Resilient and Smart Transport Infrastructure for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811). This special issue belongs to the section "Smart Infrastructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 46698

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Interests: resilient and smart infrastructures; big data; data mining; stochastic optimization; autonomous vehicle infrastructure systems

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Guest Editor
Department of Building & Construction Engineering Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University, Babylon 51001, Iraq
Interests: geopolymer and sustainable concrete; cementitious materials composition and performance; nondestructive testing; structure sensing and imaging; durability and sustainability of construction materials

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Guest Editor
Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, HAMP G175, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Interests: energy harvesting; piezoelectric; thermoelectric; nanomaterial; nondestructive testing

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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Firat University, Elazig 23200, Turkey
Interests: high-performance/fiber-reinforced concrete; self-compacting concrete; green concrete; self-healing concrete; special concrete reinforcements

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Interests: connected and automated vehicles; LIDAR; radar; CMOS; artificial intelligence; machine learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

When it comes to the word “Smart City”, the first thing that comes to mind is the Internet of Things (IoT), where data collection happens through myriad sensors by means of mmWave and 5G to give us insights into how we manage our assets. Where we have made our level-5 autonomous vehicles’ (AVs) infrastructure ready for the optimum use of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs), such vehicles can alter cities and the way people travel in many aspects. However, it is our obligation to future generations to leave them a healthy planet, and thus, we must implement new resilience engineering and construction methods to protect the Earth from natural disasters, global warming, and cyberattacks. Big data analysis and management as well as knowledge regarding how to create resilient and sustainable cities that integrate economic, environment, and society needs are the two crucial aspects that must be considered in civil engineering research and studies. In other words, we must concurrently consider building resilient and sustainable infrastructure systems for cities with spontaneous monitoring, big data analysis, and online asset management to reduce inefficiencies.

In this Special Issue, we solicit high-quality original research articles focused on state-of-the-art techniques and methods employed in resilient and smart transport and infrastructure systems. Authors are invited to present original research articles, reviews, or case studies that will stimulate the continuing efforts in the areas of research related to (1) CAVs including but not limited to: CAV infrastructure data mining and big data analytics, infrastructure needs for resiliency, and policy and planning for resilient infrastructure systems; and (2) resilient and smart infrastructure systems including but not limited to nanomaterials and smart materials to harvest energy from infrastructures, innovative smart composite materials for UHPC, 3D printing composites, etc., and concrete composites to make resilient infrastructure systems. We welcome new contexts, methodologies, and findings in both theoretical and application papers of high technical standard across various disciplines, thus facilitating an awareness of techniques and methods in one area that may be applicable to other areas.

Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Big data analytics on infrastructure systems for CAVs (data mining, machine learning, AI);
  • CAV infrastructure needs for resiliency;
  • Infrastructure design and management for CAVs (AMEX rankings and efficiency evaluations);
  • CAV operations and controls (network monitoring, LIDAR, Radar);
  • Nondestructive testing for resiliency (infrastructure sensing and imaging);
  • Cyber security, risk-informed decision making, and failure modes;
  • Policy and planning, impact assessment, legal and ethics infrastructure systems;
  • Quantification of various hazard sources (e.g., earthquake, flood, aging);
  • Recent case studies and reported transport system failures (i.e., lessons learned);
  • Recent advances in sustainable and resilient infrastructure systems;
  • Energy harvesting materials for infrastructure systems (thermoelectric materials, piezoelectric materials, nanomaterials, etc.);
  • Innovative smart composite materials for UHPC, 3D printing composites, Geopolymer, etc.;
  • New construction materials and mixture design for resilient infrastructure systems (concrete composites to make resilient infrastructure systems).

Dr. Seyed Ali Ghahari
Dr. Lateef Assi
Dr. Ehsan Ghafari
Dr. Kursat Esat Alyamac
Dr. Shabnam Ghotbi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • connected autonomous vehicle
  • resilient infrastructure systems
  • LIDAR
  • radar
  • cybersecurity
  • energy harvesting materials
  • nanomaterials
  • high-performance and self-healing concrete

