Special Issue "Structural Performances of Bridges"

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811). This special issue belongs to the section "Infrastructures and Structural Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2022 | Viewed by 13728

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniel N. Farhey
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Cincinnati, OH, USA
Interests: structural performance of bridges; performance of bridge materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The various versions of the latest transportation legislations require including national performance reporting in network management in order to secure a proper performance. Transportation bridge investments need to achieve performance targets that make progress toward the national goals of safety, structural condition, and system reliability.

While the legislation outlines a performance-based investment approach, it does not provide specific instructions. To comply with the legislation requirements, practical implementation of performance in bridge network management is in need of further research. Additionally, limited allocation of scarce resources requires reflecting engineering, societal, and financial justifications.

It is essential to advance a comparative approach with a concurrent focus on individual bridge systems as well as the network and subset levels. Additionally, current practices need further development of the interactions within recording and reporting strategies, operational diagnostic methodologies, quantitative evaluation measures, and more. This Special Issue intends to offer an important contribution in support of discussion and direction of new concepts in the structural performances of bridges.

Dr. Daniel N. Farhey
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bridges
  • Bridge construction
  • Bridge design
  • Deterioration
  • Life cycles
  • Materials
  • Performance characteristics
  • Evaluation
  • Structural behavior

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Bi-Linear Bond-Slip Modelling for 1-D Tension Stiffening Behavior of a RC Element
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100125 - 21 Sep 2022
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Cracking is an inherent characteristic of a reinforced-concrete (RC) element subjected to tension or bending. The crack width growth with loading depends on the rebar-concrete bond behavior. RC bridges are designed under strict requirements to ensure their proper long lifetime performance. Limiting the [...] Read more.
Cracking is an inherent characteristic of a reinforced-concrete (RC) element subjected to tension or bending. The crack width growth with loading depends on the rebar-concrete bond behavior. RC bridges are designed under strict requirements to ensure their proper long lifetime performance. Limiting the crack widths improves the performance and safety of bridges that are exposed to harsh climatic and environmental effects and enhances bridge service life-cycle expectancy. This paper presents an extended one-dimensional formulation for analyzing RC elements subjected to tensile loads and solves the one-dimensional tension stiffening problem. The extended bond-slip model analyses the entire range of loading, following cracks growth up to their maximum allowed width, employing a bi-linear bond-slip relationship. The analytical solution refers to the early loading stage where the first bond-slip segment governs the entire element and a closed form solution is obtained, followed by the higher loading stage where two different bond-slip relationships govern two complementary segments of the element. Analytical expressions for the stresses, strains, and displacements in concrete, steel, and interface are developed. Cracking is followed until rebar yielding. Validation of the model with available test results shows good agreement that is superior to the commonly used linear bond-slip model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Reconstruction as Deterioration Indicator for Operational Structural Performances of Bridge Materials
Infrastructures 2022, 7(7), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7070096 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 465
Abstract
This article presents analysis of deterioration indicators for a comparative quantification of the operational structural performances of bridge inventories. The analysis considers the various kinds of material in the entire database of the US National Bridge Inventory. The multi-criteria approach integrates the indicators [...] Read more.
This article presents analysis of deterioration indicators for a comparative quantification of the operational structural performances of bridge inventories. The analysis considers the various kinds of material in the entire database of the US National Bridge Inventory. The multi-criteria approach integrates the indicators of deterioration, considering diagnostic condition and life cycle to determine the equivalent operational structural performances. This study also uses reconstruction data to determine an additional deterioration indicator for performance. The proportional effort for reconstruction reflects the practical need to counter deterioration and preserve a required level of structural performance, under all circumstances. The presented addition of reconstruction performance provides a more comprehensive assessment of bridge performance. The results reveal the continuous efforts to maintain a relatively balanced performance adequacy at the national level within the prevailing funding constraints. Reconstruction performances are generally higher than deterioration trends (rate and pattern) performances, revealing that the constrained reconstruction efforts have difficulty to keep pace with the actual deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Structural Performance of Acute Corners on Skewed Bridge Decks Using Non-Linear Modeling of the Deck Parapet
Infrastructures 2022, 7(6), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7060077 - 02 Jun 2022
Viewed by 813
Abstract
In modern transportation projects, the demand for skewed bridges is increasing. Restrictive site constraints, particularly in urban infrastructure projects, yield severely skewed bridges that demand specific design and construction considerations. In particular, the acute corners have reinforcement details that are challenging to construct [...] Read more.
In modern transportation projects, the demand for skewed bridges is increasing. Restrictive site constraints, particularly in urban infrastructure projects, yield severely skewed bridges that demand specific design and construction considerations. In particular, the acute corners have reinforcement details that are challenging to construct and often perform poorly. Although the Federal Highway Administration has recognized this problem, to date a simplified detail has not been suggested and evaluated. To tackle this challenge, the Connecticut Department of Transportation partnered with the University of Connecticut to propose a simplified reinforcement detail for acute corners that replaces the normal transverse reinforcement with reinforcement placed along the skew with specific detailing to avoid congestion. An analytical study was conducted using CSiBridge to evaluate the performance of the detail with different skew angles. A series of pushover analyses were performed to capture the flexural yielding of the parapet and measure the stresses in the reinforcing bars in the slab. Based on these findings, a simplified detail for the acute corner of skewed bridge decks is provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Effect of Directional Added Mass on Highway Bridge Response during Flood Events
Infrastructures 2022, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7030042 - 16 Mar 2022
Viewed by 840
Abstract
This article presents a new analysis to determine the variation in modal dynamic characteristics of bridge superstructures caused by hydrodynamic added mass (HAM) during progressive flooding. The natural frequency variations were numerically and experimentally extracted in various artificial flood stages that included dry [...] Read more.
