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Special Issue "Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2017)

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Carsten Stephan

Department of Urology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
E-Mail
Phone: +49 30 450 515 052
Fax: +49 30 450 515 904
Interests: biomarkers of prostate cancer; artificial neural networks; prostate health index

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the Western world. Therefore, its early diagnosis, which is mainly based on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), has especially gained attention in several fields of research. New biomarkers in serum and urine have been described; for example, the prostate health index (PHI) or urinary Prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3), or others including several biomarker-based multivariate models. However, not only the diagnosis, but also, more so, the prognosis or further prediction of this very common disease is important to know. Here, several new nucleic acid or protein-based tissue biomarkers have been described. As already described for other types of cancer, individualized medicine, such as theranostics, a combination of diagnostics and therapeutics, has been a new attraction for late stage prostate cancer, including castration resistant prostate cancer. This Special Issue focuses on “Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer”.

We warmly welcome submissions, including original papers and reviews, on this widely discussed topic.

Carsten Stephan
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • urinary biomarkers on prostate cancer
  • serum/plasma biomarkers
  • tissue biomarkers (nuleic acid/protein-based)
  • prognostic factors
  • multivariate models

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Published Papers (27 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Advances in Biomarkers for PCa Diagnostics and Prognostics—A Way towards Personalized Medicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18102193
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer (PCa) is, with an estimated number of 161,360 cases and 26,730 deaths in 2017, the most common malignancy in the USA [...]
Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Metastatic Conventional Prostate Cancer Is Significantly Increased in Lymph Node Metastases Compared to the Primary Tumors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18081640
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neuroendocrine serum markers released from prostate cancers have been proposed for monitoring disease and predicting survival. However, neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in various tissue compartments of metastatic prostate cancer is poorly described and its correlation with specific tumor features is unclear. NED was determined
[...] Read more.
Neuroendocrine serum markers released from prostate cancers have been proposed for monitoring disease and predicting survival. However, neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in various tissue compartments of metastatic prostate cancer is poorly described and its correlation with specific tumor features is unclear. NED was determined by Chromogranin A expression on immunostains from a tissue microarray of 119 nodal positive, hormone treatment-naïve prostate cancer patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and extended lymphadenectomy. NED in the primary cancer and in the metastases was correlated with tumor features and survival. The mean percentage of NED cells increased significantly (p < 0.001) from normal prostate glands (0.4%), to primary prostate cancer (1.0%) and nodal metastases (2.6%). In primary tumors and nodal metastases, tumor areas with higher Gleason patterns tended to display a higher NED, although no significance was reached. The same was observed in patients with a larger primary tumor volume and higher total size and number of metastases. NED neither in the primary tumors nor in the metastases predicted outcome significantly. Our data suggest that (a) increasing levels of neuroendocrine serum markers in the course of prostate cancer might primarily derive from a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor component; and (b) NED in conventional hormone-naïve prostate cancers is not significantly linked to adverse tumor features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Prostate Cancer Cells Resistant to Docetaxel as in vitro Model for Discovering MicroRNAs Predictive of the Onset of Docetaxel Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(7), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18071512
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
On the grounds that miRNAs present in the blood of prostate cancer (PCa) patients are released in the growth medium by PCa cells, it is conceivable that PCa cells resistant to docetaxel (DCT) (DCTR) will release miRNAs that may be found
[...] Read more.
