Special Issue "Child Victimisation"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ko-Ling Chan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
Interests: child maltreatment; intimate partner violence; child and family poly-victimization; chinese migration and child welfare; prevention of family violence; social work education in china
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Patrick Ip
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Child victimization, the victimization experience by various forms of violence, including, but not limited to, child abuse and neglect by parents, violence, and bullying by peer and siblings, and exposure to neighborhood violence and crime, has been demonstrated to be a prevalent problem that leads to different negative impacts on victims. The negative consequences are often found to last until adolescence and even adulthood. Recent research efforts have been focused on combating child victimisation through early identification, cultural-specific prevention and intervention, as well as multidisciplinary collaboration among professionals from various fields.

This Special Issue on “Child Victimization” seeks articles on different kinds of child victimization, with a special focus on (i) child polyvictimization, which is the exposure to multiple types of victimization; (ii) associations between child victimization and other kinds of violence within the same family; (iii) cultural-specific issues on the problem, and (iv) prevention or intervention programs involving multidisciplinary collaboration. Empirical studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analytic studies will be considered. The keywords listed below provide an outline of some possible areas of interest.

Prof. Ko-Ling Chan
Dr. Patrick Ip
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Child victimization
  • Child abuse and neglect
  • Child maltreatment
  • Polyvictimization
  • Bullying
  • Witness of violence
  • Cultural
  • Prevention
  • Intervention
  • Multidisciplinary

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Child Victimization in the Context of Family Violence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193569 - 24 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
Child victimization refers to all possible forms of violence experienced by a child. This issue examines multiple types of victimization through a comprehensive approach. To understand child victimization fully, it should be investigated within the context of family violence. The studies in this [...] Read more.
Child victimization refers to all possible forms of violence experienced by a child. This issue examines multiple types of victimization through a comprehensive approach. To understand child victimization fully, it should be investigated within the context of family violence. The studies in this issue provide evidence of the prevalence of various types of child victimization. As well as child maltreatment and bullying, the emerging form of cyberbullying is examined in several studies. The family has always been the main focus around child victimization, with parenting style as one prominent example. Studies show that some parenting styles are associated with child maltreatment and therefore have suggested that parenting programs may be effective in reducing child victimization. This issue provides up-to-date studies from different regions around the world. It makes a significant contribution to the current debate in child victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle
Kindergarten Teachers’ Perspectives on Young Children’s Bullying Roles in Relation to Dominance and Peer Relationships: A Short-Term Longitudinal Approach in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1734; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051734 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
There are several studies on young children’s bullying roles in relation to dominance or peer relationships. Although those are closely related, few studies examined this from longitudinal view and the influence of bullying role change on dominance and peer relationships. This study aimed [...] Read more.
There are several studies on young children’s bullying roles in relation to dominance or peer relationships. Although those are closely related, few studies examined this from longitudinal view and the influence of bullying role change on dominance and peer relationships. This study aimed to examine (1) the relationship between bullying roles and dominance, (2) the relationship between bullying roles and peer relationships, (3) the percentage of bullying role change over time, and (4) the changes in bullying roles in relation to changes in dominance and peer relationships. Sixty-three South Korean kindergarten teachers completed questionnaires regarding bullying roles, dominance, and peer relationships about 1312 children aged 3–5. The data were collected in mid-October 2017 and January 2018. The results showed that bullies had the highest dominance. No-role children had the most positive peer relationships, followed by bullies. About 10% of all sampled children remained involved in bullying over time. Their role changes related to changes in dominance rather than to changes in peer relationships. The findings imply that dominance should be considered to prevent young children’s bullying, in which peer relationships are interrelated. Intervention should be implemented as soon as possible to stop repeated victimization or bullying in early childhood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Sexual Exploitation as a Minor, Violence, and HIV/STI Risk among Women Trading Sex in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224343 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a major risk factor for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI), violence and other health concerns, yet few studies have examined these associations in Russia until now. This study examines the prevalence of CSE (those entering the [...] Read more.
Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a major risk factor for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI), violence and other health concerns, yet few studies have examined these associations in Russia until now. This study examines the prevalence of CSE (those entering the sex trade as a minor) among women in the sex trade in Russia and how exposures and behaviors related to violence and HIV/STI structural risks differ from those who entered the sex trade as an adult. Women in the sex trade (N = 896) in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia were recruited via time-location sampling and completed structured surveys. Adjusted logistic regression analyses assessed associations between CSE victimization and HIV risk-related exposures. Of the 654 participants who provided their age at first sexual exploitation, 11% reported CSE prior to age 18. Those who reported CSE were more likely to be organized by others and to be prohibited from leaving a room or house and from using condoms; three-quarters experienced rape when trading sex; a third were involved in pornography before age 18 and they had less education if they entered the sex trade as a minor. In adjusted analyses, those entering the sex trade as a minor were significantly more likely than those entering the sex trade as an adult to report drug use prior to age 18 (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI = 2.53–13.09) to have ≥5 clients/day (past 12 months; AOR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.56–8.08), to report receiving police assistance (AOR: 3.10, 95% CI = 1.26–7.54), and to have fewer experiences of police extortion (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.10–1.24). They were four times more likely to participate in pornography before the age of 18 (AOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.32, 12.60) and three times more likely to have been sexually abused as child (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.27, 7.54). Overall, entry as a minor was related to greater risk for victimization and an inability to protect oneself from STI/HIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Violence-Prevention Programme with Jamaican Primary School Teachers: A Cluster Randomised Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2797; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152797 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of a school-based violence prevention programme implemented in Grade 1 classrooms in Jamaican primary schools. Fourteen primary schools were randomly assigned to receive training in classroom behaviour management (n = 7 schools, 27 teachers/classrooms) or to a [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of a school-based violence prevention programme implemented in Grade 1 classrooms in Jamaican primary schools. Fourteen primary schools were randomly assigned to receive training in classroom behaviour management (n = 7 schools, 27 teachers/classrooms) or to a control group (n = 7 schools, 28 teachers/classrooms). Four children from each class were randomly selected to participate in the evaluation (n = 220 children). Teachers were trained through a combination of workshop and in-class support sessions, and received a mean of 11.5 h of training (range = 3–20) over 8 months. The primary outcomes were observations of (1) teachers’ use of violence against children and (2) class-wide child aggression. Teachers in intervention schools used significantly less violence against children (effect size (ES) = −0.73); benefits to class-wide child aggression were not significant (ES = −0.20). Intervention teachers also provided a more emotionally supportive classroom environment (ES = 1.22). No benefits were found to class-wide prosocial behaviour, teacher wellbeing, or child mental health. The intervention benefited children’s early learning skills, especially oral language and self-regulation skills (ES = 0.25), although no benefits were found to achievement in maths calculation, reading and spelling. A relatively brief teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and increased the quality of the classroom environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Intervention Procedure for Improving Classroom Behavior of Neglected Children: Say Do Say Correspondence Training
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152688 - 27 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Although neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, a review of the literature since 1980 reveals a lack of controlled child neglect intervention programs. The aim of this study is to assess a new intervention program to improve the classroom behavior [...] Read more.
Although neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment, a review of the literature since 1980 reveals a lack of controlled child neglect intervention programs. The aim of this study is to assess a new intervention program to improve the classroom behavior of children exposed to neglect only, by reducing disruptive conduct and promoting adaptive conduct. Two matched groups were selected with children of the same ages, sex, and social class (cultural and economic level) and with mothers of similar ages. The experimental group comprised of five children suffering from neglect and no other type of maltreatment. The control group had five children not abused or neglected. All the children were in the same class at school. The percentage of time per session that each child spent engaged in disruptive behavior was measured (baseline) and was found significantly higher among neglected children. Say-Do-Say Correspondence Training was applied with the neglected children and a rapid, significant reduction in their disruptive behavior was observed (and statistically confirmed), bringing such behavior down to the level of the control (i.e., non-neglected) children. These results were maintained when the intervention was halted. We concluded that the adaptive and classroom behavior of neglected children can be improved with this non-intrusive intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
How to Stop Victims’ Suffering? Indirect Effects of an Anti-Bullying Program on Internalizing Symptoms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142631 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1634
Abstract
Victims of bullying and cyberbullying present internalizing problems, such as anxiety, psychosomatic and depressive symptoms, and are at higher risk of considering or attempting suicide. Researchers have put great effort into developing interventions able to stop bullying and cyberbullying, and thus buffering possible [...] Read more.
