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Special Issue "Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pedro Viana Baptista
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
UCIBIO, Department of Life Sciences, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: nanomedicine - application of DNA/RNA systems for nanobiotechnology; biosensing; molecular diagnostics and therapeutics; advanced drug delivery systems; gene silencing
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gold nanoparticles, due to their distinctive physical-chemical properties, are amongst the most widely-used nanoscale platforms for (molecular) diagnostics and therapeutics. The chemical stability and apparent lack of toxicity of gold nanoparticles and their biomolecular conjugates have been proposed for wide application in therapeutics, imaging modalities and vectorization strategies for molecular modulators, such as gene silencing, drug delivery, specific targeting of cellular pathways, etc. Because of their common molecular ground, these approaches have been synergistically coupled together into molecular theranostics systems that allow for radical new in vivo diagnostics modalities with simultaneous tackling of molecular disequilibria leading to disease. We have now reached the moment to evaluate this tremendous potential, i.e., how gold nanoparticle based systems have been making their way to the clinics. From the plethora of conceptual proposals only but a few make it through effective evaluation in clinical setting. Current trends and optimization of gold nanoparticle based platforms for diagnostics and therapeutics towards effective translation to the clinical setting will be the focus of our Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Pedro Viana Baptista
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Biosensor
  • DNA/RNA
  • Point of care
  • Molecular diagnostics
  • Drug delivery
  • Imaging
  • Clinical applications

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Facile Preparation of Gold-Decorated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for CT and MR Dual-Modal Imaging
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19124049 - 14 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
The development of a multifunctional nanoprobe capable of non-invasive multimodal imaging is crucial for precise tumour diagnosis. Herein, we report a facile polymer-assisted method to produce Au-Fe3O4 nanocomposites (NCPs) for the dual-modal magnetic resonance (MR) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) [...] Read more.
The development of a multifunctional nanoprobe capable of non-invasive multimodal imaging is crucial for precise tumour diagnosis. Herein, we report a facile polymer-assisted method to produce Au-Fe3O4 nanocomposites (NCPs) for the dual-modal magnetic resonance (MR) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of tumours. In this approach, amino-functionalized Au nanospheres were first obtained by surface modification of the bifunctional polymer SH-PEG-NH2. Hydrophilic and carboxyl-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were produced by phase transfer of reverse micelle oxidation in our previous work. The Au nanoparticles were conjugated with hydrophilic Fe3O4 nanoparticles through an amide reaction. The obtained Au-Fe3O4 nanocomposites display a high r2 relativity (157.92 mM−1 s−1) and a Hounsfield units (HU) value (270 HU) at Au concentration of 8 mg/mL and could be applied as nanoprobes for the dual-modal MR/CT imaging of a xenografted tumour model. Our work provides a facile method to prepare Au-Fe3O4 nanocomposites for dual-modal MR/CT imaging, and this method can be extended to prepare other multifunctional nanoparticles for multimodal bioimaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Design Combining Isothermal Exponential Amplification and Gold-Nanoparticles Visualization for Rapid Detection of miRNAs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3374; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113374 - 28 Oct 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes, and their aberrant expressions are associated with various diseases. The levels of miRNAs can be useful biomarkers for cellular events or disease diagnosis; thus, sensitive and selective detection of microRNAs is [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes, and their aberrant expressions are associated with various diseases. The levels of miRNAs can be useful biomarkers for cellular events or disease diagnosis; thus, sensitive and selective detection of microRNAs is of great significance in understanding biological functions of miRNAs, early-phase diagnosis of cancers, and discovery of new targets for drugs. However, traditional approaches for the detection of miRNAs are usually laborious and time-consuming, with a low sensitivity. Here, we develop a simple, rapid, ultrasensitive colorimetric assay based on the combination of isothermal Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR) and AuNP-labeled DNA probes for the detection of miRNAs (taking let-7a as a model analyte). In this assay, the presence of let-7a is converted to the reporter Y through EXPAR under isothermal conditions. The subsequent sandwich hybridization of the reporter Y with the AuNP-labeled DNA probes generates a red-to-purple color change. In other words, if the reporter Y is complementary to the AuNP-labeled DNA probes, the DNA-functionalized AuNPs will be aggregated, resulting in the change of solution color from red to purple/blue, while when the AuNP-labeled DNA probes are mismatched to the