Special Issue "Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion 2019"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Masao Kanamori
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Sport and Health Science/Department of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto/Kusatu Prefecture 525-8577, Japan
Interests: epidemiology of health promotion; climate change and its impact on health; prevention of dementia; sport medicine
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Health promotion has two general ideas: one is to inhibit the aggravation of illness for disabilities and patients with severe diseases, and the other is to increase physical strength and immunity among healthy people. The physical activity of patients with dementia is included in this; Furthermore, we need to inhibit the aggravation of illness. Nutrients and rest and exercise are necessary to promote health. We welcome contributions from diverse fields that focus on physical activity and sports.

Prof. Dr. Masao Kanamori
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Two Choreographed Fitness Group-Workouts on the Body Composition, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Health of Sedentary Female Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244986 - 07 Dec 2019
Abstract
Daily sedentary working hours contribute negatively to body composition, cardiovascular and metabolic health, especially in women, who are usually less active than men. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two trending choreographed fitness group-workouts on the body [...] Read more.
Daily sedentary working hours contribute negatively to body composition, cardiovascular and metabolic health, especially in women, who are usually less active than men. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two trending choreographed fitness group-workouts on the body composition and cardiovascular and metabolic health of sedentary female workers. A total of 98 physically inactive and working women (38.9 ± 6.4 years of age) were randomly assigned to three study groups: Control group (CG) = 31, Zumba Fitness® with three one-hour classes per week (ZF) = 39, and Zumba Fitness with 20 minutes of additional Bodyweight strength training (ZF + BW) = 28. Measurements included body composition, blood pressure, cardiovascular risk by the Framingham Heart Study tools (10 yr cardiovascular risk and vascular age) and a metabolic blood panel. Post-intervention, both choreographed fitness group-workouts reached a similar significant loss of fat mass (ZF = 2.805 ± 0.48, p < 0.0001; ZF + BW = 3.540 ± 0.04, p < 0.0001), an increase in muscle mass (ZF = 1.70 ± 0.581, p = 0.005; ZF + BW = 3.237 ± 0.657, p < 0.0001) and a decrease in SBP (ZF= 6.454 ± 1.70, p < 0.0001; ZF + BW = 4.12 ± 1.95, p = 0.039). Only the ZF group significantly improved the 10 yr cardiovascular risk (p = 0.032) and metabolic age (p = 0.0025) post-intervention. No significant improvement was observed in the metabolic panel for both choreographed fitness group-workouts. In conclusion, the ZF program generated improvements in cardiovascular and metabolic risk variables compared to ZF + BW or CG. Both choreographed fitness group-workouts contributed similarly to the improvement in systolic blood pressure, fat mass, muscle mass, and also engendered a great adherence to exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Toward Prevention of Doping in Youth Sport: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Correlates of Doping Tendency in Swimming
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234851 - 02 Dec 2019
Abstract
Doping is recognized as one of the most important problems in sports, but a limited number of studies have investigated doping problems in youth athletes. This study aimed to evaluate doping tendency (potential doping behavior (PDB)) and correlates of PDB in youth age [...] Read more.
Doping is recognized as one of the most important problems in sports, but a limited number of studies have investigated doping problems in youth athletes. This study aimed to evaluate doping tendency (potential doping behavior (PDB)) and correlates of PDB in youth age swimmers. The participants were 241 competitive swimmers (131 females; 15.3 ± 1.1 years of age, all under 18 years old). Variables included predictors and PDB (criterion). Predictors consisted of sociodemographic factors (gender and age), sport-related variables (i.e., experience in swimming and sport achievement), variables explaining coaching strategy and training methodology, consumption of dietary supplements (DS), knowledge about doping, and knowledge about sports nutrition and DS (KSN). In addition to the descriptive statistics and differences between genders, a multinomial regression using PDB as the criterion (negative-, neutral-, or positive-PDB, with a negative-PDB as the reference value) was calculated to define associations between predictors and criterion. With only 71% of swimmers who declared negative-PDB results indicated an alarming figure. Boys with better KSN were more negatively oriented toward positive-PDB (OR: 0.77, 95%CI: 0.60–0.95). In girls, lower competitive achievement was evidenced as a risk factor for neutral-PDB (OR: 0.39, 95%CI: 0.24–0.63). Also, higher neutral-PDB (OR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81–0.96) and positive-PDB (OR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83–0.99) were identified in girls who began with intensive training in younger age. Because of the alarming figures of PDB, there is an evident need for the development of systematic antidoping educational programs in youth swimming. In doing so, focus should be placed on girls who began intensive training at an earlier age and those who did not achieve high competitive results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion 2019)
Open AccessArticle
The Potential of Non-Mega Sporting Events for the Promotion of Physical Activity Among Inactive Supporters at the Poznan Half Marathon: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214193 - 30 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The impact of sports events on the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyles and sports participation is debatable, and most of the literature is on mega-events. This begs the question if more evidence of this type of impact can be found for non-mega [...] Read more.
