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Special Issue "Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Lu Cai
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
Interests: diabetic cardiomyopathy; cardiovascular diseases; diabetic nephropathy; antioxidant therapy; oxidative stress; trace elements; metallothionein; Nrf2
Prof. Dr. Yuehui Wang
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Geriatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
Interests: diabetic complications; resverotrol; zinc; cardiac aging; cardiovascular diseases
Dr. Zhiguo Zhang
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
Interests: metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular diseases; sulforaphane; diabetic cardiomyopathy; insulin resistance

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is no cure for diabetes at the present, but it can be managed with the correct treatment and recommended lifestyle changes. By doing so, many people with diabetes are able to prevent or delay the onset of complications. Balancing the food you eat with exercise and medicine (if prescribed) will help you control your weight and can keep your blood glucose the main sugar found in the blood and the body’s main source of energy. This can help prevent or delay complication of the harmful effects of diabetes, such as damage to the eyes, heart, blood vessels, nervous system, teeth and gums, feet and skin, or kidneys. Studies show that keeping blood glucose, blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels close to normal can help prevent or delay these problems. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Section: Molecular Pathology, we are inviting authors to submit original research papers, as well as review articles, to discuss the current understanding of cellular and molecular pathology, function, signal pathways and preventive and/or therapeutic insights in diabetic complications.

Prof. Dr. Lu Cai
Prof. Dr. Yuehui Wang
Dr. Zhiguo Zhang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetic complications
  • antioxidant prevention and/or therapy
  • oxidative stress mediated mechanisms
  • trace elements (such as zinc, copper, iron, and magnesium)
  • metallothionein
  • Nrf2 related research

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Zinc Prevents the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in db/db Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18030580 - 07 Mar 2017
Cited by 10
Abstract
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Zinc is an important essential trace metal, whose deficiency is associated with various chronic ailments, including vascular diseases. We assessed T2DM B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice fed for six months on a normal [...] Read more.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Zinc is an important essential trace metal, whose deficiency is associated with various chronic ailments, including vascular diseases. We assessed T2DM B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice fed for six months on a normal diet containing three zinc levels (deficient, adequate, and supplemented), to explore the role of zinc in DCM development and progression. Cardiac function, reflected by ejection fraction, was significantly decreased, along with increased left ventricle mass and heart weight to tibial length ratio, in db/db mice. As a molecular cardiac hypertrophy marker, atrial natriuretic peptide levels were also significantly increased. Cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy were accompanied by significantly increased fibrotic (elevated collagen accumulation as well as transforming growth factor β and connective tissue growth factor levels) and inflammatory (enhanced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, caspase recruitment domain family member 9, and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10, and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) responses in the heart. All these diabetic effects were exacerbated by zinc deficiency, and not affected by zinc supplementation, respectively. Mechanistically, oxidative stress and damage, mirrored by the accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, was significantly increased along with significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants (NQO-1 and catalase). This was also exacerbated by zinc deficiency in the db/db mouse heart. These results suggested that zinc deficiency promotes the development and progression of DCM in T2DM db/db mice. The exacerbated effects by zinc deficiency on the heart of db/db mice may be related to further suppression of Nrf2 expression and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Protects Cells against Lipotoxicity-Mediated Apoptosis in Proximal Tubular Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1868; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111868 - 09 Nov 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs [...] Read more.
Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential Impact of Hyperglycemia in Critically Ill Patients: Significance in Acute Myocardial Infarction but Not in Sepsis?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091586 - 21 Sep 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Hyperglycemia is a common condition in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). These patients represent an inhomogeneous collective and hyperglycemia might need different evaluation depending on the underlying disorder. To elucidate this, we investigated and compared associations of severe [...] Read more.
