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Special Issue "Peptidylarginine Deiminases and Protein Deimination in Health and Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Neurobiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sigrun Lange
Website
Guest Editor
Tissue Architecture and Regeneration Research group, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Interests: Peptidylarginine deimnases; tissue remodelling; Extracellular Vesicles; CNS regeneration; Cancer; Mucosal Immunity; Innate Immunity; Stem Cells; comparative immunology; complement system; comparative animal models
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Anthony P Nicholas
Website
Guest Editor
University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, United States
Interests: Parkinson's disease; protein deimination (citrullination); levodopa-induced dyskinesia; cervical dystonia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a group of calcium-dependent enzymes that are conserved throughout phylogeny and involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes.  PADs cause post-translational deimination of proteins by converting arginine into citrulline (citrullination/deimination), resulting in structural and functional changes in target proteins.
The field of PADs has grown increasingly in the past few years with PADs and post-translational deimination being widely studied in autoimmune and neurodegenerative pathologies as well as in cancer.  Protein deimination has, for example, been found to be involved in neo-epitope generation in autoimmunity, as well as neurodegeneration and inflammation, in epigenetic regulation via histone deimination in cancers and in the regulation of extracellular vesicle release.
The development of PAD inhibitors and PAD-knockout models has helped in elucidating some PAD-mediated roles in various pathologies. Protective roles for pharmacological PAD inhibitors have for example been shown in several animal models of autoimmunity and acute CNS injury, while regulatory roles for PAD inhibitors on histone modifications and extracellular vesicle release have been implicated in cancers, including sensitisation to chemotherapy.
While the physiological roles of PADs have been less studied, implications have been found in CNS development, embryo-preimplantation and in mucosal and innate immunity, among others. Post-translational protein changes, such as protein deimination, may facilitate protein moonlighting, an evolutionary acquired phenomenon where proteins are allowed to exhibit more than one physiologically relevant function within one polypeptide chain.
This Special Issue aims to collect state-of-the-art primary research studies and review articles from international experts and diverse leading groups in the field to update our current understanding of the contributions of PADs in both physiological and pathophysiological processes.

Dr. Sigrun Lange
Prof. Dr. Anthony P Nicholas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Peptidylargine deiminases
  • Posttranslational protein deimination
  • Autoimmunity
  • CNS injury
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Inflammation
  • Cancer
  • Epigenetics
  • Immunity
  • Reproduction
  • PAD antagonists
  • PAD animal models

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Peptidylarginine Deiminase of Porphyromonas gingivalis Modulates the Interactions between Candida albicans Biofilm and Human Plasminogen and High-Molecular-Mass Kininogen
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072495 (registering DOI) - 03 Apr 2020
Abstract
Microorganisms that create mixed-species biofilms in the human oral cavity include, among others, the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans and the key bacterial pathogen in periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Both species use arsenals of virulence factors to invade the host organism and evade its [...] Read more.
Microorganisms that create mixed-species biofilms in the human oral cavity include, among others, the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans and the key bacterial pathogen in periodontitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Both species use arsenals of virulence factors to invade the host organism and evade its immune system including peptidylarginine deiminase that citrullinates microbial and host proteins, altering their function. We assessed the effects of this modification on the interactions between the C. albicans cell surface and human plasminogen and kininogen, key components of plasma proteolytic cascades related to the maintenance of hemostasis and innate immunity. Mass spectrometry was used to identify protein citrullination, and microplate tests to quantify the binding of modified plasminogen and kininogen to C. albicans cells. Competitive radioreceptor assays tested the affinity of citrullinated kinins to their specific cellular receptors. The citrullination of surface-exposed fungal proteins reduced the level of unmodified plasminogen binding but did not affect unmodified kininogen binding. However, the modification of human proteins did not disrupt their adsorption to the unmodified fungal cells. In contrast, the citrullination of kinins exerted a significant impact on their interactions with cellular receptors reducing their affinity and thus affecting the role of kinin peptides in the development of inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Peptidylarginine Deiminase Isozyme-Specific PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 Inhibitors Differentially Modulate Extracellular Vesicle Signatures and Cell Invasion in Two Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Lines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041495 - 22 Feb 2020