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 10550 KiB  
Article
A Pre-Process Enhanced Digital Image Correlation Approach for Smart Structure Monitoring
by Mohammed Abbas Mousa, Mustafasanie M. Yussof, Lateef N. Assi and SeyedAli Ghahari
Infrastructures 2022, 7(10), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7100141 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
This research provides a practical guideline for Digital Image Correlation (DIC) data variations minimization in structural engineering through simple image processing techniques. The main objective of this research is to investigate the Pixel Averaging (P.A.) effect on the differential strain Diff(εx) [...] Read more.
This research provides a practical guideline for Digital Image Correlation (DIC) data variations minimization in structural engineering through simple image processing techniques. The main objective of this research is to investigate the Pixel Averaging (P.A.) effect on the differential strain Diff(εx) variations. Three concrete arches were tested with three-point bending using the DIC technique for strain measurements. The measured strains are obtained through two virtual horizontal extensometers in the middle of each arch. The Diff(εx) was selected to avoid other 2D-DIC issues, such as the sample-camera out-of-plane movement. Three image cases, namely, one, ten, and twenty averaged images, were used for DIC analysis of each arch. The conditions of each image case are assessed by computing the Diff(εx) variance and the linear least square criterion (R2) between the two extensometers. The second objective is to examine the speckles’ dilation effects on the speckle pattern density and surface component quality utilizing the Image Erode (I.E.) technique. The (P.A.) technique provided consistent differential strain Diff(εx) values with a variance reduction of up to (90%) when averaged images were used. The (R2) has considerably increased (from 0.46, 0.66, 0.91 to 0.90, 0.96, 0.99), respectively, for the three samples. Moreover, the (I.E.) technique provided qualitatively denser speckles with a highly consistent DIC surface component. Full article
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11 pages, 3519 KiB  
Article
Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Properties of CuAlO2 Synthesized from Nanosized Precursors for Application in Smart Infrastructure Systems
by Shabnam Ghotbi, Mohammed Abbas Mousa, Lateef Najeh Assi and SeyedAli Ghahari
Infrastructures 2022, 7(7), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures7070097 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of different sintering temperatures on the properties of copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) pellets synthesized from copper oxide (CuO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) for application in smart infrastructure systems. The pellets were [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of different sintering temperatures on the properties of copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) pellets synthesized from copper oxide (CuO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) for application in smart infrastructure systems. The pellets were sintered at 400 K, 1000 K, and 1300 K, in the presence of nitrogen gas flow to reduce the amount of oxygen availability. The CuAlO2 sintered nanoparticles were chemically analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the nanostructure of the materials was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The transmittance of the sintered materials was examined by ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry, and 88% transparency was observed for the pellets sintered at 1300 K. Electrical conductivity was measured at 0.905 mS/cm, indicating a semiconducting behavior. Full article
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10 pages, 3404 KiB  
Article
A Moving Vehicle Height Monitoring Sensor System for Overheight Impact Avoidance
by Pedro J. Chacon, Jong-Yoon Park, Aly M. Aly, George Z. Voyiadjis and Jin-Woo Choi
Infrastructures 2021, 6(6), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6060091 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3962
Abstract
Bridges, overpasses, and road construction sites with reduced vertical clearance lead to collision threats from crossing vehicles that exceed their clearance due to their inherent height or improper loading. These accidents can pose slight or severe physical damage to property and, primarily, damage [...] Read more.
Bridges, overpasses, and road construction sites with reduced vertical clearance lead to collision threats from crossing vehicles that exceed their clearance due to their inherent height or improper loading. These accidents can pose slight or severe physical damage to property and, primarily, damage to involved individuals in these vehicles or their affected components (i.e., collateral damage around and above an overpass or bridge). Furthermore, the resulting consequences may also incur fatalities, injuries, structural damages, and monetary damages. It has severely impacted the repair and/or replacement costs of the affected structures. Such accidents and consequences have been observed at a national level and could be reduced with a proper implementation of an overheight sensing system to prevent them from happening as often. This paper introduces the design, prototype, and implementation of a low power sensor network to monitor and characterize vehicle height and other characteristics in real time, thus alerting overheight vehicles well in advance of a possible collision. Full article
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12 pages, 4098 KiB  
Article
Smart Roads: An Overview of What Future Mobility Will Look Like
by Salvatore Trubia, Alessandro Severino, Salvatore Curto, Fabio Arena and Giovanni Pau
Infrastructures 2020, 5(12), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5120107 - 1 Dec 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 7969
Abstract
Transport engineering has recently undergone several significant changes and innovations, one of which is the appearance and spread of autonomous vehicles; with this technology becoming more common and ordinary by the day, it is now necessary to implement some systems and contexts to [...] Read more.