On the grounds that miRNAs present in the blood of prostate cancer (PCa) patients are released in the growth medium by PCa cells, it is conceivable that PCa cells resistant to docetaxel (DCT) (DCTR) will release miRNAs that may be found in PCa patients under DCT therapy if resistant PCa cells appear. We isolated DCTR clones respectively from 22Rv1 and DU-145 PCa cell lines and performed through next-generation sequencing (NGS) the miRNAs profiles of the released miRNAs. The analysis of the NGS data identified 105 and 1 miRNAs which were differentially released in the growth medium of the 22Rv1/DCTR and DU-145/DCTR clones, respectively. Using additional filters, we selected 12 and 1 miRNA more released by all 22Rv1/DCTR and DU-145/DCTR clones, respectively. Moreover, we showed that 6 of them were more represented in the growth medium of the DCTR cells than the ones of DCT-treated cells. We speculated that they have the pre-requisite to be tested as predictive biomarkers of the DCT resistance in PCa patients under DCT therapy. We propose the utilization of clones resistant to a given drug as in vitro model to identify the differentially released miRNAs, which in perspective could be tested as predictive biomarkers of drug resistance in tumor patients under therapy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Panel of MicroRNAs as Diagnostic Biomarkers for the Identification of Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061281
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer among men; yet, current diagnostic methods are insufficient, and more reliable diagnostic markers need to be developed. One answer that can bridge this gap may lie in microRNAs. These small RNA molecules impact protein expression
[...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous cancer among men; yet, current diagnostic methods are insufficient, and more reliable diagnostic markers need to be developed. One answer that can bridge this gap may lie in microRNAs. These small RNA molecules impact protein expression at the translational level, regulating important cellular pathways, the dysregulation of which can exert tumorigenic effects contributing to cancer. In this study, high throughput sequencing of small RNAs extracted from blood from 28 prostate cancer patients at initial stages of diagnosis and prior to treatment was used to identify microRNAs that could be utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer compared to 12 healthy controls. In addition, a group of four microRNAs (miR-1468-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-1538 and miR-197-3p) was identified as normalization standards for subsequent qRT-PCR confirmation. qRT-PCR analysis corroborated microRNA sequencing results for the seven top dysregulated microRNAs. The abundance of four microRNAs (miR-127-3p, miR-204-5p, miR-329-3p and miR-487b-3p) was upregulated in blood, whereas the levels of three microRNAs (miR-32-5p, miR-20a-5p and miR-454-3p) were downregulated. Data analysis of the receiver operating curves for these selected microRNAs exhibited a better correlation with prostate cancer than PSA (prostate-specific antigen), the current gold standard for prostate cancer detection. In summary, a panel of seven microRNAs is proposed, many of which have prostate-specific targets, which may represent a significant improvement over current testing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity of HOXB13 as a Diagnostic Immunohistochemical Marker of Prostatic Origin in Prostate Cancer Metastases: Comparison to PSA, Prostein, Androgen Receptor, ERG, NKX3.1, PSAP, and PSMA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061151
Received: 16 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (10414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this
[...] Read more.
Aims: Determining the origin of metastases is an important task of pathologists to allow for the initiation of a tumor-specific therapy. Recently, homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) has been suggested as a new marker for the detection of prostatic origin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of HOXB13 in comparison to commonly used immunohistochemical markers for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Histologically confirmed prostate cancer lymph node metastases from 64 cases were used to test the diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers: prostate specific antigen (PSA), Prostatic acid phosphatase (PSAP), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), homeobox gene NKX3.1, prostein, androgen receptor (AR), HOXB13, and ETS-related gene (ERG). All markers were evaluated semi-quantitatively using Remmele's immune reactive score. Results: The detection rate of prostate origin of metastasis for single markers was 100% for NKX3.1, 98.1% for AR, 84.3% for PSMA, 80.8% for PSA, 66% for PSAP, 60.4% for HOXB13, 59.6% for prostein, and 50.0% for ERG. Conclusions: Our data suggest that HOXB13 on its own lacks sensitivity for the detection of prostatic origin. Therefore, this marker should be only used in conjunction with other markers, preferably the highly specific PSA. The combination of PSA with NKX3.1 shows a higher sensitivity and thus appears preferable in this setting. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CTC-mRNA (AR-V7) Analysis from Blood Samples—Impact of Blood Collection Tube and Storage Time
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051047
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 12 May 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are an emerging resource for monitoring cancer biomarkers. New technologies for CTC isolation and biomarker detection are increasingly sensitive, however, the ideal blood storage conditions to preserve CTC-specific mRNA biomarkers remains undetermined. Here we tested the preservation of tumour
[...] Read more.
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are an emerging resource for monitoring cancer biomarkers. New technologies for CTC isolation and biomarker detection are increasingly sensitive, however, the ideal blood storage conditions to preserve CTC-specific mRNA biomarkers remains undetermined. Here we tested the preservation of tumour cells and CTC-mRNA over time in common anticoagulant ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and acid citrate dextrose solution B (Citrate) blood tubes compared to preservative-containing blood tubes. Blood samples spiked with prostate cancer cells were processed after 0, 24, 30, and 48 h storage at room temperature. The tumour cell isolation efficiency and the mRNA levels of the prostate cancer biomarkers androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) and total AR, as well as epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) were measured. Spiked cells were recovered across all storage tube types and times. Surprisingly, tumour mRNA biomarkers were readily detectable after 48 h storage in EDTA and Citrate tubes, but not in preservative-containing tubes. Notably, AR-V7 expression was detected in prostate cancer patient blood samples after 48 h storage in EDTA tubes at room temperature. This important finding presents opportunities for measuring AR-V7 expression from clinical trial patient samples processed within 48 h—a much more feasible timeframe compared to previous recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protease Expression Levels in Prostate Cancer Tissue Can Explain Prostate Cancer-Associated Seminal Biomarkers—An Explorative Concept Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050976
Received: 24 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (9062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin
[...] Read more.
