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Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 22125

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
Interests: inflammation; oxidative stress; berries and antioxidant
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 10, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Interests: fruits; breeding; diversity; traditional uses; ethnoveterinary; characterization of phytochemicals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent chronic debilitating inflammatory disorders that can affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and which are commonly correlated to two main diseases: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. These inflammatory conditions can lead to the development of severe complications such as anemia, malnutrition, infection, and an increased risk of colon cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite intense research efforts, the etiology of IBD is not well-established, but it is reasonably hypothesized that the interaction of multiple factors, including environmental and genetic factors, intestinal microbiota, and immune response are involved in IBD promotion. Considering that there is no cure for IBD and that the incidence of this disorder has shown an increasing trend over the last few decades, nutritional support plays an important role in alleviating IBD symptoms and promoting healing. For all these reasons, it is very important to emphasize the scientific rationale behind the benefits of incorporating phytochemicals, and other dietary bioactive compounds mainly present in fruits and vegetables, as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of IBD, considering their consolidated and widely investigated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

Thus, this Special Issue will investigate the recent advances in the study of the role exerted by dietary bioactive compounds against IBD, focusing attention on the cellular processes, the molecular mechanisms, and the involved pathways, in order to elucidate their possible beneficial health effects and to promote their efficacy in this disease management. Topics related to both original and reviewed articles are welcome. Papers only containing extraction data will not be accepted, because the focus should be on the chemical composition of ingredients and, more specifically, in describing their mechanism of action in improving human nutrition.

Dr. Massimiliano Gasparrini
Dr. Luca Mazzoni
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • IBD
  • dietary bioactive compounds
  • molecular mechanisms
  • health promotion
  • prevention
  • antioxidant
  • anti-inflammatory
  • nutritional support

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 168 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease”
by Massimiliano Gasparrini and Luca Mazzoni
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(7), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25073569 - 22 Mar 2024
Viewed by 431
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise chronic debilitating inflammatory disorders that can affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and are commonly correlated to two main diseases: Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)