Victims of bullying and cyberbullying present internalizing problems, such as anxiety, psychosomatic and depressive symptoms, and are at higher risk of considering or attempting suicide. Researchers have put great effort into developing interventions able to stop bullying and cyberbullying, and thus buffering possible negative consequences. Despite this, only a few of them have investigated the effects of these programs on the psychological suffering of the victims. The NoTrap! program is an Italian evidence-based intervention able to reduce victimization, bullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether the NoTrap! program can reduce internalizing symptoms through the decrease in both victimization and cybervictimization. Participants were 622 adolescents, enrolled in the 9th grade of eight high schools in Tuscany (experimental group: N = 451; control group: N = 171). We collected data at three time points: pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Using latent growth curve models, we found that the program significantly predicted the change in internalizing symptoms over time. Furthermore, the mediation model showed that only the indirect effect via cybervictimization was significant. In summary, the program reduced internalizing symptoms within the experimental group successfully, through the decrease in cybervictimization more so than through the mediational effect of decreasing victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Moral Disengagement as an Explanatory Factor of the Polyivictimization of Bullying and Cyberbullying
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132414 - 07 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Background: The present study’s objectives were to: (1) Identify and analyze the prevalence of poly-victims, and (2) determine how the levels of moral disengagement and the various defence mechanisms that victims use to explain abusive behavior might function as predictors of poly-bullying. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: The present study’s objectives were to: (1) Identify and analyze the prevalence of poly-victims, and (2) determine how the levels of moral disengagement and the various defence mechanisms that victims use to explain abusive behavior might function as predictors of poly-bullying. Methods: The sample consisted of 1328 participants of from 9 to 14 years old. The instruments used were two questionnaires. One allows the prevalence of bullying and cyberbullying victims to be identified and analyzed. The other analyses the level of moral disengagement and the defence mechanisms to which the victims resort. Results: The results showed there to be a continuity of the role of victim in off-line and on-line contexts, turning those who are subject to these situations into poly-victims. The moral disengagement of these victims was found basically to be centered at two levels—a locus of behavior, and a locus of outcomes. Conclusions: Exposure to abuse that is continuous, of different types, and coming from different contexts must be perceived as a public health problem given the lack of effective tools to combat the situations of helplessness that the polyvictims experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Cyberbullying in Gifted Students: Prevalence and Psychological Well-Being in a Spanish Sample
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122173 - 19 Jun 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
The differential characteristics of gifted students can make them vulnerable to cyberbullying. There is very little empirical evidence about cyberbullying and giftedness. In the Spanish context, it is unexplored. The main goal of this work is to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying, its [...] Read more.
The differential characteristics of gifted students can make them vulnerable to cyberbullying. There is very little empirical evidence about cyberbullying and giftedness. In the Spanish context, it is unexplored. The main goal of this work is to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying, its distribution in the different roles, and its relationship with other psychological variables. A cross-sectional study was performed with 255 gifted students (M = 11.88 years, SD = 2.28 years) in Spain (155 males, 60.8%). We used the cyberbullying test and the Spanish versions of the DASS-21, ISEL, KIDSCREEN-10, and the SWLS. The results indicate that 25.1% of the students are pure-cybervictims, 3.9% pure-cyberbullies, and 6.6% cyberbully-victims. Pure-cybervictims and cyberbully-victims present worse scores (p < 0.001) in health-related quality of life, depression, life satisfaction and stress than the uninvolved individuals. The results suggest that the gifted sample presents more cybervictimization and less cyberbullying than observed in other studies of the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Examining the Impact of Victimization on Girls’ Delinquency: A Study of Direct and Indirect Effects
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16111873 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
Previous research has acknowledged that there is a relationship between victimization and later delinquency, but the specific attributes of this relationship are unclear because measures of both direct and indirect victimization are rarely explored in a single study. We included both indirect and [...] Read more.
Previous research has acknowledged that there is a relationship between victimization and later delinquency, but the specific attributes of this relationship are unclear because measures of both direct and indirect victimization are rarely explored in a single study. We included both indirect and direct victimization to examine which form of victimization was a stronger predictor of substance use, fighting, running away, and sex work among girls committed to a juvenile justice facility. Findings indicated that direct victimization was typically a more salient predictor of delinquency than indirect forms of victimization. Further, running away and sex work appear to be unique outcomes that are particularly likely when girls experience direct rather than indirect victimization. Findings are summarized with implications for health and public policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Psychosocial Predictors of Homophobic Victimization among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1243; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071243 - 08 Apr 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1492
Abstract
Bullying and discrimination seriously damage the development and health of adolescents with non-heteronormative sexual orientation. Adolescents from sexual minorities are more likely to be the object of bullying. This research aims to know more about the prevalence, frequency, and some associated factors and [...] Read more.
Bullying and discrimination seriously damage the development and health of adolescents with non-heteronormative sexual orientation. Adolescents from sexual minorities are more likely to be the object of bullying. This research aims to know more about the prevalence, frequency, and some associated factors and predictors of homophobic victimization in adolescents, depending on their sexual orientation. A total of 820 Secondary Schools students took part in this study (average age = 14.87; SD = 1.72; 48.3% were boys and 51.7% were girls) by filling in a self-report questionnaire. The results showed that adolescents suffer homophobic victimization, regardless of their sexual orientation; however, homosexuals and bisexuals suffered it more frequently than heterosexuals. Homophobic victimization could be associated—in heterosexuals and people with doubts about their sexual orientation, positively with bullying victimization, bullying aggression and cyberbullying aggression. Homophobic victimization could be predicted—in heterosexuals, positively due to self-depreciation, and negatively due to communication and relationship skills; and in homosexuals and bisexuals, positively, because of affective empathy. The results are discussed and new lines of study and intervention are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Prevalence of Child Maltreatment and Its Association with Parenting Style: A Population Study in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071130 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
Previous studies point to a link between parenting style and child maltreatment, but evidence from a Chinese context is lacking. We investigated the association between parenting style and child maltreatment in Hong Kong, and examined whether family socio-economic status and child gender moderate [...] Read more.