Previously, we described prostate cancer (PCa) detection (83% sensitivity; 67% specificity) in seminal plasma by CE-MS/MS. Moreover, advanced disease was distinguished from organ-confined tumors with 80% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The discovered biomarkers were naturally occurring fragments of larger seminal proteins, predominantly semenogelin 1 and 2, representing endpoints of the ejaculate liquefaction. Here we identified proteases putatively involved in PCa specific protein cleavage, and examined gene expression and tissue protein levels, jointly with cell localization in normal prostate (nP), benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), seminal vesicles and PCa using qPCR, Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We found differential gene expression of chymase (CMA1), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP3, MMP7), and upregulation of MMP14 and tissue inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) in BPH. In contrast tissue protein levels of MMP14 were downregulated in PCa. MMP3/TIMP1 and MMP7/TIMP1 ratios were decreased in BPH. In seminal vesicles, we found low-level expression of most proteases and, interestingly, we also detected TIMP1 and low levels of TIMP2. We conclude that MMP3 and MMP7 activity is different in PCa compared to BPH due to fine regulation by their inhibitor TIMP1. Our findings support the concept of seminal plasma biomarkers as non-invasive tool for PCa detection and risk stratification. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fasting Enhances the Contrast of Bone Metastatic Lesions in 18F-Fluciclovine-PET: Preclinical Study Using a Rat Model of Mixed Osteolytic/Osteoblastic Bone Metastases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050934
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 29 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (19911 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
18F-fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid) is an amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer used for cancer staging (e.g., prostate and breast). Patients scheduled to undergo amino acid-PET are usually required to fast before PET tracer administration. However, there have
[...] Read more.
18F-fluciclovine (trans-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid) is an amino acid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer used for cancer staging (e.g., prostate and breast). Patients scheduled to undergo amino acid-PET are usually required to fast before PET tracer administration. However, there have been no reports addressing whether fasting improves fluciclovine-PET imaging. In this study, the authors investigated the influence of fasting on fluciclovine-PET using triple-tracer autoradiography with 14C-fluciclovine, [5,6-3H]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (3H-FDG), and 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HMDP) in a rat breast cancer model of mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic bone metastases in which the animals fasted overnight. Lesion accumulation of each tracer was evaluated using the target-to-background (muscle) ratio. The mean ratios of 14C-fluciclovine in osteolytic lesions were 4.6 ± 0.8 and 2.8 ± 0.6, respectively, with and without fasting, while those for 3H-FDG were 6.9 ± 2.5 and 5.1 ± 2.0, respectively. In the peri-tumor bone formation regions (osteoblastic), where 99mTc-HMDP accumulated, the ratios of 14C-fluciclovine were 4.3 ± 1.4 and 2.4 ± 0.7, respectively, and those of 3H-FDG were 6.2 ± 3.8 and 3.3 ± 2.2, respectively, with and without fasting. These results suggest that fasting before 18F-fluciclovine-PET improves the contrast between osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastatic lesions and background, as well as 18F-FDG-PET. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Study of Blood-Based Biomarkers, α2,3-Sialic Acid PSA and PHI, for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Detection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040845
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), although it is not specific and sensitive enough to allow the differential diagnosis of the more aggressive tumors. For that, new diagnostic methods are being developed, such as
[...] Read more.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), although it is not specific and sensitive enough to allow the differential diagnosis of the more aggressive tumors. For that, new diagnostic methods are being developed, such as PCA-3, PSA isoforms that have resulted in the 4K score or the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and PSA glycoforms. In the present study, we have compared the PHI with our recently developed PSA glycoform assay, based on the determination of the α2,3-sialic acid percentage of serum PSA (% α2,3-SA), in a cohort of 79 patients, which include 50 PCa of different grades and 29 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients. The % α2,3-SA could distinguish high-risk PCa patients from the rest of patients better than the PHI (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.971 vs. 0.840), although the PHI correlated better with the Gleason score than the % α2,3-SA. The combination of both markers increased the AUC up to 0.985 resulting in 100% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity to differentiate high-risk PCa from the other low and intermediate-risk PCa and BPH patients. These results suggest that both serum markers complement each other and offer an improved diagnostic tool to identify high-risk PCa, which is an important requirement for guiding treatment decisions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SUMO-Specific Cysteine Protease 1 Promotes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer Cells via Regulating SMAD4 deSUMOylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040808
Received: 6 March 2017 / Revised: 2 April 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In advanced prostate cancer, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific cysteine protease 1 (SENP1) is up-regulated. However, the role of SENP1 in regulating deSUMOylation of TGF-β/SMADs signaling is unknown. In this study, we developed a lentiviral vector, PLKO.1-shSENP1, to silence SENP1 in prostate cancer cells
[...] Read more.
