Next Article in Journal
Retinoic Acid Protects and Rescues the Development of Zebrafish Embryonic Retinal Photoreceptor Cells from Exposure to Paclobutrazol
Next Article in Special Issue
Wisteria floribunda Agglutinin and Its Reactive-Glycan-Carrying Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Prostate Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Cancer Immunology with a Focus on Understudied Cancers as Targets for Immunotherapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Inherited Variants in Wnt Pathway Genes Influence Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Androgen Deprivation Therapy
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 128;

Perioperative Search for Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients Undergoing Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara 252-0374, Japan
Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara 252-0374, Japan
Department of Microbiology, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carsten Stephan
Received: 20 December 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
Full-Text   |   PDF [546 KB, uploaded 11 January 2017]   |  


Despite the absence of local prostate cancer recurrence, some patients develop distant metastases after prostate brachytherapy. We evaluate whether prostate brachytherapy procedures have a potential risk for hematogenous spillage of prostate cancer cells. Fifty-nine patients who were undergoing high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy participated in this prospective study. Thirty patients with high-risk or locally advanced cancer were treated with HDR brachytherapy after neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Twenty-nine patients with clinically localized cancer were treated with LDR brachytherapy without neoadjuvant ADT. Samples of peripheral blood were drawn in the operating room before insertion of needles (preoperative) and again immediately after the surgical manipulation (intraoperative). Blood samples of 7.5 mL were analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using the CellSearch System. While no preoperative samples showed CTCs (0%), they were detected in intraoperative samples in 7 of the 59 patients (11.8%; preoperative vs. intraoperative, p = 0.012). Positive CTC status did not correlate with perioperative variables, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) at diagnosis, use of neoadjuvant ADT, type of brachytherapy, Gleason score, and biopsy positive core rate. We detected CTCs from samples immediately after the surgical manipulation. Further study is needed to evaluate whether those CTCs actually can survive and proliferate at distant sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; brachytherapy; circulating tumor cell prostate cancer; brachytherapy; circulating tumor cell

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tsumura, H.; Satoh, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Tabata, K.-I.; Takenaka, K.; Sekiguchi, A.; Nakamura, M.; Kitano, M.; Hayakawa, K.; Iwamura, M. Perioperative Search for Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients Undergoing Prostate Brachytherapy for Clinically Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 128.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top