irradiation conditions during bombardment and enables quantification of the temperature rise in the cooling water [...] Read more.
The present work describes an experimental system enabling temperature measurement in cyclotron targets’ cooling water during bombardment. The developed system provides sensible and immediate response to variations of irradiation conditions during bombardment and enables quantification of the temperature rise in the cooling water due to beam interaction with the irradiated target and with its collimator. Such a system finds application either as a monitoring safety device to instantaneously detect and register abnormal alterations in target conditions to anticipate thermal-related incidents and as a tool to experimentally validate cyclotron targetry optimization studies and thermal simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cyclotron Production of Unconventional Radionuclides for PET Imaging: the Example of Titanium-45 and Its Applications
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
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Abstract
Positron emitting radionuclides are used to label different compounds, allowing the study of the major biological systems using PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Although there are several radionuclides suited for PET imaging, routine clinical applications are still based on a restrict group constituted [...] Read more.
Positron emitting radionuclides are used to label different compounds, allowing the study of the major biological systems using PET (positron emission tomography) imaging. Although there are several radionuclides suited for PET imaging, routine clinical applications are still based on a restrict group constituted by 18F, 11C, and, more recently, 68Ga. However, with the enlarged availability of low-energy cyclotrons and technical improvements in radionuclide production, the use of unconventional radionuclides is progressively more common. Several examples of unconventional radionuclides for PET imaging are being suggested, and 45Ti could be suggested as a model, due to its interesting properties such as its abundant positron emission (85%), reduced positron energy (β+ endpoint energy = 1040 keV), physical half-life of 3.09 h, and interesting chemical properties. This review aims to introduce the role of cyclotrons in the production of unconventional radionuclides for PET imaging while using 45Ti as an example to explore the potential biomedical applications of those radionuclides in PET imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note
A Compact Quick-Release Solid Target System for the TRIUMF TR13 Cyclotron
Instruments 2019, 3(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments3010016
Received: 29 December 2018 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
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Abstract
A new solid target system for the TRIUMF TR13 cyclotron that can accommodate target discs with a 1-2-mm thickness and a 28-mm diameter has been developed. The target system design is based on a modified clamping mechanism of a KF-40 vacuum connector, and [...] Read more.
A new solid target system for the TRIUMF TR13 cyclotron that can accommodate target discs with a 1-2-mm thickness and a 28-mm diameter has been developed. The target system design is based on a modified clamping mechanism of a KF-40 vacuum connector, and comprises an easy and quick ejection mechanism for the target plate. The new quick-release target system decreases the retrieval time of the irradiated target to less than 1 minute and is expected to reduce the radiation burden to operating staff by a factor of ~10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessTechnical Note
Introduction of the New Center for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
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Abstract
A new Center for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research was established at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in order to centralize radionuclide production, radiopharmaceutical production and the chemical and biochemical research facilities. The newly installed cyclotron is equipped with two beamlines, two target selectors and several liquid, [...] Read more.
A new Center for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research was established at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in order to centralize radionuclide production, radiopharmaceutical production and the chemical and biochemical research facilities. The newly installed cyclotron is equipped with two beamlines, two target selectors and several liquid, gas and solid target systems. The cyclotron including the target systems and first results of beam characterization measurements as well as results of the radionuclide production are presented. The produced radionuclides are automatically distributed from the targets to the destination hot cells. This process is supervised and controlled by an in-house developed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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