In advanced prostate cancer, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific cysteine protease 1 (SENP1) is up-regulated. However, the role of SENP1 in regulating deSUMOylation of TGF-β/SMADs signaling is unknown. In this study, we developed a lentiviral vector, PLKO.1-shSENP1, to silence SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with high metastatic characteristics (PC3M). Likewise, we also created an adenovirus vector, Ad5/F11p-SENP1 to over-express SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with low metastatic potential (LNCaP). We showed that silencing of SENP1 promoted cellular apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation and migration of PC3M cells. Moreover, SENP1 silencing increased the SMAD4 expression at protein level, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated Vimentin expression, indicating the inhibition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, SMAD4 interference abolished SENP1-mediated up-regulation of E-cadherin, suggesting that SENP1 regulated E-cadherin expression via SMAD4. SENP1 over-expression in LNCaP cells reduced SMAD4 protein, and promoted EMT via decreasing E-cadherin and increasing Vimentin. Moreover, down-regulation of SMAD4 and E-cadherin were blocked, after transfection with two SUMOylation sites mutated SMAD4, suggesting that SENP1 might reduce SMAD4 levels to regulate E-cadherin expression via deSUMOylation of SMAD4. In conclusion, SENP1 deSUMOylated SMAD4 to promote EMT via up-regulating E-cadherin in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, SENP1 is a potential target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cancer/Testis Antigens: “Smart” Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Prostate and Other Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18040740
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 31 March 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A clinical dilemma in the management of prostate cancer (PCa) is to distinguish men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men who may not require immediate intervention. Accurate prediction of disease behavior is critical because radical treatment is associated with high
[...] Read more.
A clinical dilemma in the management of prostate cancer (PCa) is to distinguish men with aggressive disease who need definitive treatment from men who may not require immediate intervention. Accurate prediction of disease behavior is critical because radical treatment is associated with high morbidity. Here, we highlight the cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) as potential PCa biomarkers. The CTAs are a group of proteins that are typically restricted to the testis in the normal adult but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers. Interestingly, >90% of CTAs are predicted to belong to the realm of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which do not have unique structures and exist as highly dynamic conformational ensembles, but are known to play important roles in several biological processes. Using prostate-associated gene 4 (PAGE4) as an example of a disordered CTA, we highlight how IDP conformational dynamics may regulate phenotypic heterogeneity in PCa cells, and how it may be exploited both as a potential biomarker as well as a promising therapeutic target in PCa. We also discuss how in addition to intrinsic disorder and post-translational modifications, structural and functional variability induced in the CTAs by alternate splicing represents an important feature that might have different roles in different cancers. Although it is clear that significant additional work needs to be done in the outlined direction, this novel concept emphasizing (multi)functionality as an important trait in selecting a biomarker underscoring the theranostic potential of CTAs that is latent in their structure (or, more appropriately, the lack thereof), and casts them as next generation or “smart” biomarker candidates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030529
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (7836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer,
[...] Read more.
The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does the Prostate Health Index Depend on Tumor Volume?—A Study on 196 Patients after Radical Prostatectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030488
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Prostate Health Index (PHI) has been used increasingly in the context of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics since 2010. Previous studies have shown an association between PHI and a tumor volume of >0.5 cm3. The aim of this study was to
[...] Read more.
The Prostate Health Index (PHI) has been used increasingly in the context of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnostics since 2010. Previous studies have shown an association between PHI and a tumor volume of >0.5 cm3. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between PHI and tumor volume as well as the Gleason score. A total of 196 selected patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy at our institution were included in our study. The tumor volume was calculated and preoperative serum parameters total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), [−2]proPSA, and PHI were evaluated. The association between the pathological findings such as Gleason score, pathological T-stage (pT stage), and tumor volume were evaluated. We further used logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses for assessing the association between tumor volume and PHI and for predicting biochemical recurrence. With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79, PHI is the most accurate predictor of a tumor volumes >0.5 cm3. Moreover, PHI correlates significantly with the tumor volume (r = 0.588), which is significantly different (p = 0.008) from the correlation of the Gleason score with tumor volume (r = 0.385). PHI correlates more strongly with the tumor volume than does the Gleason score. Using PHI improves the prediction of larger tumor volume and subsequently clinically significant cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Automated Micro-Total Immunoassay System for Measuring Cancer-Associated α2,3-linked Sialyl N-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen May Improve the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Diagnosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020470
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA) ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay
[...] Read more.
