Special Issue "Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling"

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811). This special issue belongs to the section "Infrastructures and Structural Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 December 2022 | Viewed by 3746

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Francesco Cavalieri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE), Via Adolfo Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Interests: earthquake engineering; multi-hazard risk and resilience assessment of infrastructures; seismic reliability of buildings; soil-structure interaction (SSI); precast buildings; steel storage pallet racks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

I kindly invite you to submit contributions to this Special Issue, titled “Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling”.

Numerical simulation is commonly used to assess structural seismic risk, notwithstanding its high computational burden and the limitations of stochastic models used to generate synthetic ground motions. In the effort to overcome these difficulties, the last decades witnessed a considerable amount of research focussed on the development of approximate affordable alternatives, which are conditional on a seismic intensity measure (IM) and rely on the hazard-fragility split of risk. Contributions focussing on one of these classes of methods, or on the comparison between them, are welcome.

Submission of papers dealing with the treatment of uncertainties is also encouraged. It is known that the seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of structures is affected by several sources of uncertainties, which can be categorised as either aleatory or epistemic and should be properly taken into account. For the analyst, the final goal of the treatment of uncertainties should be to provide the confidence in the estimate and quantify the contribution of the adopted models and parameters to the total output uncertainty.

The scope of this Special Issue also extends to exploring the impact of recent structural modelling advancements on fragility functions or seismic risk assessment. Amongst such modelling refinements, the following non-exhaustive examples are cited: dynamic nonlinear soil-structure interaction (SSI), flexure-axial-shear interaction, explicit modelling of progressive collapse and debris accumulation.

To summarise, this Special Issue will include contributions whose topics fall in the general framework of seismic reliability analysis of structures and advanced structural modelling. Both state-of-the-art papers and original research contributions are welcome.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Probabilistic methods (simulation-based, IM-based) for seismic risk assessment of structures, the latter including reinforced concrete, steel, masonry, precast buildings and steel storage racks
  • Treatment and sensitivity of uncertainties
  • Nonlinear modelling of structures
  • Ground motion selection methods
  • Stochastic models for artificial record generation
  • Physics-based models for synthetic record generation
  • Derivation of hazard and fragility curves
  • Dynamic SSI modelling, encompassing linear substructure approach, direct approach with a finite element soil-block, hybrid methods (e.g., employing a nonlinear macro-element)
  • Comparative assessment of SSI models in affecting seismic risk

 

Dr. Francesco Cavalieri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Seismic risk assessment
  • Nonlinear dynamic analysis
  • Treatment of uncertainties
  • Numerical simulation
  • IM-based methods
  • Record selection
  • Fragility functions
  • Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI)
  • Soil nonlinearity
  • Progressive collapse