Research

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14 pages, 1851 KiB  
Article
Dietary Habits and Nutrient Deficiencies in a Cohort of European Crohn’s Disease Adult Patients
by Fernando Rizzello, Paolo Gionchetti, Enzo Spisni, Ilaria Maria Saracino, Irene Bellocchio, Renato Spigarelli, Noemi Collini, Veronica Imbesi, Thierry Dervieux, Patrizia Alvisi and Maria Chiara Valerii
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021494 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2261
Abstract
Wrong dietary habits, such as the Western-style diet, are considered important risk factors for the development of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). Nevertheless, the role of dietary patterns in the clinical management of IBD patients has not been fully investigated yet. Fifty-four patients diagnosed [...] Read more.
Wrong dietary habits, such as the Western-style diet, are considered important risk factors for the development of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs). Nevertheless, the role of dietary patterns in the clinical management of IBD patients has not been fully investigated yet. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with active Crohn’s disease (CD) were enrolled and subjected to nutritional intake analysis through a weekly food diary. Nutritional patterns were analyzed, and nutrient intake was compared with those of 30 healthy subjects (HS). Blood levels of cholesterol, folic acid, minerals (K, Mg, Fe) and amino acids, were measured in CD patients to assess the presence of nutritional deficiencies. CD patients, with respect to HS, consumed significantly lower amounts of fiber, vitamins (A, E, C, B6, folic acid) and β-carotene. Their calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, copper and iodine intake were also found to be significantly lower. In blood, CD patients had significantly lower concentrations of total cholesterol, potassium, iron, and amino acids. Active CD patient diet was significantly different from those of HS and may contribute to the establishment of nutritional deficiencies. Intestinal malabsorption was evidenced in these patients. Correction of the diet with specific nutritional plans is a necessary therapeutic step for these patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02580864. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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11 pages, 1956 KiB  
Article
Ononitol Monohydrate—A Glycoside Potentially Inhibit HT-115 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation through COX-2/PGE-2 Inflammatory Axis Regulations
by Pandurangan Subash-Babu, Alanoud Aladel, Taghreed N. Almanaa, Sahar Abdulaziz AlSedairy and Ali A. Alshatwi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(22), 14440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232214440 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1768
Abstract
We aimed to inhibit HT-115 human colorectal cancer cell proliferation using ononitol monohydrate (OMH), a bioactive principle isolated from Cassia tora (L.). The cytotoxicity of OMH has been assayed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), cell and nuclear morphology, and apoptosis mechanisms have been [...] Read more.
We aimed to inhibit HT-115 human colorectal cancer cell proliferation using ononitol monohydrate (OMH), a bioactive principle isolated from Cassia tora (L.). The cytotoxicity of OMH has been assayed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), cell and nuclear morphology, and apoptosis mechanisms have been analyzed using real-time PCR. Higher doses of OMH potentially inhibit 84% of HT-115 cell viability; we observed that the IC50 level was 3.2 µM in 24 h and 1.5 µM in 48 h. The treatment with 3.2 µM of OMH for 48 h characteristically showed 64% apoptotic cells and 3% necrotic cells, confirmed by propidium iodide and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/ErBr) staining. We found the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) in the control HT-115 cells, which was directly associated with colorectal tumorigenesis. However, 3.2 µM of OMH treatment to HT-115 cells for 48 h significantly reduced inflammatory genes, such as TNF-α/IL-1β and COX-2/PGE-2. The downregulation of COX-2 and PGE-2 was more significant with the 3.2 µM dose when compared to the 1.5 µM dose of OMH. Additionally, the protein levels of COX-2 and PGE-2 were decreased in the 3.2 µM OMH-treated cells compared to the control. We found significantly (p ≤ 0.01) increased mRNA expression levels of tumor-suppressor genes, such as pRb2, Cdkn1a, p53, and caspase-3, and decreased Bcl-2, mdm2, and PCNA after 48 h was confirmed with apoptotic stimulation. In conclusion, the antiproliferative effect of OMH via the early suppression of protumorigenic inflammatory agents TNF-α/IL-1β, COX-2/PGE-2 expression, and the increased expression levels of tumor-suppressor genes Cdkn1a and pRb2, which enhanced the activation of Bax and p53. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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18 pages, 6932 KiB  
Article
Beneficial Effects of Linseed Supplementation on Gut Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in a Physically Active Mouse Model of Crohn’s Disease
by Claire Plissonneau, Adeline Sivignon, Benoit Chassaing, Frederic Capel, Vincent Martin, Monique Etienne, Ivan Wawrzyniak, Pierre Chausse, Frederic Dutheil, Guillaume Mairesse, Guillaume Chesneau, Nathalie Boisseau and Nicolas Barnich
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(11), 5891; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23115891 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2103
Abstract
The Western diet, rich in lipids and in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), favors gut dysbiosis observed in Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of rebalancing the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in CEABAC10 transgenic mice that mimic [...] Read more.
The Western diet, rich in lipids and in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), favors gut dysbiosis observed in Crohn’s disease (CD). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of rebalancing the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in CEABAC10 transgenic mice that mimic CD. Mice in individual cages with running wheels were randomized in three diet groups for 12 weeks: high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + linseed oil (HFD-LS-O) and HFD + extruded linseed (HFD-LS-E). Then, they were orally challenged once with the Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) LF82 pathobiont. After 12 weeks of diet, total energy intake, body composition, and intestinal permeability were not different between groups. After the AIEC-induced intestinal inflammation, fecal lipocalin-2 concentration was lower at day 6 in n-3 PUFAs supplementation groups (HFD-LS-O and HFD-LS-E) compared to HFD. Analysis of the mucosa-associated microbiota showed that the abundance of Prevotella, Paraprevotella, Ruminococcus, and Clostridiales was higher in the HFD-LS-E group. Butyrate levels were higher in the HFD-LS-E group and correlated with the Firmicutes/Proteobacteria ratio. This study demonstrates that extruded linseed supplementation had a beneficial health effect in a physically active mouse model of CD susceptibility. Additional studies are required to better decipher the matrix influence in the linseed supplementation effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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18 pages, 6942 KiB  
Article
Crocetin Prolongs Recovery Period of DSS-Induced Colitis via Altering Intestinal Microbiome and Increasing Intestinal Permeability
by Peishi Feng, Qiaoqiao Li, Ling Liu, Siyu Wang, Zhipeng Wu, Yi Tao, Pan Huang and Ping Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(7), 3832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23073832 - 30 Mar 2022
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4010
Abstract
Crocetin is one of the major active constituents of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) which has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is little evidence showing the relationship between crocetin intake and the [...] Read more.
Crocetin is one of the major active constituents of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) which has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is little evidence showing the relationship between crocetin intake and the risk of gastrointestinal diseases such as colitis. In order to investigate the effect of crocetin on the regulation of intestinal barrier function and intestinal microbiota composition, mice were treated with crocetin after 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration for one week. We found that crocetin intake at 10 mg/kg aggravated colitis in mice, showing increased weight loss and more serious histological abnormalities compared with the DSS group. The 16s rDNA sequencing analysis of the feces samples showed that mice treated with 10 mg/kg crocetin had lower species diversity and richness than those treated with DSS. At the genus level, a higher abundance of Akkermansia and Mediterraneibacter, and a lower abundance of Muribaculaceae, Dubosiella, Paramuribaculum, Parasutterella, Allobaculum, Duncaniella, Candidatus Stoquefichus, and Coriobacteriaceae UCG-002 were observed in the crocetin group. Untargeted metabolomic analyses revealed that crocetin reduced the levels of primary and secondary bile acids such as 12-ketodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketodeoxycholic acid, 3-sulfodeoxycholic acid, 6-ethylchenodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate-7-sulfate, glycocholate, and sulfolithocholic acid in the colon. In conclusion, crocetin intake disturbed intestinal homeostasis and prolonged recovery of colitis by promoting inflammation and altering gut microbiota composition and its metabolic products in mice. Our findings suggest that patients with gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease should use crocetin with caution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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23 pages, 10674 KiB  
Article
Colon Expression of Chemokines and Their Receptors Depending on the Stage of Colitis and Oat Beta-Glucan Dietary Intervention—Crohn’s Disease Model Study
by Łukasz Kopiasz, Katarzyna Dziendzikowska and Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031406 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3058
Abstract
Crohn’s disease (CD), a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with alternating periods of exacerbation and remission, is becoming common around the world. This study aimed to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of oat beta-glucans of varying [...] Read more.
Crohn’s disease (CD), a condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract with alternating periods of exacerbation and remission, is becoming common around the world. This study aimed to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of oat beta-glucans of varying molar masses by modulating the expression of chemokines and their receptors as well as other proteins related to both stages of TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzosulfonic acid)-induced colitis, which is an animal model of CD. The experiment involved 96 Sprague–Dawley rats, which were divided into two main groups: control and TNBS-induced colitis. Both groups of rats were further divided into three dietary subgroups, which were fed with standard feed or feed supplemented with low- or high-molar-mass oat beta-glucans for 3 (reflecting acute inflammation) or 7 days (reflecting pre-remission). The gene expression of chemokines and their receptors in the colon wall was determined by RT-PCR, and the expression of selected proteins in the mucosa was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that acute and pre-remission stages of colitis were characterized by the increased gene expression of seven chemokines and four chemokine receptors in the colon wall as well as disrupted protein expression of CXCL1, CCL5, CXCR2, CCR5, and OPN in the mucosa. The consumption of oat beta-glucans resulted in decreased expression of most of these genes and modulated the expression of all proteins, with a stronger effect observed with the use of high-molar-mass beta-glucan. To summarize, dietary oat beta-glucans, particularly those of high molar mass, can reduce colitis by modulating the expression of chemokines and their receptors and certain proteins associated with CD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Review