The low specificity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is a major issue worldwide. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum PCa-associated α2,3-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,3PSA) ratio measured by automated micro-total immunoassay systems (μTAS system) can be applied as a diagnostic marker of PCa. The μTAS system can utilize affinity-based separation involving noncovalent interaction between the immunocomplex of S2,3PSA and Maackia amurensis lectin to simultaneously determine concentrations of free PSA and S2,3PSA. To validate quantitative performance, both recombinant S2,3PSA and benign-associated α2,6-linked sialyl N-glycan-carrying PSA (S2,6PSA) purified from culture supernatant of PSA cDNA transiently-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells were used as standard protein. Between 2007 and 2016, fifty patients with biopsy-proven PCa were pair-matched for age and PSA levels, with the same number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients used to validate the diagnostic performance of serum S2,3PSA ratio. A recombinant S2,3PSA- and S2,6PSA-spiked sample was clearly discriminated by μTAS system. Limit of detection of S2,3PSA was 0.05 ng/mL and coefficient variation was less than 3.1%. The area under the curve (AUC) for detection of PCa for the S2,3PSA ratio (%S2,3PSA) with cutoff value 43.85% (AUC; 0.8340) was much superior to total PSA (AUC; 0.5062) using validation sample set. Although the present results are preliminary, the newly developed μTAS platform for measuring %S2,3PSA can achieve the required assay performance specifications for use in the practical and clinical setting and may improve the accuracy of PCa diagnosis. Additional validation studies are warranted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Metformin and GANT61 Combinations on the Radiosensitivity of Prostate Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020399
Received: 5 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 13 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The anti-diabetes drug metformin has been shown to have anti-neoplastic effects in several tumor models through its effects on energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Recent studies show that metformin also targets Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a developmental pathway re-activated in several tumor types, including
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The anti-diabetes drug metformin has been shown to have anti-neoplastic effects in several tumor models through its effects on energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Recent studies show that metformin also targets Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a developmental pathway re-activated in several tumor types, including prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, we and others have shown that Hh signaling is an important target for radiosensitization. Here, we evaluated the combination of metformin and the Hh inhibitor GANT61 (GLI-ANTagonist 61) with or without ionizing radiation in three PCa cell lines (PC3, DU145, 22Rv1). The effect on proliferation, radiosensitivity, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, reactive oxygen species production, DNA repair, gene and protein expression was investigated. Furthermore, this treatment combination was also assessed in vivo. Metformin was shown to interact with Hh signaling by inhibiting the effector protein glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) in PCa cells both in vitro and in vivo. The combination of metformin and GANT61 significantly inhibited PCa cell growth in vitro and enhanced the radiation response of 22Rv1 cells compared to either single agent. Nevertheless, neither the growth inhibitory effect nor the radiosensitization effect of the combination treatment observed in vitro was seen in vivo. Although the interaction between metformin and Hh signaling seems to be promising from a therapeutic point of view in vitro, more research is needed when implementing this combination strategy in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of the Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio for Survival Outcomes in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Abiraterone
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020380
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic capability of baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) and NLR-change under Abiraterone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. The impact of baseline NLR and change after eight weeks of treatment on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall
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The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic capability of baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) and NLR-change under Abiraterone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. The impact of baseline NLR and change after eight weeks of treatment on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier-estimates and Cox-regression. 79 men with baseline NLR <5 and 17 with NLR >5 were analyzed. In baseline analysis of PFS NLR >5 was associated with non-significantly shorter median PFS (five versus 10 months) (HR: 1.6 (95%CI:0.9–2.8); p = 0.11). After multivariate adjustment (MVA), ECOG > 0–1, baseline LDH>upper limit of normal (UNL) and presence of visceral metastases were independent prognosticators. For OS, NLR >5 was associated with shorter survival (seven versus 19 months) (HR: 2.3 (95%CI:1.3–4.0); p < 0.01). In MVA, ECOG > 0–1 and baseline LDH > UNL remained independent prognosticators. After 8 weeks of Abiraterone NLR-change to <5 prognosticated worse PFS (five versus 12 months) (HR: 4.1 (95%CI:1.1–15.8); p = 0.04). MVA showed a trend towards worse PFS for NLR-change to <5 (p = 0.11). NLR-change to <5 led to non-significant shorter median OS (seven versus 16 months) (HR: 2.3 (95%CI:0.7–7.1); p = 0.15). MVA showed non-significant difference for OS. We concluded baseline NLR <5 is associated with improved survival. In contrast, in patients with baseline NLR >5, NLR-change to <5 after eight weeks of Abiraterone was associated with worse survival and should be interpreted carefully. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wisteria floribunda Agglutinin and Its Reactive-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18020261
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
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Abstract
Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) preferably binds to LacdiNAc glycans, and its reactivity is associated with tumor progression. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum LacdiNAc carrying prostate-specific antigen–glycosylation isomer (PSA-Gi) and WFA-reactivity of tumor tissue can be applied as a