This article presents a new analysis to determine the variation in modal dynamic characteristics of bridge superstructures caused by hydrodynamic added mass (HAM) during progressive flooding. The natural frequency variations were numerically and experimentally extracted in various artificial flood stages that included dry conditions, semi-wet conditions, and fully wet conditions. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of both subscale and full-scale models were simulated through a coupled acoustic structural technique using Abaqus®. Experiments were performed exclusively on a subscale model at a flume laboratory to confirm the numerical simulations. Finally, an approach to quantify the directional HAM in the dominant axes of vibration was pursued using the concept of effective modal mass. It is shown that specific vibrating modes with the largest effective mass are strongly affected during artificial flood events and are identified as the dominant modes. Numerical simulation shows that large directional HAM is introduced on those dominant modes during flood events. For the full-scale representative bridge, the magnitude of the HAM along the first structural mode was estimated to be over 5.8 times the bridge’s structural modal effective mass. It is suggested that directional HAM should be included during the design of bridges over streamways that are prone to flooding in order to potentially be appended to the AASHTO code. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Analytical Modeling of Crack Widths and Cracking Loads in Structural RC Members
Infrastructures 2022, 7(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7030040 - 14 Mar 2022
Viewed by 821
Abstract
Crack width is a major performance criterion in reinforced-concrete structures, in general, and is of utmost importance in ensuring bridge performance, in particular. A reliable theory-based method is required to assess crack widths and gain insight into their dependence on material, geometry, and [...] Read more.
Crack width is a major performance criterion in reinforced-concrete structures, in general, and is of utmost importance in ensuring bridge performance, in particular. A reliable theory-based method is required to assess crack widths and gain insight into their dependence on material, geometry, and loading parameters. A new, exact analytical method is proposed for a one-dimensional reinforced concrete element based on equilibrium, constitutive, and kinematic relationships, accounting for the geometrical and material behavior of the concrete and reinforcement. A linear interfacial bond stress slip is assumed to represents the small slips associated with the limited allowed crack width. Closed-form expressions have been developed and a wealth of information can be calculated immediately, such as the cracking load levels, the crack width dependence on the load level, the expected number of cracks, and the cracks spacing. The entire nonlinear force-displacement relationship of a cracked reinforced-concrete element may be depicted, demonstrating the tension-stiffening behavior that depends on the variations in the crack width throughout the loading history. Comparisons of the model with experimental data demonstrate very good agreement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Durability of Gerber Saddles in RC Bridges: Analyses and Applications (Musmeci Bridge, Italy)
Infrastructures 2021, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6020025 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
Guaranteeing adequate safety levels in critical infrastructures such as bridges is essential to modern societies and their vital services. Bridges with reinforced concrete structures are subject to deterioration, especially due to corrosion effects. Gerber saddles are among the key components of bridges which [...] Read more.
Guaranteeing adequate safety levels in critical infrastructures such as bridges is essential to modern societies and their vital services. Bridges with reinforced concrete structures are subject to deterioration, especially due to corrosion effects. Gerber saddles are among the key components of bridges which are especially exposed to environmental actions due to their position and reduced possibility of inspection. In this paper, a framework for the durability analysis of these components is proposed, considering the simultaneous presence of permanent loads and environmental actions under the form of chloride ions. Nonlinear numerical simulations adopting the finite element code ATENA are performed, accounting for chloride ingress analyses. The presence of cracks (due to applied loads and/or design/construction defects) which may speed-up corrosion propagation, steel reinforcement loss, cracking and spalling, and their effects on the load-bearing capacity is considered. This framework has been applied to the Gerber saddles of a prominent reinforced concrete (RC) bridge, namely the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy. Durability analyses made it possible to evaluate the saddles’ strength capacity (i) at the time of construction, (ii) after forty-five years since the construction, and (iii) at an extended time of fifty years. The results show that corrosion can influence both the ultimate load capacity and the collapse mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Inspection and Assessment of Corrosion in Pretensioned Concrete Bridge Girders Exposed to Coastal Climate
Infrastructures 2020, 5(9), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5090076 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
The most common methods for detecting chloride-induced corrosion in concrete bridges are half-cell potential (HCP) mapping, electrical resistivity (ER) measurements, and chloride concentration testing, combined with visual inspection and cover measurements. However, studies on corrosion detection in pretensioned structures are rare. To investigate [...] Read more.
The most common methods for detecting chloride-induced corrosion in concrete bridges are half-cell potential (HCP) mapping, electrical resistivity (ER) measurements, and chloride concentration testing, combined with visual inspection and cover measurements. However, studies on corrosion detection in pretensioned structures are rare. To investigate the applicability and accuracy of the above methods for corrosion detection in pretensioned bridge girders, we measured pretensioned I-shaped girders exposed to the Norwegian coastal climate for 33 years. We found that, even combined, the above methods can only reliably identify general areas with various probabilities of corrosion. Despite severe concrete cracking and high chloride content, only small corrosion spots were found in strands. Because HCP cannot distinguish corrosion probability in the closely spaced strands from other electrically connected bars, the actual condition of individual strands can be found only when concrete cover is locally removed. Wet concrete with high chloride content and accordingly low HCP and low ER was found only in or near the girder support zones, which can therefore be considered the areas most susceptible to chloride-induced corrosion. We conclude by proposing a procedure for the inspection and assessment of pretensioned girders in a marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Article
Co-Active Prioritization by Means of Contingency Tables for Analyzing Element-level Bridge Inspection Results and Optimizing Returns
Infrastructures 2020, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5020013 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2518
Abstract
An efficient prioritization of bridge actions such as preventive maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement (MRR) that accounts for inter-element interactions will optimize a long-term return on investments (ROI) in terms of service life extension. What enables this return is the assignment of “Co-Active” elements. [...] Read more.
An efficient prioritization of bridge actions such as preventive maintenance, rehabilitation, or replacement (MRR) that accounts for inter-element interactions will optimize a long-term return on investments (ROI) in terms of service life extension. What enables this return is the assignment of “Co-Active” elements. This study develops a methodology based on the concept of “Co-Active elements”. The word, “Co-Active”, is used to represent a small group of elements that act together to improve the Bridge Health Index (BHI). The Co-Active parameters for three major bridge groups in Georgia are presented. To illustrate how the Co-Active model works, 1439 in-service bridges’ Element-Level Bridge Inspection results from the state of Georgia in U.S.A., representing a concrete bridge group with six Co-Active elements, are studied. The analysis results indicate that the overall BHI improves by 20% over the subsequent 20 years when expansion joints are replaced. The effects of Co-Active elements on the BHI predictions are quantifiable and depend on factors such as the timing of MRR, the condition of bridge elements as well as the type of MRR. Furthermore, it is concluded that inter-dependent relationships among Co-Active elements are highly affected by Co-Active coefficients. They increase when the degree of dependency among elements increases. Finally, the proposed bridge Co-Active prioritization analysis accounts for a performance target and associated gaps and thus is able to identify critical elements that affect bridge service life the most. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Review