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
On the Applicability of Transfer Function Models for SSI Embedment Effects
Infrastructures 2021, 6(10), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6100137 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
Soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects are typically neglected for relatively lightweight buildings that are less than two-three storeys high with a limited footprint area and resting on shallow foundations (i.e., not featuring a basement). However, when the above conditions are not satisfied, and in [...] Read more.
Soil-structure interaction (SSI) effects are typically neglected for relatively lightweight buildings that are less than two-three storeys high with a limited footprint area and resting on shallow foundations (i.e., not featuring a basement). However, when the above conditions are not satisfied, and in particular when large basements are present, important kinematic SSI may develop, causing the foundation-level motion to deviate from the free-field one due to embedment effects. In the literature, transfer function models that estimate the filtering effect induced by rigid massless embedded foundations are available to “transform” foundation-level recordings into free-field ones, and vice-versa. This work describes therefore a numerical study aimed at assessing potential limits of the applicability of such transfer functions through the employment of a 3D nonlinear soil-block model representing a layered soil, recently developed and validated by the authors, and featuring on top a large heavy building with basement. A number of finite element site response analyses were carried out for different seismic input signals, soil profiles and embedment depths of the building’s basement. The numerically obtained transfer functions were compared with the curves derived using two analytical models. It was observed that the latter are able to reliably predict the embedment effects in “idealised” soil/input conditions under which they have been developed. However, in real conditions, namely when a non-homogeneous profile with nonlinear behaviour under a given seismic excitation is considered, especially in presence of a basement that is more than one storey high, they may fail in capturing some features, such as the frequency-dependent amplification of the motion at the basement level of a building with respect to the free-field one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling)
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Article
Seismic Risk of Infrastructure Systems with Treatment of and Sensitivity to Epistemic Uncertainty
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110103 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Modern society’s very existence is tied to the proper and reliable functioning of its Critical Infrastructure (CI) systems. In the seismic risk assessment of an infrastructure, taking into account all the relevant uncertainties affecting the problem is crucial. While both aleatory and epistemic [...] Read more.
Modern society’s very existence is tied to the proper and reliable functioning of its Critical Infrastructure (CI) systems. In the seismic risk assessment of an infrastructure, taking into account all the relevant uncertainties affecting the problem is crucial. While both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties affect the estimate of seismic risk to an infrastructure and should be considered, the focus herein is on the latter. After providing an up-to-date literature review about the treatment of and sensitivity to epistemic uncertainty, this paper presents a comprehensive framework for seismic risk assessment of interdependent spatially distributed infrastructure systems that accounts for both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties and provides confidence in the estimate, as well as sensitivity of uncertainty in the output to the components of epistemic uncertainty in the input. The logic tree approach is used for the treatment of epistemic uncertainty and for the sensitivity analysis, whose results are presented through tornado diagrams. Sensitivity is also evaluated by elaborating the logic tree results through weighted ANOVA. The formulation is general and can be applied to risk assessment problems involving not only infrastructural but also structural systems. The presented methodology was implemented into an open-source software, OOFIMS, and applied to a synthetic city composed of buildings and a gas network and subjected to seismic hazard. The gas system’s performance is assessed through a flow-based analysis. The seismic hazard, the vulnerability assessment and the evaluation of the gas system’s operational state are addressed with a simulation-based approach. The presence of two systems (buildings and gas network) proves the capability to handle system interdependencies and highlights that uncertainty in models/parameters related to one system can affect uncertainty in the output related to dependent systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling)
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Graphical abstract

Article
A Resilience-Based Methodology to Assess Soil Structure Interaction on a Benchmark Bridge
Infrastructures 2020, 5(11), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures5110090 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 981
Abstract
The assessment of bridge functionality during earthquakes is fundamental in the evaluation of emergency response and socio-economic recovery procedures. In this regard, resilience may be considered a key parameter for decision-making procedures such as post-hazard event mitigations and recovery investments on bridges. The [...] Read more.
The assessment of bridge functionality during earthquakes is fundamental in the evaluation of emergency response and socio-economic recovery procedures. In this regard, resilience may be considered a key parameter for decision-making procedures such as post-hazard event mitigations and recovery investments on bridges. The paper proposes a case study of a bridge configuration subjected to seismic hazard and aims to consider the effects of the soil–structure interaction on the recovery to various levels of pre-earthquake functionality. The principal outcome of the paper consists of calculating resilience as a readable finding that may have many applications for a wide range of stakeholders, such as bridge owners, transportation authorities and public administrators who can apply the outcomes in the assessment of the best recovery techniques and solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Reliability Assessment and Advances in Structural Modelling)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Collapse risk assessment of large-scale bridges
Authors: N. Scattarreggia; A. Orgnoni; D. Malomo; M. Moratti; G.M. Calvi; R. Pinho
Affiliation: (1) University School for Advanced Studies, IUSS Pavia, Italy. (2) University School for Advanced Studies, IUSS Pavia, Italy. (3) Modelling and Structural Analysis Konsulting (Mosayk Ltd), Pavia, Italy. (4) Studio Calvi Ltd, Pavia, Italy. (5) University School for Advanced Studies, IUSS Pavia, Italy. European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE), Pavia, Italy. Studio Calvi Ltd, Pavia, Italy. (6) Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Italy. Modelling and Structural Analysis Konsulting (Mosayk Ltd), Pavia, Italy.
Abstract: To reduce computational expense, numerical collapse risk ‘assessment of bridges usually relies on simplified analysis techniques, where the influence of relevant structural details, including actual reinforcement layout, construction stages and deterioration effects (e.g. corrosion) over time, is not explicitly taken into account. Similarly, collision phenomena among structural members and damage propagation up until complete failure are typically neglected. The above mentioned aspects, however, may have a dramatic impact on the predicted response, which is inevitably reflected in development of numerically-inferred vulnerability and consequences models. In this work, the capabilities of a newly-developed computational low-cost approach to simulate the collapse response of large-scale bridge systems, based on the mechanical interaction between rigid bodies and zero-thickness nonlinear interface springs, are investigated. To this end, the recently-observed failures of two bridges in Europe and Asia are considered and consequently modeled accounting for various input conditions. Using the proposed discontinuum model, which considers the effect of adopted construction techniques, structural detailing, progressive failures and impact phenomena, a reasonable agreement with actual debris generated by the collapse of the selected bridge systems was obtained. Finally, numerical results are compared with those inferred using a more traditional Finite Element approach, and potential implications on the associated seismic risk predictions discussed.