Hyperglycemia is a common condition in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). These patients represent an inhomogeneous collective and hyperglycemia might need different evaluation depending on the underlying disorder. To elucidate this, we investigated and compared associations of severe hyperglycemia (>200 mg/dL) and mortality in patients admitted to an ICU for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or sepsis as the two most frequent admission diagnoses. From 2006 to 2009, 2551 patients 69 (58–77) years; 1544 male; 337 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2DM)) who were admitted because of either AMI or sepsis to an ICU in a tertiary care hospital were investigated retrospectively. Follow-up of patients was performed between May 2013 and November 2013. In a Cox regression analysis, maximum glucose concentration at the day of admission was associated with mortality in the overall cohort (HR = 1.006, 95% CI: 1.004–1.009; p < 0.001) and in patients suffering from myocardial infarction (HR = 1.101, 95% CI: 1.075–1.127; p < 0.001) but only in trend in patients admitted to an ICU for sepsis (HR = 1.030, 95% CI: 0.998–1.062; p = 0.07). Severe hyperglycemia was associated with adverse intra-ICU mortality in the overall cohort (23% vs. 13%; p < 0.001) and patients admitted for AMI (15% vs. 5%; p < 0.001) but not for septic patients (39% vs. 40%; p = 0.48). A medical history of type 2 diabetes (n = 337; 13%) was not associated with increased intra-ICU mortality (15% vs. 15%; p = 0.93) but in patients with severe hyperglycemia and/or a known medical history of type 2 diabetes considered in combination, an increased mortality in AMI patients (intra-ICU 5% vs. 13%; p < 0.001) but not in septic patients (intra-ICU 38% vs. 41%; p = 0.53) could be evidenced. The presence of hyperglycemia in critically ill patients has differential impact within the different etiological groups. Hyperglycemia in AMI patients might identify a sicker patient collective suffering from pre-diabetes or undiagnosed diabetes with its’ known adverse consequences, especially in the long-term. Hyperglycemia in sepsis might be considered as adaptive survival mechanism to hypo-perfusion and consecutive lack of glucose in peripheral cells. AMI patients with hyperglycemic derailment during an ICU-stay should be closely followed-up and extensively screened for diabetes to improve patients’ outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Mediated-UCH-L1 Expression in Podocytes of Diabetic Nephropathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091404 - 25 Aug 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Increasing studies identified podocyte injury as a key early risk factor resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCH-L1) participates in podocyte differentiation and injury, which is elevated in the podocytes of a variety of nephritis. Whether UCH-L1 expression is [...] Read more.
Increasing studies identified podocyte injury as a key early risk factor resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCH-L1) participates in podocyte differentiation and injury, which is elevated in the podocytes of a variety of nephritis. Whether UCH-L1 expression is positively related to podocyte injury of DN remains unclear. In this study, elevated expression of UCH-L1 and its intrinsic mechanism in high glucose (HG)-stimulated murine podocytes were investigated using western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. Kidney biopsies of DN patients and health individuals were stained by immunofluorescence (IF) method. The morphological and functional changes of podocytes were tested by F-actin staining and cell migration assay. Results demonstrated that HG induced upregulation of UCH-L1 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in podocytes. However, blocking of the Wnt pathway by dickkopf related protein 1 (DKK1) eliminated the above changes. Furthermore, IF staining confirmed that, compared with healthy individuals, the expression of UCH-L1 and β-catenin were obviously increased in kidney biopsy of DN patients. Overexpression of UCH-L1 remodeled its actin cytoskeleton, increased its cell migration and impacted its important proteins. All the findings manifested that Wnt/β-catenin/UCH-L1 may be a new potential therapy method in the treatment of DN in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Berberine on Renal Injury in Streptozotocin (STZ)-Induced Diabetic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081327 - 12 Aug 2016
Cited by 28
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious diabetic complication with renal hypertrophy and expansion of extracellular matrices in renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells may be involved in the main mechanism. Berberine (BBR) has been shown to have antifibrotic effects [...] Read more.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious diabetic complication with renal hypertrophy and expansion of extracellular matrices in renal fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular epithelial cells may be involved in the main mechanism. Berberine (BBR) has been shown to have antifibrotic effects in liver, kidney and lung. However, the mechanism of cytoprotective effects of BBR in DN is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the curative effects of BBR on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and the high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in NRK 52E cells. We found that BBR treatment attenuated renal fibrosis by activating the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway in the diabetic kidneys. Further revealed that BBR abrogated HG-induced EMT and oxidative stress in relation not only with the activation of Nrf2 and two Nrf2-targeted antioxidative genes (NQO-1 and HO-1), but also with the suppressing the activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Importantly, knockdown Nrf2 with siRNA not only abolished the BBR-induced expression of HO-1 and NQO-1 but also removed the inhibitory effect of BBR on HG-induced activation of TGF-β/Smad signaling as well as the anti-fibrosis effects. The data from present study suggest that BBR can ameliorate tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN by activating Nrf2 pathway and inhibiting TGF-β/Smad/EMT signaling activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Serum Uric Acid Concentration with Diabetic Retinopathy and Albuminuria in Taiwanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081248 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 14