Transport engineering has recently undergone several significant changes and innovations, one of which is the appearance and spread of autonomous vehicles; with this technology becoming more common and ordinary by the day, it is now necessary to implement some systems and contexts to facilitate autonomous vehicle operations. Consequently, a different perspective is now arising when dealing with road infrastructures, aiming to simplify and improve efficiency and maintenance of the existing roads, increase the life cycle of newly built ones, and minimize the economic and financial impact at the same time. Roadway pavements are one of the primary factors affecting vehicle operations; over time, this distinctive aspect has gone through various mechanical and physical changes due to the adoption of new materials or design methods. Consequently, to the spread of autonomous vehicles, scientific research has begun to study and develop systems to make road pavements and platforms not exclusively aimed at bearing loads, but rather at considering them as a means of communication and information exchange, if not even as a source of energy. This new approach introduces the so-called “Smart Roads,” i.e., road infrastructures capable of communicating with vehicles and self-monitoring fundamental perspectives concerning driverless vehicles and the roadway platform life cycle. This paper examines the characteristics of Smart Roads, considering their broad field of application and their potential advantages and drawbacks. This paper also pursues the objective of describing the global vision, the possible future direction of these innovations concerning the automotive and transport industries, and a particular focus on infrastructures and roadways. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 3618 KiB  
Review
Application of Digital Image Correlation in Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Infrastructures: A Review
by Mohammed Abbas Mousa, Mustafasanie M. Yussof, Ufuoma Joseph Udi, Fadzli Mohamed Nazri, Mohd Khairul Kamarudin, Gerard A. R. Parke, Lateef N. Assi and Seyed Ali Ghahari
Infrastructures 2021, 6(12), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6120176 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5379
Abstract
A vision-based approach has been employed in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridge infrastructure. The approach has many advantages: non-contact, non-destructive, long-distance, high precision, immunity from electromagnetic interference, and multiple-target monitoring. This review aims to summarise the vision- and Digital Image Correlation (DIC)-based [...] Read more.
A vision-based approach has been employed in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridge infrastructure. The approach has many advantages: non-contact, non-destructive, long-distance, high precision, immunity from electromagnetic interference, and multiple-target monitoring. This review aims to summarise the vision- and Digital Image Correlation (DIC)-based SHM methods for bridge infrastructure because of their strategic significance and security concerns. Four different bridge types were studied: concrete, suspension, masonry, and steel bridge. DIC applications in SHM have recently garnered attention in aiding to assess the bridges’ structural response mechanisms under loading. Different non-destructive diagnostics methods for SHM in civil infrastructure have been used; however, vision-based techniques like DIC were only developed over the last two decades, intending to facilitate damage detection in bridge systems with prompt and accurate data for efficient and sustainable operation of the bridge structure throughout its service life. Research works reviewed in this article demonstrated the DIC capability to detect damage such as cracks, spalling, and structural parameters such as deformation, strains, vibration, deflection, and rotation. In addition, the reviewed works indicated that the DIC as an efficient and reliable technique could provide sustainable monitoring solutions for different bridge infrastructures. Full article
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21 pages, 3495 KiB  
Review
The Development of the Smart Cities in the Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) Era: From Mobility Patterns to Scaling in Cities
by Tiziana Campisi, Alessandro Severino, Muhammad Ahmad Al-Rashid and Giovanni Pau
Infrastructures 2021, 6(7), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6070100 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 12081
Abstract
Smart cities aim to integrate technological development with different functions/components such as mobility, management of energy, natural resources, water, and the waste cycle, air quality, land use, service network, construction, but also the economy, social participation, increased employment, and citizen safety. It includes [...] Read more.
Smart cities aim to integrate technological development with different functions/components such as mobility, management of energy, natural resources, water, and the waste cycle, air quality, land use, service network, construction, but also the economy, social participation, increased employment, and citizen safety. It includes a series of coordinated and integrated social, environmental and economic interventions to enhance human capital, reduce environmental impacts and solve ecological emergencies. The holistic approach is particular to smart cities, including several mobility aspects in the main European classifications. In particular, the development of smart cities depends on several factors related to transport supply (i.e., mobility service, infrastructure details, ICT) and demand (socio-demographic aspects), and the size of the city. This paper provides an overview of the development of smart cities by defining a methodology that allows the identification of criteria for determining the optimisation of urban mobility with a particular interest in the development of future autonomous mobility. The analysis of current literature on the concept of smart cities and new mobility technologies made it possible to analyse the compatibility between them and possible criticalities. The definition of criteria lays the groundwork for future research steps focused on the application of multicriteria analysis. Full article
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16 pages, 368 KiB  
Review
An Overview on the Current Status and Future Perspectives of Smart Cars
by Fabio Arena, Giovanni Pau and Alessandro Severino
Infrastructures 2020, 5(7), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5070053 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 50 | Viewed by 12363
Abstract
In recent years, the smart car sector has been increasing enormously in the Internet of Things (IoT) market. Furthermore, the number of smart cars seems set to increase over the next few years. This goal will be achieved because the application of recent [...] Read more.
In recent years, the smart car sector has been increasing enormously in the Internet of Things (IoT) market. Furthermore, the number of smart cars seems set to increase over the next few years. This goal will be achieved because the application of recent IoT technologies to the automotive sector opens up innovative opportunities for the mobility of the future, in which connected cars will be more and more prominent in smart cities. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current status and future perspectives of smart cars, taking into account technological, transport, and social features. An analysis concerning the approaches to making smart a generic car, the possible evolutions that could occur in the coming decades, the characteristics of 5G, ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems), and the power sources is carried out in this paper. Full article
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