The impact of sports events on the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyles and sports participation is debatable, and most of the literature is on mega-events. This begs the question if more evidence of this type of impact can be found for non-mega events. Research on sports legacy often refers to the tangible effects such as infrastructure that is left after the competition. However, the construction of new facilities does not automatically result in attracting participants. Despite the high expectations of events organizers in terms of their impacts on pro-health behavior of people, few studies provide empirical evidence that events encourage sport fans to become more physically active. The aim of this research was to examine whether a mass run promotes physical activity among spectators, and whether a mass run influences the willingness of spectators to start in half marathon in the future. A written paper–pencil survey was collected from 510 spectators during the 6th Poznan Half Marathon. The results show that observing a mass run event has a positive impact on the willingness to engage in regular physical activity as well as the willingness to take part in this type of sport in the future. Our work provides knowledge about the level of effectiveness in promoting active lifestyles among supporters depending on age, sex and place of residents. This work focuses on mass runs, which have been under-researched when it comes to impact on sport participation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion 2019)
Open AccessArticle
Investigating the Prevalence and Predictors of Injury Occurrence in Competitive Hip Hop Dancers: Prospective Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173214 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
Hip hop is a popular form of competitive and recreational sport worldwide, but studies rarely investigate injury prevalence and factors associated with injury occurrence in this sport. This study aimed to prospectively examine injury occurrence in hip hop dancers in a three-month period [...] Read more.
Hip hop is a popular form of competitive and recreational sport worldwide, but studies rarely investigate injury prevalence and factors associated with injury occurrence in this sport. This study aimed to prospectively examine injury occurrence in hip hop dancers in a three-month period and to evaluate potential predictors of injury occurrence in hip hop dancers. The participants were 129 competitive hip hop dancers (114 females, 17.95 ± 4.15 years of age). Study predictors were obtained at study baseline and included sociodemographic factors, sport-related factors, previous injury status, anthropometric and body build indices (body height, mass, body mass index, and body composition variables), and dynamic balance performance (obtained by the Star Excursion Balance Test—SEBT). The outcome was injury occurrence, which was prospectively observed once a week by the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC). During the course of the study, 101 injuries occurred, equating to an annual injury incidence of 312%. On average, each dancer suffered 0.78 injuries (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.61–0.97) across a study period of three months (0.76 (95% CI: 0.60–0.95) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.75–1.13), in females and males, respectively; Mann Whitney Z-value: 0.68, p = 0.52). Seventeen percent of dancers suffered multiple injuries, and 49% of all injuries were time-loss injuries. The knee was the most frequently injured body location (42% of all reported injuries), followed by the back region (32%) and the ankle (15%). Previous injury was a strong predictor of injury occurrence (Odds Ratio: 3.76, 95% CI: 1.87–4.59). Lower injury risk was evidenced among those participants who achieved better scores on several SEBT variables, irrespective of gender and previous injury status; with no significant influence of anthropometric and body build variables on injury occurrence. This study highlighted a high injury rate in hip hop dancers. Dancers and coaches should be informed about the certain protective effects of dynamic balance on the prevention of musculoskeletal injury in hip hop in order to assure safe and effective practices. The usage of SEBT as a convenient and cheap testing procedure is encouraged in other dance disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
The Age-Related Performance Decline in Marathon Running: The Paradigm of the Berlin Marathon
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16112022 - 06 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
The variation of marathon race time by age group has been used recently to model the decline of endurance with aging; however, paradigms of races (i.e., marathon running) examined so far have mostly been from the United States. Therefore, the aim of the [...] Read more.
The variation of marathon race time by age group has been used recently to model the decline of endurance with aging; however, paradigms of races (i.e., marathon running) examined so far have mostly been from the United States. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the age of peak performance (APP) in a European race, the “Berlin Marathon”. Race times of 387,222 finishers (women, n = 93,022; men, n = 294,200) in this marathon race from 2008 to 2018 were examined. Men were faster by +1.10 km.h−1 (10.74 ± 1.84 km.h−1 versus 9.64 ± 1.46 km.h−1, p <0.001, η2 = 0.065, medium effect size) and older by +2.1 years (43.1 ± 10.0 years versus 41.0 ± 9.8 years, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.008, trivial effect size) than women. APP was 32 years in women and 34 years in men using 1-year age groups, and 30–34 years in women and 35–39 years in men using 5-year age groups. Women’s and men’s performance at 60–64 and 55–59 age groups, respectively, corresponded to ~90% of the running speed at APP. Based on these findings, it was concluded that although APP occurred earlier in women than men, the observed age-related differences indicated that the decline of endurance with aging might differ by sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion 2019)
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