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Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) preferably binds to LacdiNAc glycans, and its reactivity is associated with tumor progression. The aim of this study to examine whether the serum LacdiNAc carrying prostate-specific antigen–glycosylation isomer (PSA-Gi) and WFA-reactivity of tumor tissue can be applied as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of prostate cancer (PCa). Between 2007 and 2016, serum PSA-Gi levels before prostate biopsy (Pbx) were measured in 184 biopsy-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia patients and 244 PCa patients using an automated lectin-antibody immunoassay. WFA-reactivity on tumor was analyzed in 260 radical prostatectomy (RP) patients. Diagnostic and prognostic performance of serum PSA-Gi was evaluated using area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC). Prognostic performance of WFA-reactivity on tumor was evaluated via Cox proportional hazards regression analysis and nomogram. The AUC of serum PSA-Gi detecting PCa and predicting Pbx Grade Group (GG) 3 and GG ≥ 3 after RP was much higher than those of conventional PSA. Multivariate analysis showed that WFA-reactivity on prostate tumor was an independent risk factor of PSA recurrence. The nomogram was a strong model for predicting PSA-free survival provability with a c-index ≥0.7. Serum PSA-Gi levels and WFA-reactivity on prostate tumor may be a novel diagnostic and pre- and post-operative prognostic biomarkers of PCa, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Perioperative Search for Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients Undergoing Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010128
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the absence of local prostate cancer recurrence, some patients develop distant metastases after prostate brachytherapy. We evaluate whether prostate brachytherapy procedures have a potential risk for hematogenous spillage of prostate cancer cells. Fifty-nine patients who were undergoing high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR)
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Despite the absence of local prostate cancer recurrence, some patients develop distant metastases after prostate brachytherapy. We evaluate whether prostate brachytherapy procedures have a potential risk for hematogenous spillage of prostate cancer cells. Fifty-nine patients who were undergoing high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy participated in this prospective study. Thirty patients with high-risk or locally advanced cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Twenty-nine patients with clinically localized cancer were treated with LDR brachytherapy without neoadjuvant ADT. Samples of peripheral blood were drawn in the operating room before insertion of needles (preoperative) and again immediately after the surgical manipulation (intraoperative). Blood samples of 7.5 mL were analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using the CellSearch System. While no preoperative samples showed CTCs (0%), they were detected in intraoperative samples in 7 of the 59 patients (11.8%; preoperative vs. intraoperative, p = 0.012). Positive CTC status did not correlate with perioperative variables, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, use of neoadjuvant ADT, type of brachytherapy, Gleason score, and biopsy positive core rate. We detected CTCs from samples immediately after the surgical manipulation. Further study is needed to evaluate whether those CTCs actually can survive and proliferate at distant sites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inherited Variants in Wnt Pathway Genes Influence Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17121970
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aberrant Wnt signaling has been associated with many types of cancer. However, the association of inherited Wnt pathway variants with clinical outcomes in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been determined. Here, we comprehensively studied the contribution of common
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Aberrant Wnt signaling has been associated with many types of cancer. However, the association of inherited Wnt pathway variants with clinical outcomes in prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has not been determined. Here, we comprehensively studied the contribution of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Wnt pathway genes to the clinical outcomes of 465 advanced prostate cancer patients treated with ADT. Two SNPs, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) rs2707765 and rs497844, were significantly (p ≤ 0.009 and q ≤ 0.043) associated with both prostate cancer progression and all-cause mortality, even after multivariate analyses and multiple testing correction. Patients with a greater number of favorable alleles had a longer time to disease progression and better overall survival during ADT (p for trend ≤ 0.003). Additional, cDNA array and in silico analyses of prostate cancer tissue suggested that rs2707765 affects APC expression, which in turn is correlated with tumor aggressiveness and patient prognosis. This study identifies the influence of inherited variants in the Wnt pathway on the efficacy of ADT and highlights a preclinical rationale for using APC as a prognostic marker in advanced prostate cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) as Predicting Marker for Clinical Outcome and Evaluation of Early Toxicity Rate after High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in Combination with Additional External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for High Risk Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111879
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January
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High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50.4 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction and five fractions per week. Follow-up for all patients was organized one, three, and five years after radiation therapy to evaluate early and late toxicity side effects, metastases, local recurrence, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value measured in ng/mL. The evaluated data included age, PSA at time of diagnosis, PSA density, BMI (body mass index), Gleason score, D’Amico risk classification for PCa, digital rectal examination (DRE), PSA value after one/three/five year(s) follow-up (FU), time of follow-up, TNM classification, prostate volume, and early toxicity rates. Early toxicity rates were 8.86% for gastrointestinal, and 6.33% for genitourinary side effects. Of all treated patients, 84.81% had no side effects. All reported complications in early toxicity were grade 1. PSA density at time of diagnosis (p = 0.009), PSA on date of first HDR-BT (p = 0.033), and PSA on date of first follow-up after one year (p = 0.025) have statistical significance on a higher risk to get a local recurrence during follow-up. HDR-BT in combination with additional EBRT in the presented design for high-risk PCa results in high biochemical control rates with minimal side-effects. PSA is a negative predictive biomarker for local recurrence during follow-up. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle EpCAM Expression in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Carcinoma: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101650
