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Natural Bioactives and Molecular Pathways of Inflammation

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 9292

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: biomarkers; molecular pathways; oxidative stress; inflammation; natural compound; clinical and pre-clinical studies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: clinical biochemistry; inflammation; oxidative stress; neurodegeneration; natural compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is a response of the organism to the breakdown of tissue homeostasis. Increased inflammation is associated with vascular permeability and leukocyte migration, which will try to eliminate pathogenic organisms through the release of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and proteases. Additionally, neutrophils release inflammatory mediators, including chemokines, attracting macrophages to the site of the injury and increase the inflammatory response. These macrophages produce a whole cascade of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and cytokines. All these inflammatory mediators activate periphery nerves and secondary dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, which ultimately transmit pain signals to the brain.

The use of bioactive natural compounds (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, terpenes, saponins, and volatile organic compounds) of animal or vegetal origin to treat inflammation is increasing worldwide, thanks to their limited side effects. Various medicinal plant bioactive extracts and their identified/isolated active constituents have shown a variety of medicinal pharmacological properties against various acute and chronic diseases/disorders.

The objective of this Special Issue is to study, at a molecular level, the mechanisms of action of bioactive natural compounds to reduce pathological complications associated with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Importantly, the exact active ingredient of natural origin extract must be reported in the submitted research manuscript, since papers describing the effects of mixed extraction from natural origin are not within the scope of the journal.

Dr. Ramona D'Amico
Dr. Rosalba Siracusa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • natural compounds
  • alkaloids
  • phenolics
  • natural origin extracts
  • acute and chronic inflammation
  • pain
  • reactive oxygen species
  • cytokines storm
  • molecular pathways