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15 pages, 1563 KiB  
Review
Hydroxytyrosol and Its Potential Uses on Intestinal and Gastrointestinal Disease
by Alessia Arangia, Ylenia Marino, Daniela Impellizzeri, Ramona D’Amico, Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Rosanna Di Paola
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043111 - 04 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4851
Abstract
In recent years, the phytoconstituents of foods in the Mediterranean diet (MD) have been the subject of several studies for their beneficial effects on human health. The traditional MD is described as a diet heavy in vegetable oils, fruits, nuts, and fish. The [...] Read more.
In recent years, the phytoconstituents of foods in the Mediterranean diet (MD) have been the subject of several studies for their beneficial effects on human health. The traditional MD is described as a diet heavy in vegetable oils, fruits, nuts, and fish. The most studied element of MD is undoubtedly olive oil due precisely to its beneficial properties that make it an object of interest. Several studies have attributed these protective effects to hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main polyphenol contained in olive oil and leaves. HT has been shown to be able to modulate the oxidative and inflammatory process in numerous chronic disorders, including intestinal and gastrointestinal pathologies. To date, there is no paper that summarizes the role of HT in these disorders. This review provides an overview of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant proprieties of HT against intestinal and gastrointestinal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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21 pages, 608 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Potential of Bioactive Components from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Cancer: A Review
by Jung Yoon Jang, Eunok Im and Nam Deuk Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24031954 - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2663
Abstract
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG), an herbal medicine with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities, is effective in treatment of colitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, respiratory infections, and allergic diseases. This herbal medicine consists of major active substances, such as baicalin, [...] Read more.
Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG), an herbal medicine with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities, is effective in treatment of colitis, hepatitis, pneumonia, respiratory infections, and allergic diseases. This herbal medicine consists of major active substances, such as baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside, and wogonin. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine, with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis being the main types. IBD can lead to serious complications, such as increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most common cancers worldwide. Currently, there is no cure for IBD, and its incidence has been increasing over the past few decades. This review comprehensively summarizes the efficacy of SBG in IBD and CRC and may serve as a reference for future research and development of drugs for IBD and cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Bioactive Components in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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