Received: 12 June 2016 / Revised: 11 September 2016 / Accepted: 15 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
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Abstract
There is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since
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There is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since it is overexpressed in prostatic carcinoma compared with benign prostate epithelium and compared with stroma. However, EpCAM expression in lymph node metastases is sparsely available in the literature and EpCAM expression in bone metastases is yet unknown. The current study evaluates the expression of EpCAM in prostate carcinoma lymph nodes, in matched normal lymph nodes, in prostate carcinoma bone metastases, and in normal bone by immunohistochemistry. EpCAM was expressed in 100% of lymph node metastases (21 out of 21), in 0% of normal lymph nodes (0 out of 21), in 95% of bone metastases (19 out of 20), and in 0% of normal bone (0 out of 14). Based on these results, EpCAM may be a feasible imaging target in prostate carcinoma lymph node and bone metastases. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm current results. Preoperative visualization of prostate carcinoma metastases will improve disease staging and will prevent unnecessary invasive surgery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Early Prediction of Therapy Response to Abiraterone Acetate Using PSA Subforms in Patients with Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1520; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091520
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1918 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic ability of early changes of total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), [−2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) following initiation of Abiraterone-therapy in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic ability of early changes of total prostate specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), [−2]proPSA and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) following initiation of Abiraterone-therapy in men with castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In 25 patients, PSA-subforms were analyzed before and at 8–12 weeks under therapy as prognosticators of progression-free-survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Comparing patients with a PFS < vs. ≥12 months by using Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon Tests, the relative-median-change of tPSA (−0.1% vs. −86.8%; p = 0.02), fPSA (12.1% vs. −55.3%; p = 0.03) and [−2]proPSA (8.1% vs. −59.3%; p = 0.05) differed significantly. For men with ≤ vs. >15 months of OS there was a non-significant trend for a difference in the relative-median-change of fPSA (17.0% vs. −46.3%; p = 0.06). In Kaplan–Meier analyses, declining fPSA and [−2]proPSA were associated with a longer median PFS (13 months, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.6–16.4 vs. 10 months, 95% CI: 3.5–16.5; p = 0.11), respectively. Correspondingly, decreasing fPSA and [−2]proPSA values indicated an OS of 32 months (95% CI: not reached (NR)) compared to 21 months in men with rising values (95% CI: 7.7–34.3; p = 0.14), respectively. We concluded that the addition of fPSA- and [−2]proPSA-changes to tPSA-information might be further studied as potential markers of early Abiraterone response in mCRPC patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Akt Activation Correlates with Snail Expression and Potentially Determines the Recurrence of Prostate Cancer in Patients at Stage T2 after a Radical Prostatectomy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081194
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 23 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our previous work demonstrated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor, Snail, is a potential marker for predicting the recurrence of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Akt activation is important for Snail stabilization and transcription in PCa. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the
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Our previous work demonstrated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition factor, Snail, is a potential marker for predicting the recurrence of localized prostate cancer (PCa). Akt activation is important for Snail stabilization and transcription in PCa. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate the relationship between the phosphorylated level of Akt (p-Akt) in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens and cancer biochemical recurrence (BCR). Using a tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry, the expression of p-Akt was measured in benign and neoplastic tissues from RP specimens in 53 patients whose cancer was pathologically defined as T2 without positive margins. Herein, we observed that the p-Akt level was higher in PCa than in benign tissues and was significantly associated with the Snail level. A high p-Akt image score (≥8) was significantly correlated with a higher histological Gleason sum, Snail image score, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. Moreover, the high p-Akt image score and Gleason score sum (≥7) showed similar discriminatory abilities for BCR according to a receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis and were correlated with worse recurrence-free survival according to a log-rank test (p < 0.05). To further determine whether a high p-Akt image score could predict the risk of BCR, a Cox proportional hazard model showed that only a high p-Akt image score (hazard ratio (HR): 3.12, p = 0.05) and a high Gleason score sum (≥7) (HR: 1.18, p = 0.05) but not a high preoperative PSA value (HR: 0.62, p = 0.57) were significantly associated with a higher risk of developing BCR. Our data indicate that, for localized PCa patients after an RP, p-Akt can serve as a potential prognostic marker that improves predictions of BCR-free survival. Full article