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 28207 KiB  
Article
The Transcription Factor Nrf2 Mediates the Effects of Antrodia camphorata Extract on Neuropathological Changes in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease
by Marika Lanza, Laura Cucinotta, Giovanna Casili, Alessia Filippone, Rossella Basilotta, Anna Paola Capra, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Emanuela Esposito
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(11), 9250; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24119250 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1136
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder that is characterized by progressive and selective neuronal injury and cell death. Recent studies have provided accumulating evidence for a significant role of the immune system and neuroinflammation in PD pathogenesis. On this basis, many scientific articles [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a disorder that is characterized by progressive and selective neuronal injury and cell death. Recent studies have provided accumulating evidence for a significant role of the immune system and neuroinflammation in PD pathogenesis. On this basis, many scientific articles have highlighted the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of Antrodia camphorata (AC), an edible fungus containing various bioactive compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of AC administration on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in a murine model of MPTP-induced dopaminergic degeneration. AC (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) was administered daily by oral gavage starting 24 h after the first administration of MPTP, and mice were sacrificed 7 days after MPTP induction. In this study, treatment with AC significantly reduced the alteration of PD hallmarks, increasing tyrosine hydroxylase expression and reducing the number of alpha-synuclein-positive neurons. In addition, AC treatment restored the myelination process of neurons associated with PD and attenuated the neuroinflammatory state. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that AC was able to reduce the oxidative stress induced by MPTP injection. In conclusion, this study highlighted that AC could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Molecular Pathways of Inflammation)
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10 pages, 924 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of 3, 5-Diprenyl-4-hydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Ageratina pazcuarensis
by Sarai Rojas-Jiménez, María Salud Pérez-Gutiérrez, Ernesto Sánchez-Mendoza, Rubria Marlen Martínez-Casares, Nimsi Campos-Xolalpa, María Guadalupe Valladares-Cisneros and David Osvaldo Salinas-Sánchez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315012 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
Inflammation is implicated in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Plants are an important source of active anti-inflammatory compounds. The compound 3, 5-diprenyl-4-hydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) was isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Ageratina pazcuarensis by chromatography and identified [...] Read more.
Inflammation is implicated in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes. Plants are an important source of active anti-inflammatory compounds. The compound 3, 5-diprenyl-4-hydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) was isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of Ageratina pazcuarensis by chromatography and identified by spectroscopic (IR, NMR) and spectrometric (GC-MS) methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on ear edema mouse induced with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) at 2 mg/ear. The antioxidant activity of DHAP was determined using DPPH assay. Cell viability was tested in J774A.1 macrophages, the levels of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 production in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and membrane lysis induced by hypotonic solution in erythrocytes were evaluated. DHAP diminished the ear edema mouse in 70.10%, and it had scavenger effect against the radical with IC50 of 26.00 ± 0.37 µg/mL. Likewise, 91.78 µM of this compound inhibited the production of NO (38.96%), IL-1β (55.56%), IL-6 (51.62%), and TNF-α (59.14%) in macrophages and increased the levels of IL-10 (61.20%). Finally, 25 and 50 µg/mL DHAP provided the greatest protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis. These results demonstrate that DHAP has anti-inflammatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Molecular Pathways of Inflammation)
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16 pages, 3292 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Biochemical Mechanism of Cannabidiol in the Management of the Inflammatory and Oxidative Processes Associated with Endometriosis
by Tiziana Genovese, Marika Cordaro, Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Sebastiano Caudullo, Emanuela Raffone, Francesco Macrí, Livia Interdonato, Enrico Gugliandolo, Claudia Interlandi, Rosalia Crupi, Ramona D’Amico, Roberta Fusco, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Rosanna Di Paola
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105427 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3295
Abstract
Endometriosis is usually associated with inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. This paper focuses the attention on the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and analgesic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) and on its potential role in endometriosis. We employed an in vivo model of endometriosis and administered CBD [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is usually associated with inflammation and chronic pelvic pain. This paper focuses the attention on the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and analgesic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) and on its potential role in endometriosis. We employed an in vivo model of endometriosis and administered CBD daily by gavage. CBD administration strongly reduced lesions diameter, volume and area. In particular, it was able to modify lesion morphology, reducing epithelial glands and stroma. CBD showed anti-oxidant effects reducing lipid peroxidation, the expression of Nox-1 and Nox-4 enzymes. CBD restored the oxidative equilibrium of the endogenous cellular defense as showed by the SOD activity and the GSH levels in the lesions. CBD also showed important antifibrotic effects as showed by the Masson trichrome staining and by downregulated expression of MMP-9, iNOS and TGF-β. CBD was able to reduce inflammation both in the harvested lesions, as showed by the increased Ikb-α and reduced COX2 cytosolic expressions and reduced NFkB nuclear localization, and in the peritoneal fluids as showed by the decreased TNF-α, PGE2 and IL-1α levels. CBD has important analgesic effects as showed by the reduced mast cells recruitment in the spinal cord and the reduced release of neuro-sensitizing and pro-inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, the collected data showed that CBD has an effective and coordinated effects in endometriosis suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Molecular Pathways of Inflammation)
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Review

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28 pages, 1472 KiB  
Review
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoids in Common Neurological Disorders Associated with Aging
by Hilda Martínez-Coria, Isabel Arrieta-Cruz, Roger Gutiérrez-Juárez and Héctor Eduardo López-Valdés
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054297 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3040
Abstract
Aging reduces homeostasis and contributes to increasing the risk of brain diseases and death. Some of the principal characteristics are chronic and low-grade inflammation, a general increase in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory markers. Aging-related diseases include focal ischemic stroke and [...] Read more.
Aging reduces homeostasis and contributes to increasing the risk of brain diseases and death. Some of the principal characteristics are chronic and low-grade inflammation, a general increase in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory markers. Aging-related diseases include focal ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Flavonoids are the most common class of polyphenols and are abundantly found in plant-based foods and beverages. A small group of individual flavonoid molecules (e.g., quercetin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and myricetin) has been used to explore the anti-inflammatory effect in vitro studies and in animal models of focal ischemic stroke and AD and PD, and the results show that these molecules reduce the activated neuroglia and several proinflammatory cytokines, and also, inactivate inflammation and inflammasome-related transcription factors. However, the evidence from human studies has been limited. In this review article, we highlight the evidence that individual natural molecules can modulate neuroinflammation in diverse studies from in vitro to animal models to clinical studies of focal ischemic stroke and AD and PD, and we discuss future areas of research that can help researchers to develop new therapeutic agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Bioactives and Molecular Pathways of Inflammation)
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