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Review
State-of-the-Art Review on Probabilistic Seismic Demand Models of Bridges: Machine-Learning Application
Infrastructures 2022, 7(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7050064 - 24 Apr 2022
Viewed by 994
Abstract
Optimizing the serviceability of highway bridges is a fundamental prerequisite to provide proper infrastructure safety and emergency responses after natural hazards such as an earthquake. In this regard, fragility and resilience assessment have emerged as important means of describing the potential seismic risk [...] Read more.
Optimizing the serviceability of highway bridges is a fundamental prerequisite to provide proper infrastructure safety and emergency responses after natural hazards such as an earthquake. In this regard, fragility and resilience assessment have emerged as important means of describing the potential seismic risk and recovery process under uncertain inputs. Generating such assessments requires estimating the seismic demand of bridge components consisting of piers, deck, abutment, bearing, etc. The conventional probabilistic model to estimate the seismic demands was introduced more than two decades ago. Despite an extensive body of research ever attempting to improve demand models, the univariate demand model is the most common method used in practice. This work presents a comprehensive review of the evolution of demand models capturing machine-learning-based methodologies and their advantage in comparison to the conventional model. This study sheds light on understanding the existing demand models and their associated attributes along with their limitations. This study also provides an appraisal of the application of probabilistic demand models to generate fragility curves and subsequent application in the resilience assessment of bridges. Moreover, as a sound reference, this study highlights opportunities for future development leading to enhancement of the performance and applicability of the demand models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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Other