Abstract
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal [...] Read more.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience chronic microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) during their lifetime. In clinical studies, serum uric acid concentration has been found to be associated with DR and DN. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the increases in serum uric acid level and the severity of DR and albuminuria in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. We recorded serum uric acid concentration, the severity of DR, and the severity of albuminuria by calculating urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in 385 patients with type 2 DM. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high uric acid concentration was a risk factor for albuminuria (odds ratio (OR), 1.227; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.015–1.482; p = 0.034) and DR (OR, 1.264; 95% CI = 1.084–1.473; p = 0.003). We also demonstrated that there was a higher concentration of serum uric acid in the patients with more severe albuminuria and DR. In conclusion, an increased serum uric acid level was significantly correlated with the severity of albuminuria and DR in Taiwanese patients with type 2 DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Diabetic Effect of Portulaca oleracea L. Polysaccharideandits Mechanism in Diabetic Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081201 - 25 Jul 2016
Cited by 21
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Traditional Chinese medicine preparations have shown a comprehensive and function-regulating characteristic. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is an annual succulent herb. Currently, there have been some related reports on the treatment of diabetes with purslane. The current study was designed to separate and purify the polysaccharide, a systematic study of its physical and chemical properties, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic mechanism, in order to provide a theoretical basis for the development of drugs of purslane. A crude water soluble polysaccharide extracted from purslane was named CPOP (crude Portulaca oleracea L. polysaccharide). Effects of CPOP on bodyweight, glucose tolerance test (GTT), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), and superoxygen dehydrogenises (SOD) were investigated. The results indicate that the oral administration of CPOP could significantly increase the body weight and significantly improve the glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Meanwhile, CPOP could significantly reduce the FBG level, and elevate the FINS level and ISI value in diabetic rats. In addition, CPOP could significantly reduce TNF-α and IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; CPOP could also reduce MDA and SOD activities in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic effect of CPOP may be associated with its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessCommunication
Computational Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated with Altered Drug Responsiveness in Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071008 - 25 Jun 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most frequent mortality causes in western countries, with rapidly increasing prevalence. Anti-diabetic drugs are the first therapeutic approach, although many patients develop drug resistance. Most drug responsiveness variability can be explained by genetic causes. Inter-individual [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most frequent mortality causes in western countries, with rapidly increasing prevalence. Anti-diabetic drugs are the first therapeutic approach, although many patients develop drug resistance. Most drug responsiveness variability can be explained by genetic causes. Inter-individual variability is principally due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, and differential drug responsiveness has been correlated to alteration in genes involved in drug metabolism (CYP2C9) or insulin signaling (IRS1, ABCC8, KCNJ11 and PPARG). However, most genome-wide association studies did not provide clues about the contribution of DNA variations to impaired drug responsiveness. Thus, characterizing T2D drug responsiveness variants is needed to guide clinicians toward tailored therapeutic approaches. Here, we extensively investigated polymorphisms associated with altered drug response in T2D, predicting their effects in silico. Combining different computational approaches, we focused on the expression pattern of genes correlated to drug resistance and inferred evolutionary conservation of polymorphic residues, computationally predicting the biochemical properties of polymorphic proteins. Using RNA-Sequencing followed by targeted validation, we identified and experimentally confirmed that two nucleotide variations in the CAPN10 gene—currently annotated as intronic—fall within two new transcripts in this locus. Additionally, we found that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), currently reported as intergenic, maps to the intron of a new transcript, harboring CAPN10 and GPR35 genes, which undergoes non-sense mediated decay. Finally, we analyzed variants that fall into non-coding regulatory regions of yet underestimated functional significance, predicting that some of them can potentially affect gene expression and/or post-transcriptional regulation of mRNAs affecting the splicing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessArticle
12-Lipoxygenase Inhibition on Microalbuminuria in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes Is Associated with Changes of Glomerular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Related to Insulin Resistance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17050684 - 06 May 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
(1) Background: 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the present study, we investigated whether 12-LO inhibition may ameliorate type-2 DN (T2DN) by interfering with insulin resistance (IR); (2) Methods: Rat glomerular mesangial cells, glomeruli and skeletal muscles [...] Read more.