reporter Y, the solution remains red. This assay represents a simple, time-saving technique, and its results can be visually detected with the naked eye due to the colorimetric change. The method provides superior sensitivity, with a detection limit of 4.176 aM over a wide range from 1 nM to 1 aM under optimal conditions. The method also shows high selectivity for discriminating even single-nucleotide differences between let-7 miRNA family members. Notably, it is comparable to the most sensitive method reported to date, thus providing a promising alternative to standard approaches for the direct detection of let-7a miRNA. Importantly, through combination with specific templates, different miRNAs can be converted to the same reporter Y, which can hybridize with the same set of AuNP-labeled DNA probes to form sandwich hybrids. The color change of the solution can be observed in the presence of the target miRNA. This technique has potential as a routine method for assessing the levels of miRNAs, not only for let-7, but also for various miRNAs in the early phase of cancers. In addition, it can be a useful tool in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis, as well as diagnosis or surveillance programs in field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Gold Nanorods for Light-Based Lung Cancer Theranostics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3318; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113318 - 25 Oct 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have the potential to be used in photoacoustic (PA) imaging and plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) due to their unique optical properties, biocompatibility, controlled synthesis, and tuneable surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Conventionally, continuous-wave (CW) lasers are used in PPTT partly due [...] Read more.
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) have the potential to be used in photoacoustic (PA) imaging and plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) due to their unique optical properties, biocompatibility, controlled synthesis, and tuneable surface plasmon resonances (SPRs). Conventionally, continuous-wave (CW) lasers are used in PPTT partly due to their small size and low cost. However, if pulsed-wave (PW) lasers could be used to destroy tissue then combined theranostic applications, such as PA-guided PPTT, would be possible using the same laser system and AuNRs. In this study, we present the effects of AuNR size on PA response, PW-PPTT efficacy, and PA imaging in a tissue-mimicking phantom, as a necessary step in the development of AuNRs towards clinical use. At equivalent NP/mL, the PA signal intensity scaled with AuNR size, indicating that overall mass has an effect on PA response, and reinforcing the importance of efficient tumour targeting. Under PW illumination, all AuNRs showed toxicity at a laser fluence below the maximum permissible exposure to skin, with a maximum of 80% cell-death exhibited by the smallest AuNRs, strengthening the feasibility of PW-PPTT. The theranostic potential of PW lasers combined with AuNRs has been demonstrated for application in the lung. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Hollow-Channel Gold Nanoflowers as Trimodal Intracellular Nanoprobes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082327 - 08 Aug 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles-enabled intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a sensitive and promising technique for single cell analysis. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanoflowers, i.e., flower-shaped gold nanostructures, can produce a stronger SERS signal. Current exploration of gold nanoflowers for intracellular SERS has [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles-enabled intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides a sensitive and promising technique for single cell analysis. Compared with spherical gold nanoparticles, gold nanoflowers, i.e., flower-shaped gold nanostructures, can produce a stronger SERS signal. Current exploration of gold nanoflowers for intracellular SERS has been considerably limited by the difficulties in preparation, as well as background signal and cytotoxicity arising from the surfactant capping layer. Recently, we have developed a facile and surfactant-free method for fabricating hollow-channel gold nanoflowers (HAuNFs) with great single-particle SERS activity. In this paper, we investigate the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of our HAuNFs using a RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line, and have observed effective cellular internalization and low cytotoxicity. We have further engineered our HAuNFs into SERS-active tags, and demonstrated the functionality of the obtained tags as trimodal nanoprobes for dark-field and fluorescence microscopy imaging, together with intracellular SERS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Non-Covalent Associates of siRNAs and AuNPs Enveloped with Lipid Layer and Doped with Amphiphilic Peptide for Efficient siRNA Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2096; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072096 - 19 Jul 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Elaboration of non-viral vehicles for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, in particular siRNA, into a cell is an actively growing field. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) occupy a noticeable place in these studies, and various nanoconstructions containing AuNPs are reported. We aimed our work to [...] Read more.
