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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(4), 845;

Comparative Study of Blood-Based Biomarkers, α2,3-Sialic Acid PSA and PHI, for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Detection

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Biology, University of Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain
Girona Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBGI), 17190 Salt (Girona), Spain
Catalan Health Institute, University Hospital of Girona Dr. Josep Trueta, 17007 Girona, Spain
Research Group on Statistics, Econometrics and Health (GRECS), University of Girona, 17003 Girona, Spain
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carsten Stephan
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 10 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum marker for prostate cancer (PCa), although it is not specific and sensitive enough to allow the differential diagnosis of the more aggressive tumors. For that, new diagnostic methods are being developed, such as PCA-3, PSA isoforms that have resulted in the 4K score or the Prostate Health Index (PHI), and PSA glycoforms. In the present study, we have compared the PHI with our recently developed PSA glycoform assay, based on the determination of the α2,3-sialic acid percentage of serum PSA (% α2,3-SA), in a cohort of 79 patients, which include 50 PCa of different grades and 29 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients. The % α2,3-SA could distinguish high-risk PCa patients from the rest of patients better than the PHI (area under the curve (AUC) of 0.971 vs. 0.840), although the PHI correlated better with the Gleason score than the % α2,3-SA. The combination of both markers increased the AUC up to 0.985 resulting in 100% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity to differentiate high-risk PCa from the other low and intermediate-risk PCa and BPH patients. These results suggest that both serum markers complement each other and offer an improved diagnostic tool to identify high-risk PCa, which is an important requirement for guiding treatment decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: diagnosis; glycosylation; prostate cancer; prostate specific antigen; proPSA; PHI; α2,3-sialic acid diagnosis; glycosylation; prostate cancer; prostate specific antigen; proPSA; PHI; α2,3-sialic acid

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Ferrer-Batallé, M.; Llop, E.; Ramírez, M.; Aleixandre, R.N.; Saez, M.; Comet, J.; de Llorens, R.; Peracaula, R. Comparative Study of Blood-Based Biomarkers, α2,3-Sialic Acid PSA and PHI, for High-Risk Prostate Cancer Detection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 845.

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