Title: Soil Structure Interaction assessment of a bridge configuration with a resilience-based approach
Authors: Davide Forcellini
Affiliation: University of Auckland
Abstract: The assessment of bridge functionality during earthquakes is fundamental in the evaluation of emergency response and socio-economic recovery procedures. In this regard, resilience may be considered a key parameter for decision-making procedures such as post-hazard event mitigations and recovery investments on bridges. The paper proposes a case study of a bridge configuration subjected to seismic hazard and aims to consider the effects of the soil-structure interaction on the recovery to various levels of pre-earthquake functionality. The principal aim is the calculation of resilience as a readable finding for a wide range of stakeholders, such as bridge owners, transportation authorities and public administrators who can apply the outcomes in the assessment of the best recovery techniques and solutions.

Title: Seismic risk of infrastructure systems with treatment of and sensitivity to epistemic uncertainty
Authors: Francesco Cavalieri; Paolo Franchin
Affiliation: (1) European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE), Via Adolfo Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy; email: [email protected] (2) Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Antonio Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome, Italy; email: [email protected]
Abstract: Modern societies show a high dependency on their Critical Infrastructure (CI) systems to work properly. This paper presents a comprehensive framework for the seismic risk assessment of spatially distributed infrastructure systems, accounting for the relevant uncertainties in the problem. While both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are considered, the focus herein is on the latter. The adopted methodology uses the logic tree for the treatment of epistemic uncertainty and, in combination with weighted ANOVA, to evaluate the sensitivity of uncertainty in the output to the components of epistemic uncertainty in the input. The formulation is general and can be applied to a range of risk assessment problems for structural and infrastructural systems. The presented methodology was implemented into an open-source software, OOFIMS, and applied to a synthetic city composed of buildings and a gas network and subjected to seismic hazard. The gas system’s performance is assessed through a flow-based analysis. The seismic hazard, the vulnerability assessment and the evaluation of the gas system’s operational state are addressed with a simulation-based approach. The presence of two systems (buildings and gas network) proves the capability to handle system interdependencies and highlights that uncertainty in models/parameters related to one system can affect uncertainty in the output related to dependent systems.

Title: Transfer functions for embedment and base-slab averaging correction of foundation-level recordings
Authors: Francesco Cavalieri; António A. Correia; Rui Pinho
Affiliation: (1) European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering (EUCENTRE), Via Adolfo Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy; email: [email protected] (2) National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (LNEC), Av. do Brasil 101, 1700-066 Lisboa, Portugal; email: [email protected] (3) Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Via Adolfo Ferrata 5, 27100 Pavia, Italy; email: [email protected]
Abstract: Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) effects are typically neglected for relatively lightweight buildings that are less than 2-3 storeys high, with a limited footprint area and resting on shallow foundations (i.e., not featuring a basement). Therefore, recordings obtained from instruments adequately installed inside these buildings are deemed to be representative of free-field motion. When the above conditions are not satisfied, however, SSI effects may be present, leading the foundation-level motion to deviate from the free-field one. While both kinematic and inertial interaction contribute to SSI, the focus herein is on the former. For a large heavy structure with shallow foundations, base-slab averaging of incoherent incident waves underneath the footings usually takes place. In addition, when a basement is present, the free-field motion may be also perturbed by the embedment effect. In this work, in order to investigate the impact of kinematic interaction on foundation-level recordings, a 3D nonlinear soil-block representing a layered soil was modelled in OpenSees, together with a large heavy building with basement founded on top of the soil-block. A number of finite element site response analyses were carried out for different seismic input signals, soil profiles and properties of the building (e.g., height of basement and footprint area). Following post-process of these analyses, transfer functions representing the ratio of foundation/free-field motion in the frequency domain, and which can be used for correction of embedment and/or base-slab averaging effects in foundation-level recordings, were derived and compared with analogous expressions available in the current literature.

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