Elaboration of non-viral vehicles for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, in particular siRNA, into a cell is an actively growing field. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) occupy a noticeable place in these studies, and various nanoconstructions containing AuNPs are reported. We aimed our work to the rational design of AuNPs-based siRNA delivery vehicle with enhanced transfection efficiency. We optimized the obtaining of non-covalent siRNAs-AuNPs cores: ionic strength, temperature and reaction time were determined. Formation of cores was confirmed using gel electrophoresis. Stable associates were prepared, and then enveloped into a lipid layer composed of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and novel pH-sensitive lipidoid. The constructions were modified with [Str-(RL)4G-NH2] peptide (the resulting construction). All intermediate and resulting nanoconstructions were analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to control their physico-chemical properties. To examine the biological effect of the delivery vehicle, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) Phoenix cells were incubated with the resulting construction containing anti-GFP siRNA, with the siRNA effect being studied by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Transfection of the cells with the resulting construction reduced the GFP fluorescence as efficiently as Lipofectamin 3000. Thus, siRNA vehicle based on non-covalently bound siRNA-AuNP core and enveloped into a lipid layer provides efficient delivery of siRNA into a cell followed by specific gene silencing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring the Mechanism of Inhibition of Au Nanoparticles on the Aggregation of Amyloid-β(16-22) Peptides at the Atom Level by All-Atom Molecular Dynamics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061815 - 20 Jun 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
The abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide into toxic β-rich aggregates can cause Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, it has been shown that small gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) inhibit Aβ aggregation and fibrillation by slowing down the nucleation process in experimental studies. However, the effects of [...] Read more.
The abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-β peptide into toxic β-rich aggregates can cause Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, it has been shown that small gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) inhibit Aβ aggregation and fibrillation by slowing down the nucleation process in experimental studies. However, the effects of AuNPs on Aβ oligomeric structures are still unclear. In this study, we investigate the conformation of Aβ(16-22) tetramers/octamers in the absence and presence of AuNPs using extensive all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Our studies demonstrate that the addition of AuNPs into Aβ(16-22) solution prevents β-sheet formation, and the inhibition depends on the concentration of Aβ(16-22) peptides. A detailed analysis of the Aβ(16-22)/Aβ(16-22)/water/AuNPs interactions reveals that AuNPs inhibit the β-sheet formation resulting from the same physical forces: hydrophobic interactions. Overall, our computational study provides evidence that AuNPs are likely to inhibit Aβ(16-22) and full-length Aβ fibrillation. Thus, this work provides theoretical insights into the development of inorganic nanoparticles as drug candidates for treatment of AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
CA 19-9 Pancreatic Tumor Marker Fluorescence Immunosensing Detection via Immobilized Carbon Quantum Dots Conjugated Gold Nanocomposite
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041162 - 11 Apr 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
The clinical detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), a tumor marker in biological samples, improves and facilitates the rapid screening and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. A simple, low cost, fast, and green synthesis method to prepare a viable carbon quantum dots/gold (CQDs/Au) [...] Read more.
The clinical detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9), a tumor marker in biological samples, improves and facilitates the rapid screening and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. A simple, low cost, fast, and green synthesis method to prepare a viable carbon quantum dots/gold (CQDs/Au) nanocomposite fluorescence immunosensing solution for the detection of CA 19-9 was reported. The present method is conducted by preparing glucose-derived CQDs using a microwave-assisted method. CQDs were employed as reducing and stabilizing agents for the preparation of a CQDs/Au nanocomposite. The immobilized anti-CA 19-9-labeled horseradish peroxidase enzyme (Ab–HRP) was anchored to the surface of a CQDs/Au nanocomposite by a peptide interaction between the carboxylic and amine active groups. The CA 19-9 antigen was trapped by another monoclonal antibody that was coated on the surface of microtiter wells. The formed sandwich capping antibody–antigen–antibody enzyme complex had tunable fluorescence properties that were detected under excitation and emission wavelengths of 420 and 530 nm. The increase in fluorescence intensities of the immunoassay sensing solution was proportional to the CA 19-9 antigen concentration in the linear range of 0.01–350 U mL−1 and had a lower detection limit of 0.007 U mL−1. The proposed CQDs/Au nanocomposite immunoassay method provides a promising tool for detecting CA 19-9 in human serum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
Distribution of Glutathione-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles in Feline Fibrosarcomas and Their Role as a Drug Delivery System for Doxorubicin—Preclinical Studies in a Murine Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(4), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19041021 - 29 Mar 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) are malignant skin tumors with high recurrence rates despite the primary treatment of radical surgical resections. Adjunctive radiotherapy or chemotherapy with doxorubicin is mostly ineffective. Cellular and molecular causes of multidrug resistance, specific physio-chemical properties of solid tumors [...] Read more.
Feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) are malignant skin tumors with high recurrence rates despite the primary treatment of radical surgical resections. Adjunctive radiotherapy or chemotherapy with doxorubicin is mostly ineffective. Cellular and molecular causes of multidrug resistance, specific physio-chemical properties of solid tumors impairing drug transport, and the tumor microenvironment have been indicated for causing standard chemotherapy failure. Gold nanoparticles are promising imaging tools, nanotherapeutics, and drug delivery systems (DDS) for chemotherapeutics, improving drug transport within solid tumors. This study was conducted to assess the distribution of 4-nm glutathione-stabilized gold nanoparticles in FISS and their influence on kidney and liver parameters in nude mice. The role of gold nanoparticles as a doxorubicin DDS in FISS was examined to determine the potential reasons for failure to translate results from in vitro to in vivo studies. Grade III tumors characterized by a large area of necrosis at their core displayed positive immuneexpression of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) at both the periphery and within the tumor core near the area of necrosis. Gold nanoparticles did not cause necrosis at the injection site and had no negative effect on liver and kidney parameters in nude mice. Gold nanoparticles accumulated in the tumor core and at the periphery and co-internalized with TAM—an important observation and potential therapeutic target warranting further investigation. The large area of necrosis and high immunoexpression of TAM, indicating “pro-tumor macrophages”, may be responsible for FISS tumor progression and therapeutic failure. However, further studies are required to test this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Anisotropic Gold Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113385 - 29 Oct 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play a crucial role in the development of nanomedicine, principally due to their unique photophysical properties and high biocompatibility. The possibility to tune and customize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) toward near-infrared region by modulating the AuNP shape is [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play a crucial role in the development of nanomedicine, principally due to their unique photophysical properties and high biocompatibility. The possibility to tune and customize the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) toward near-infrared region by modulating the AuNP shape is one of the reasons for the huge widespread use of AuNPs. The controlled synthesis of no-symmetrical nanoparticles, named anisotropic, is an exciting goal achieved by the scientific community which explains the exponential increase of the number of publications related to the synthesis and use of such type of AuNPs. Even with such steps forward and the AuNP translation in clinic being done, some key issues are still remain and they are related to a reliable and scalable production, a full characterization, and to the development of nanotoxicology studies on the long run. In this review we highlight the very recent advances on the synthesis of the main classes of anisotropic AuNPs (nanorods, nanourchins and nanocages) and their use in the biomedical fields, in terms of diagnosis and therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
Application of Gold Nanoparticle to Plasmonic Biosensors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072021 - 11 Jul 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been widely utilized to develop various biosensors for molecular diagnosis, as they can be easily functionalized and exhibit unique optical properties explained by plasmonic effects. These unique optical properties of GNPs allow the expression of an intense color under [...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been widely utilized to develop various biosensors for molecular diagnosis, as they can be easily functionalized and exhibit unique optical properties explained by plasmonic effects. These unique optical properties of GNPs allow the expression of an intense color under light that can be tuned by altering their size, shape, composition, and coupling with other plasmonic nanoparticles. Additionally, they can also enhance other optical signals, such as fluorescence and Raman scattering, making them suitable for biosensor development. In this review, we provide a detailed discussion of the currently developed biosensors based on the aforementioned unique optical features of GNPs. Mainly, we focus on four different plasmonic biosensing methods, including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), fluorescence enhancement, and quenching caused by plasmon and colorimetry changes based on the coupling of GNPs. We believe that the topics discussed here are useful and able to provide a guideline in the development of novel GNP-based biosensors in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
Gold Nanoparticles: A Powerful Tool to Visualize Proteins on Ordered Mesoporous Silica and for the Realization of Theranostic Nanobioconjugates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1991; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071991 - 08 Jul 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) is a very interesting nanostructured material for the design and engineering of new target and controlled drug-delivery systems. Particularly relevant is the interaction between OMS and proteins. Large pores (6–9 nm) micrometric particles can be used for the realization [...] Read more.
Ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) is a very interesting nanostructured material for the design and engineering of new target and controlled drug-delivery systems. Particularly relevant is the interaction between OMS and proteins. Large pores (6–9 nm) micrometric particles can be used for the realization of a drug depot system where therapeutic proteins are adsorbed either inside the mesopores or on the external surface. Small pores (1–2 nm) mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), can be injected in the blood stream. In the latter case, therapeutic proteins are mainly adsorbed on the MSNs’ external surface. Whenever a protein-OMS conjugate is prepared, a diagnostic method to locate the protein either on the internal or the external silica surface is of utmost importance. To visualize the fine localization of proteins adsorbed in mesoporous silica micro- and nanoparticles, we have employed specific transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analytical strategies based on the use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) conjugates. GNPs are gaining in popularity, representing a fundamental tool to design future applications of MSNs in nanomedicine by realizing theranostic nanobioconjugates. It may be pointed out that we are at the very beginning of a new age of the nanomaterial science: the “mesoporous golden age”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
Gold Nanoparticles in Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Human Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071979 - 06 Jul 2018
Cited by 123
Abstract
The application of nanotechnology for the treatment of cancer is mostly based on early tumor detection and diagnosis by nanodevices capable of selective targeting and delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the specific tumor site. Due to the remarkable properties of gold nanoparticles, they [...] Read more.
The application of nanotechnology for the treatment of cancer is mostly based on early tumor detection and diagnosis by nanodevices capable of selective targeting and delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the specific tumor site. Due to the remarkable properties of gold nanoparticles, they have long been considered as a potential tool for diagnosis of various cancers and for drug delivery applications. These properties include high surface area to volume ratio, surface plasmon resonance, surface chemistry and multi-functionalization, facile synthesis, and stable nature. Moreover, the non-toxic and non-immunogenic nature of gold nanoparticles and the high permeability and retention effect provide additional benefits by enabling easy penetration and accumulation of drugs at the tumor sites. Various innovative approaches with gold nanoparticles are under development. In this review, we provide an overview of recent progress made in the application of gold nanoparticles in the treatment of cancer by tumor detection, drug delivery, imaging, photothermal and photodynamic therapy and their current limitations in terms of bioavailability and the fate of the nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessReview
Therapeutics for Inflammatory-Related Diseases Based on Plasmon-Activated Water: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(6), 1589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19061589 - 28 May 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
It is recognized that the properties of liquid water can be markedly different from those of bulk one when it is in contact with hydrophobic surfaces or is confined in nano-environments. Because our knowledge regarding water structure on the molecular level of dynamic [...] Read more.
It is recognized that the properties of liquid water can be markedly different from those of bulk one when it is in contact with hydrophobic surfaces or is confined in nano-environments. Because our knowledge regarding water structure on the molecular level of dynamic equilibrium within a picosecond time scale is far from completeness all of water’s conventionally known properties are based on inert “bulk liquid water” with a tetrahedral hydrogen-bonded structure. Actually, the strength of water’s hydrogen bonds (HBs) decides its properties and activities. In this review, an innovative idea on preparation of metastable plasmon-activated water (PAW) with intrinsically reduced HBs, by letting deionized (DI) water flow through gold-supported nanoparticles (AuNPs) under resonant illumination at room temperature, is reported. Compared to DI water, the created stable PAW can scavenge free hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and effectively reduce NO release from lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cells. Moreover, PAW can dramatically induce a major antioxidative Nrf2 gene in human gingival fibroblasts. This further confirms its cellular antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, innovatively therapeutic strategy of daily drinking PAW on inflammatory-related diseases based on animal disease models is demonstrated, examples being chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic sleep deprivation (CSD), and lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translating Gold Nanoparticles to Diagnostics and Therapeutics)
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