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive adult brain tumour with poor prognosis. Roles for peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) in GBM have recently been highlighted. Here, two GBM cell lines were treated with PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 isozyme-specific inhibitors. Effects were assessed on extracellular vesicle [...] Read more.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive adult brain tumour with poor prognosis. Roles for peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) in GBM have recently been highlighted. Here, two GBM cell lines were treated with PAD2, PAD3 and PAD4 isozyme-specific inhibitors. Effects were assessed on extracellular vesicle (EV) signatures, including EV-microRNA cargo (miR21, miR126 and miR210), and on changes in cellular protein expression relevant for mitochondrial housekeeping (prohibitin (PHB)) and cancer progression (stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM-1) and moesin), as well as assessing cell invasion. Overall, GBM cell-line specific differences for the three PAD isozyme-specific inhibitors were observed on modulation of EV-signatures, PHB, STIM-1 and moesin protein levels, as well as on cell invasion. The PAD3 inhibitor was most effective in modulating EVs to anti-oncogenic signatures (reduced miR21 and miR210, and elevated miR126), to reduce cell invasion and to modulate protein expression of pro-GBM proteins in LN229 cells, while the PAD2 and PAD4 inhibitors were more effective in LN18 cells. Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways for deiminated proteins relating to cancer, metabolism and inflammation differed between the two GBM cell lines. Our findings highlight roles for the different PAD isozymes in the heterogeneity of GBM tumours and the potential for tailored PAD-isozyme specific treatment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Post-Translational Deimination of Immunological and Metabolic Protein Markers in Plasma and Extracellular Vesicles of Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215378 - 29 Oct 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Naked mole-rats are long-lived animals that show unusual resistance to hypoxia, cancer and ageing. Protein deimination is an irreversible post-translational modification caused by the peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes, which convert arginine into citrulline in target proteins. Protein deimination can cause structural [...] Read more.
Naked mole-rats are long-lived animals that show unusual resistance to hypoxia, cancer and ageing. Protein deimination is an irreversible post-translational modification caused by the peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes, which convert arginine into citrulline in target proteins. Protein deimination can cause structural and functional protein changes, facilitating protein moonlighting, but also leading to neo-epitope generation and effects on gene regulation. Furthermore, PADs have been found to regulate cellular release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are lipid-vesicles released from cells as part of cellular communication. EVs carry protein and genetic cargo and are indicative biomarkers that can be isolated from most body fluids. This study was aimed at profiling deiminated proteins in plasma and EVs of naked mole-rat. Key immune and metabolic proteins were identified to be post-translationally deiminated, with 65 proteins specific for plasma, while 42 proteins were identified to be deiminated in EVs only. Using protein-protein interaction network analysis, deiminated plasma proteins were found to belong to KEEG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways of immunity, infection, cholesterol and drug metabolism, while deiminated proteins in EVs were also linked to KEEG pathways of HIF-1 signalling and glycolysis. The mole-rat EV profiles showed a poly-dispersed population of 50–300 nm, similar to observations of human plasma. Furthermore, the EVs were assessed for three key microRNAs involved in cancer, inflammation and hypoxia. The identification of post-translational deimination of critical immunological and metabolic markers contributes to the current understanding of protein moonlighting functions, via post-translational changes, in the longevity and cancer resistance of naked mole-rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Galectin-9 Is a Possible Promoter of Immunopathology in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Activation of Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 4 (PAD-4) in Granulocytes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 4046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20164046 - 19 Aug 2019
Abstract
The aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown, but citrullination of proteins is thought to be an initiating event. In addition, it is increasingly evident that the lung can be a potential site for the generation of autoimmune triggers before the development of [...] Read more.
The aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unknown, but citrullination of proteins is thought to be an initiating event. In addition, it is increasingly evident that the lung can be a potential site for the generation of autoimmune triggers before the development of joint disease. Here, we identified that serum levels of galectin-9 (Gal-9), a pleiotropic immunomodulatory protein, are elevated in RA patients, and are even further increased in patients with comorbid bronchiectasis, a lung disease caused by chronic inflammation. The serum concentrations of Gal-9 correlate with C-reactive protein levels and DAS-28 score. Gal-9 activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) in vitro, which was characterized by increased cytokine secretion, migration, and survival. Further, granulocytes treated with Gal-9 upregulated expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD-4), a key enzyme required for RA-associated citrullination of proteins. Correspondingly, treatment with Gal-9 triggered citrullination of intracellular granulocyte proteins that are known contributors to RA pathogenesis (i.e., myeloperoxidase, alpha-enolase, MMP-9, lactoferrin). In conclusion, this study identifies for the first time an immunomodulatory protein, Gal-9, that triggers activation of granulocytes leading to increased PAD-4 expression and generation of citrullinated autoantigens. This pathway may represent a potentially important mechanism for development of RA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Anti-Histone Antibodies and Increased Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis Associated with a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in PADI4 in North Americans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3093; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123093 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins are a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis, a destructive inflammatory arthritis. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) has been hypothesized to contribute to rheumatoid arthritis by citrullinating histones to induce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which display citrullinated proteins that are targeted by [...] Read more.
Autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins are a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis, a destructive inflammatory arthritis. Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) has been hypothesized to contribute to rheumatoid arthritis by citrullinating histones to induce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which display citrullinated proteins that are targeted by autoantibodies to drive inflammation and arthritis. Consistent with this theory, PAD4-deficient mice have reduced NETs, autoantibodies, and arthritis. However, PAD4′s role in human rheumatoid arthritis is less clear. Here, we determine if single nucleotide polymorphism rs2240335 in PADI4, whose G allele is associated with reduced PAD4 in neutrophils, correlates with NETs, anti-histone antibodies, and rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in North Americans. Control and rheumatoid arthritis subjects, divided into anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody positive and negative groups, were genotyped at rs2240335. In homozygotes, in vitro NETosis was quantified in immunofluorescent images and circulating NET and anti-histone antibody levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were compared by t-test and correlation of rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis with rs2240335 by Armitage trend test. NET levels did not significantly correlate with genotype. G allele homozygotes in the CCP rheumatoid arthritis group had reduced anti-native and anti-citrullinated histone antibodies. However, the G allele conferred increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis, suggesting a complex role for PAD4 in human rheumatoid arthritis. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase 2 (PADI2)-Mediated Arginine Citrullination Modulates Transcription in Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041351 - 17 Feb 2020
Abstract
Protein arginine deimination leading to the non-coded amino acid citrulline remains a key question in the field of post-translational modifications ever since its discovery by Rogers and Simmonds in 1958. Citrullination is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADIs). [...] Read more.
Protein arginine deimination leading to the non-coded amino acid citrulline remains a key question in the field of post-translational modifications ever since its discovery by Rogers and Simmonds in 1958. Citrullination is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADIs). Initially, increased citrullination was associated with autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, as well as other neurological disorders and multiple types of cancer. During the last decade, research efforts have focused on how citrullination contributes to disease pathogenesis by modulating epigenetic events, pluripotency, immunity and transcriptional regulation. However, our knowledge regarding the functional implications of citrullination remains quite limited, so we still do not completely understand its role in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we review the recently discovered functions of PADI2-mediated citrullination of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II in transcriptional regulation in breast cancer cells and the proposed mechanisms to reshape the transcription regulatory network that promotes cancer progression. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Deimination and Peptidylarginine Deiminases in Skin Physiology and Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020566 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Deimination, also known as citrullination, corresponds to the conversion of the amino acid arginine, within a peptide sequence, into the non-standard amino acid citrulline. This post-translational modification is catalyzed by a family of calcium-dependent enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Deimination is implicated in [...] Read more.
Deimination, also known as citrullination, corresponds to the conversion of the amino acid arginine, within a peptide sequence, into the non-standard amino acid citrulline. This post-translational modification is catalyzed by a family of calcium-dependent enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Deimination is implicated in a growing number of physiological processes (innate and adaptive immunity, gene regulation, embryonic development, etc.) and concerns several human diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, neurodegenerative diseases, female infertility, cancer, etc.). Here, we update the involvement of PADs in both the homeostasis of skin and skin diseases. We particularly focus on keratinocyte differentiation and the epidermal barrier function, and on hair follicles. Indeed, alteration of PAD activity in the hair shaft is responsible for two hair disorders, the uncombable hair syndrome and a particular form of inflammatory scarring alopecia, mainly affecting women of African ancestry. Full article
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