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Incretin-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence

1
Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan
2
Diabetic Neuropathy Project, Department of Sensory and Motor Systems, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 2-1-6 Kamikitazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lu Cai, Yuehui Wang and Zhiguo Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17081223
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 16 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
An increase in the rates of morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications is a global concern. Glycemic control is important to prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications. Various classes of anti-diabetic agents are currently available, and their pleiotropic effects on diabetic complications have been investigated. Incretin-based therapies such as dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are now widely used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. A series of experimental studies showed that incretin-based therapies have beneficial effects on diabetic complications, independent of their glucose-lowering abilities, which are mediated by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress properties. Based on these findings, clinical studies to assess the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1RA on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications have been performed. Several but not all studies have provided evidence to support the beneficial effects of incretin-based therapies on diabetic complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. We herein discuss the experimental and clinical evidence of incretin-based therapy for diabetic complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: incretin; DPP-4; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); GLP-1; diabetes; diabetic complications; cardiovascular disease incretin; DPP-4; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); GLP-1; diabetes; diabetic complications; cardiovascular disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kawanami, D.; Matoba, K.; Sango, K.; Utsunomiya, K. Incretin-Based Therapies for Diabetic Complications: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Evidence. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1223.

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