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Open AccessReview Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061146
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2017 / Published: 27 May 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and
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Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS) has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10–15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D) and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one) are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement). More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI), the 4 Kallikrein (4K) score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the potential of epigenetic markers as predictors of clinically significant disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nanoparticles as Theranostic Vehicles in Experimental and Clinical Applications—Focus on Prostate and Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(5), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18051102
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 13 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 20 May 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate and breast cancer are the second most and most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and women worldwide, respectively. The American Cancer Society estimates that during 2016 in the USA around 430,000 individuals were diagnosed with one of these two types of cancers,
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Prostate and breast cancer are the second most and most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and women worldwide, respectively. The American Cancer Society estimates that during 2016 in the USA around 430,000 individuals were diagnosed with one of these two types of cancers, and approximately 15% of them will die from the disease. In Europe, the rate of incidences and deaths are similar to those in the USA. Several different more or less successful diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been developed and evaluated in order to tackle this issue and thereby decrease the death rates. By using nanoparticles as vehicles carrying both diagnostic and therapeutic molecular entities, individualized targeted theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising option to increase the sensitivity and the specificity during diagnosis, as well as the likelihood of survival or prolonged survival after therapy. This article presents and discusses important and promising different kinds of nanoparticles, as well as imaging and therapy options, suitable for theranostic applications. The presentation of different nanoparticles and theranostic applications is quite general, but there is a special focus on prostate cancer. Some references and aspects regarding breast cancer are however also presented and discussed. Finally, the prostate cancer case is presented in more detail regarding diagnosis, staging, recurrence, metastases, and treatment options available today, followed by possible ways to move forward applying theranostics for both prostate and breast cancer based on promising experiments performed until today. Full article
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Open AccessReview Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) to Exosomal Biomarkers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111784
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used biomarker in the management of early prostate cancer (PCa), in spite of the problems related to false positive results and overdiagnosis. New biomarkers have been proposed in recent years with the aim of increasing specificity
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Prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used biomarker in the management of early prostate cancer (PCa), in spite of the problems related to false positive results and overdiagnosis. New biomarkers have been proposed in recent years with the aim of increasing specificity and distinguishing aggressive from non-aggressive PCa. The emerging role of the prostate health index and the 4Kscore is reviewed in this article. Both are blood-based tests related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, which provide the risk of suffering PCa and avoiding negative biopsies. Furthermore, the use of urine has emerged as a non-invasive way to identify new biomarkers in recent years, including the PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene. Available results about the PCA3 score showed its usefulness to decide the repetition of biopsy in patients with a previous negative result, although its relationship with the aggressiveness of the tumor is controversial. More recently, aberrant microRNA expression in PCa has been reported by different authors. Preliminary results suggest the utility of circulating and urinary microRNAs in the detection and prognosis of PCa. Although several of these new biomarkers have been recommended by different guidelines, large prospective and comparative studies are necessary to establish their value in PCa detection and prognosis. Full article
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Open AccessReview Current Stem Cell Biomarkers and Their Functional Mechanisms in Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071163
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 9 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2017 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently there is little effective treatment available for castration resistant prostate cancer, which is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer related deaths. Emerging evidence suggested that cancer stem cells might play an important role in resistance to traditional cancer therapies, and the
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Currently there is little effective treatment available for castration resistant prostate cancer, which is responsible for the majority of prostate cancer related deaths. Emerging evidence suggested that cancer stem cells might play an important role in resistance to traditional cancer therapies, and the studies of cancer stem cells (including specific isolation and targeting on those cells) might benefit the discovery of novel treatment of prostate cancer, especially castration resistant disease. In this review, we summarized major biomarkers for prostate cancer stem cells, as well as their functional mechanisms and potential application in clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients. Full article
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