(1) Background: 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the present study, we investigated whether 12-LO inhibition may ameliorate type-2 DN (T2DN) by interfering with insulin resistance (IR); (2) Methods: Rat glomerular mesangial cells, glomeruli and skeletal muscles were isolated and used in this study. Kidney histological changes were confirmed by periodic-acid Schiff staining; mRNA expression was detected by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; and the protein level was determined by Western blot and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively; (3) Results: The inhibition of 12-LO attenuated microalbuminuria (MAU) increases in type-2 diabetic rats, but not in type-1 diabetic rats. Infusion of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) significantly increased the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), but decreased the expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP) in rat glomeruli, compared to the control. An in vitro study revealed that both 12(S)-HETE and insulin upregulated AT1R expression in rat mesangial cells. In the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB202190, the 12(S)-HETE-induced ATRAP reduction was significantly abolished. Interestingly, 12-LO inhibition did not influence AT1R expression in type-1 diabetic rats, but significantly abolished the increased AT1R and Ang II expression in glomeruli of type-2 diabetic rats. Furthermore, the inhibition of 12-LO significantly corrected impaired insulin sensitivity and fast serum insulin level, as well as the p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reduction in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats; (4) Conclusion: The inhibition of 12-LO potentially ameliorated MAU by preventing IR through the downregulation of glomerular AT1R expression in T2DN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Metabolic Adaptation in Obesity and Type II Diabetes: Myokines, Adipokines and Hepatokines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18010008 - 22 Dec 2016
Cited by 39
Abstract
Obesity and type II diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. A high caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is the leading cause of these conditions. Whole-body insulin resistance and its improvement are the result of the combined actions of [...] Read more.
Obesity and type II diabetes are characterized by insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. A high caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is the leading cause of these conditions. Whole-body insulin resistance and its improvement are the result of the combined actions of each insulin-sensitive organ. Among the fundamental molecular mechanisms by which each organ is able to communicate and engage in cross-talk are cytokines or peptides which stem from secretory organs. Recently, it was reported that several cytokines or peptides are secreted from muscle (myokines), adipose tissue (adipokines) and liver (hepatokines) in response to certain nutrition and/or physical activity conditions. Cytokines exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The present review is focused on the relationship and cross-talk amongst muscle, adipose tissue and the liver as secretory organs in metabolic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Does the Type of Diabetes Matter?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122136 - 18 Dec 2016
Cited by 36
Abstract
In recent years, type 2 diabetes mellitus has evolved as a rapidly increasing epidemic that parallels the increased prevalence of obesity and which markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease across the globe. While ischemic heart disease represents the major cause of death [...] Read more.
In recent years, type 2 diabetes mellitus has evolved as a rapidly increasing epidemic that parallels the increased prevalence of obesity and which markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease across the globe. While ischemic heart disease represents the major cause of death in diabetic subjects, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) summarizes adverse effects of diabetes mellitus on the heart that are independent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension. DC increases the risk of heart failure (HF) and may lead to both heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Numerous molecular mechanisms have been proposed to underlie DC that partially overlap with mechanisms believed to contribute to heart failure. Nevertheless, the existence of DC remains a topic of controversy, although the clinical relevance of DC is increasingly recognized by scientists and clinicians. In addition, relatively little attention has been attributed to the fact that both underlying mechanisms and clinical features of DC may be partially distinct in type 1 versus type 2 diabetes. In the following review, we will discuss clinical and preclinical literature on the existence of human DC in the context of the two different types of diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
The Role of ERK1/2 in the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122001 - 08 Dec 2016
Cited by 27