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Technical Note
Resistance Assessment of Service-Proven Aging Bridges Incorporating Deterioration-Load Dependency
Infrastructures 2020, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5010010 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2377
Abstract
The historical vehicles passed through an existing bridge can be regarded as proof-loading tests for the bridge, and, as a result, are evident of the bridge’s performance. Such service history information has been utilized to update the estimate of bridge resistance in previous [...] Read more.
The historical vehicles passed through an existing bridge can be regarded as proof-loading tests for the bridge, and, as a result, are evident of the bridge’s performance. Such service history information has been utilized to update the estimate of bridge resistance in previous studies with the help of a Bayesian method, where the resistance deterioration process was assumed to be independent of the vehicle load process. This assumption is, however, untenable in many cases where the deterioration stochastic process is statistically correlated with the load process (e.g., a greater load intensity may affect/accelerate the deterioration of structural resistance and the accumulation of structural fragility). With this regard, this paper investigates the effect of correlation between the resistance deterioration and load processes on updating the resistance of aging bridges with prior service load information. The copula function is employed to model the joint distribution of the correlated deterioration and load processes, with which the correlation is measured by the Kendall’s tau. A new method is developed in this paper to assess the updated bridge resistance taking into consideration the deterioration-load dependency in an explicit form. The applicability of the proposed method is illustrated using an existing RC beam bridge. The sensitivity analysis is conducted to examine how the deterioration-load dependency affects the updated resistance of service-proven aging bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Performances of Bridges)
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