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and may impair numerous organs and functions of the organism. Cardiac dysfunction afflicts many patients who experience the oxidative stress of the heart. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic condition that affects carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and may impair numerous organs and functions of the organism. Cardiac dysfunction afflicts many patients who experience the oxidative stress of the heart. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the major complications that accounts for more than half of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality cases. Chronic hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from diabetes mellitus cause cardiac oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, impaired cellular calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disturbances, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, which ultimately lead to DCM. Although many studies have explored the mechanisms leading to DCM, the pathophysiology of DCM has not yet been fully clarified. In fact, as a potential mechanism, the associations between DCM development and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation have been the subjects of tremendous interest. Nonetheless, much remains to be investigated, such as tissue- and cell-specific processes of selection of MAPK activation between pro-apoptotic vs. pro-survival fate, as well as their relation with the pathogenesis of diabetes and associated complications. In general, it turns out that MAPK signaling pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38 MAP kinase, are demonstrated to be actively involved in myocardial dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and heart failure. As one of MAPK family members, the activation of ERK1/2 has also been known to be involved in cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. However, many recent studies have demonstrated that ERK1/2 signaling activation also plays a crucial role in FGF21 signaling and exerts a protective environment of glucose and lipid metabolism, therefore preventing abnormal healing and cardiac dysfunction. The duration, extent, and subcellular compartment of ERK1/2 activation are vital to differential biological effects of ERK1/2. Moreover, many intracellular events, including mitochondrial signaling and protein kinases, manipulate signaling upstream and downstream of MAPK, to influence myocardial survival or death. In this review, we will summarize the roles of ERK1/2 pathways in DCM development by the evidence from current studies and will present novel opinions on “differential influence of ERK1/2 action in cardiac dysfunction, and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Aortic Stiffness as a Surrogate Endpoint to Micro- and Macrovascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17122044 - 06 Dec 2016
Cited by 16
Abstract
Increased aortic stiffness has been recognized as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in some clinical conditions, such as in patients with arterial hypertension and end-stage renal disease, in population-based samples and, more recently, in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with type 2 [...] Read more.
Increased aortic stiffness has been recognized as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in some clinical conditions, such as in patients with arterial hypertension and end-stage renal disease, in population-based samples and, more recently, in type 2 diabetic patients. Patients with type 2 diabetes have higher aortic stiffness than non-diabetic individuals, and increased aortic stiffness has been correlated to the presence of micro- and macrovascular chronic diabetic complications. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the relationships between aortic stiffness and diabetic complications, their possible underlying physiopathological mechanisms, and their potential applications to clinical type 2 diabetes management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Diabetic Microvascular Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis: The Contribution of Platelets and Systemic Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17111853 - 08 Nov 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Diabetes is strongly associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, but its effect on pulmonary vascular disease and lung function has often been disregarded. Several studies identified restrictive lung disease and fibrotic changes in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. While [...] Read more.
Diabetes is strongly associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, but its effect on pulmonary vascular disease and lung function has often been disregarded. Several studies identified restrictive lung disease and fibrotic changes in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. While microvascular dysfunction is a well-known complication of diabetes, the mechanisms leading to diabetes-induced lung injury have largely been disregarded. We described the potential involvement of diabetes-induced platelet-endothelial interactions in perpetuating vascular inflammation and oxidative injury leading to fibrotic changes in the lung. Changes in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and decreased NO bioavailability in the diabetic lung increase platelet activation and vascular injury and may account for platelet hyperreactivity reported in diabetic patients. Additionally, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway has been reported to mediate pancreatic islet damage, and is implicated in the onset of diabetes, inflammation and vascular injury. Many growth factors and diabetes-induced agonists act via the JAK/STAT pathway. Other studies reported the contribution of the JAK/STAT pathway to the regulation of the pulmonary fibrotic process but the role of this pathway in the development of diabetic lung fibrosis has not been considered. These observations may open new therapeutic perspectives for modulating multiple pathways to mitigate diabetes onset or its pulmonary consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101629 - 24 Sep 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have [...] Read more.
Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Moving Past Anti-VEGF: Novel Therapies for Treating Diabetic Retinopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091498 - 07 Sep 2016
Cited by 32
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults, and is projected to be a significant future health concern due to the rising incidence of diabetes. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies has revolutionized the treatment [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age adults, and is projected to be a significant future health concern due to the rising incidence of diabetes. The recent advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies has revolutionized the treatment of diabetic retinopathy but a significant subset of patients fail to respond to treatment. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines other than VEGF may contribute to the disease process. The current review examines the presence of non-VEGF cytokines in the eyes of patients with diabetic retinopathy and highlights mechanistic pathways in relevant animal models. Finally, novel drug targets including components of the kinin–kallikrein system and emerging treatments such as anti-HPTP (human protein tyrosine phosphatase) β antibodies are discussed. Recognition of non-VEGF contributions to disease pathogenesis may lead to novel therapeutics to enhance existing treatments for patients who do not respond to anti-VEGF therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Roles of Voltage-Gated Tetrodotoxin-Sensitive Sodium Channels NaV1.3 and NaV1.7 in Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17091479 - 05 Sep 2016
Cited by 9
Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic medical problem worldwide; one of its complications is painful peripheral neuropathy, which can substantially erode quality of life and increase the cost of management. Despite its clinical importance, the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is [...] Read more.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic medical problem worldwide; one of its complications is painful peripheral neuropathy, which can substantially erode quality of life and increase the cost of management. Despite its clinical importance, the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is complex and incompletely understood. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) link many physiological processes to electrical activity by controlling action potentials in all types of excitable cells. Two isoforms of VGSCs, NaV1.3 and NaV1.7, which are encoded by the sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 3 and 9 (Scn3A and Scn9A) genes, respectively, have been identified in both peripheral nociceptive neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and pancreatic islet cells. Recent advances in our understanding of tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels NaV1.3 and NaV1.7 lead to the rational doubt about the cause–effect relation between diabetes and painful neuropathy. In this review, we summarize the roles of NaV1.3 and NaV1.7 in islet cells and DRG neurons, discuss the link between DM and painful neuropathy, and present a model, which may provide a starting point for further studies aimed at identifying the mechanisms underlying diabetes and painful neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Coadjuvants in the Diabetic Complications: Nutraceuticals and Drugs with Pleiotropic Effects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081273 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
Because diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disease, its prevention and treatment has been a constant challenge for basic and clinical investigators focused on translating their discoveries into clinical treatment of this complex disorder. In this review, we highlight recent experimental and [...] Read more.
Because diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disease, its prevention and treatment has been a constant challenge for basic and clinical investigators focused on translating their discoveries into clinical treatment of this complex disorder. In this review, we highlight recent experimental and clinical evidences of potential coadjuvants in the management of DM, such as polyphenols (quercetin, resveratrol and silymarin), cultured probiotic microorganisms and drugs acting through direct/indirect or pleiotropic effects on glycemic control in DM. Among several options, we highlight new promising therapeutic coadjuvants, including chemical scavengers, the probiotic kefir and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, which besides the reduction of hyperglycemia and ameliorate insulin resistance, they reduce oxidative stress and improve endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vascular circulation. In the near future, experimental studies are expected to clear the intracellular pathways involving coadjuvants. The design of clinical trials may also contribute to new strategies with coadjuvants against the harmful effects of diabetic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Incretin-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081223 - 29 Jul 2016
Cited by 18
Abstract
An increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications is a global concern. Glycemic control is important to prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications. Various classes of anti-diabetic agents are currently available, and their pleiotropic effects on [...] Read more.
An increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications is a global concern. Glycemic control is important to prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications. Various classes of anti-diabetic agents are currently available, and their pleiotropic effects on diabetic complications have been investigated. Incretin-based therapies such as dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are now widely used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. A series of experimental studies showed that incretin-based therapies have beneficial effects on diabetic complications, independent of their glucose-lowering abilities, which are mediated by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress properties. Based on these findings, clinical studies to assess the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1RA on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications have been performed. Several but not all studies have provided evidence to support the beneficial effects of incretin-based therapies on diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. We herein discuss the experimental and clinical evidence of incretin-based therapy for diabetic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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The Role of p38 MAPK in the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071037 - 30 Jun 2016
Cited by 21
Abstract
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication of diabetes that contributes to an increase in mortality. A number of mechanisms potentially explain the development of DCM including oxidative stress, inflammation and extracellular fibrosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways are common among these [...] Read more.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication of diabetes that contributes to an increase in mortality. A number of mechanisms potentially explain the development of DCM including oxidative stress, inflammation and extracellular fibrosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways are common among these pathogenic responses. Among the diverse array of kinases, extensive attention has been given to p38 MAPK due to its capacity for promoting or inhibiting the translation of target genes. Growing evidence has indicated that p38 MAPK is aberrantly expressed in the cardiovascular system, including the heart, under both experimental and clinical diabetic conditions and, furthermore, inhibition of p38 MAPK activation in transgenic animal model or with its pharmacologic inhibitor significantly prevents the development of DCM, implicating p38 MAPK as a novel diagnostic indicator and therapeutic target for DCM. This review summarizes our current knowledge base to provide an overview of the impact of p38 MAPK signaling in diabetes-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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Open AccessReview
Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17060917 - 10 Jun 2016
Cited by 32
Abstract
Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
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