Previous studies point to a link between parenting style and child maltreatment, but evidence from a Chinese context is lacking. We investigated the association between parenting style and child maltreatment in Hong Kong, and examined whether family socio-economic status and child gender moderate this relationship. Using stratified random sampling, 7585 children in Grade 1 to Grade 3 of 51 schools in Hong Kong were recruited and their parents were invited to complete the questionnaire. The past year weighted prevalence for minor physical abuse, severe/very severe physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect were 63.9%, 23.4%, 84.1%, and 23.2%, respectively. Authoritarian parenting was associated with all types of child maltreatment (prevalence ratio (PR) range: 1.10–1.53; p < 0.001), whereas authoritative parenting was associated with a lower risk of all types of child maltreatment (PR range: 0.89–0.97; p < 0.001). Child maltreatment is prevalent in Hong Kong and is strongly associated with parenting style. The association was significantly stronger among girls and those with higher family socioeconomic status. Education to empower parenting skills may alleviate the burden of child maltreatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Disability-Specific Associations with Child Health and Functioning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061024 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
This study examined the health profile of children with different types of disabilities and explored the disability-specific associations with various types of health and functioning using a large nonclinical sample of children. A cross-sectional school survey was conducted during 2016 and 2017. A [...] Read more.
This study examined the health profile of children with different types of disabilities and explored the disability-specific associations with various types of health and functioning using a large nonclinical sample of children. A cross-sectional school survey was conducted during 2016 and 2017. A total of 4114 children (aged 6–18 years) receiving primary or secondary education, or their proxy, in Hong Kong participated in the study. Disabilities were categorized as (a) physical disabilities; (b) learning and developmental disabilities; (c) intellectual disabilities; (d) internalizing disorders or mental illness; and (e) autism spectrum disorder. Health-related quality of life (QoL), sleep-related QoL, activities of daily living (ADL), emotional functioning, and social functioning were assessed and compared between children with disabilities and those without. The results showed that children with disabilities showed poorer physical functioning, health-related QoL, and emotional and social functioning than their counterparts without disabilities. Disability-specific associations with health were found: (a) physical disabilities and intellectual disabilities were associated with greater difficulties in ADL; (b) language impairment and Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were negatively associated with sleep-related QoL; (c) all types of disabilities but hearing impairment were negatively associated with health-related QoL (HRQoL); and (d) language impairment, ADHD, internalizing disorder, as well as autism spectrum disorder were associated with greater abnormal behavioral difficulties. The findings warrant the development of tailor-made intervention programs and give insights to effective resource allocation for the children in need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
A Multiplicative Approach to Polyvictimization: A Study of Intimate Partner Violence Types as Risk Factors for Child Polyvictimization in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050783 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Drawing on a new typology of intimate partner violence (IPV), this paper tests the relationship between indicators of totalitarian and anarchic IPV and child polyvictimization incidence and severity. The paper argues for and utilizes a quantitative approach to study polyvictimization severity. Polyvictimization is [...] Read more.
Drawing on a new typology of intimate partner violence (IPV), this paper tests the relationship between indicators of totalitarian and anarchic IPV and child polyvictimization incidence and severity. The paper argues for and utilizes a quantitative approach to study polyvictimization severity. Polyvictimization is operationalized as a multiplicative relationship between physical abuse and neglect in a random sample of 204 children from Kyunggi province, South Korea. The indicator of totalitarian IPV significantly predicted polyvictimization severity and incidence even when a traditional measure of intimate terrorism was held constant. The indicator of anarchic IPV significantly predicted polyvictimization severity but not incidence when a traditional measure of intimate terrorism was held constant. Implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Generational Status on Child Well-Being: Mediating Effects of Social Support and Residential Instability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030435 - 02 Feb 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
Children in migrant families often encounter difficulties that have great impacts on their health. However, there is a lack of research to examine generational status and child health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study compared the HRQoL of children, aged 3 to 19 [...] Read more.
Children in migrant families often encounter difficulties that have great impacts on their health. However, there is a lack of research to examine generational status and child health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This study compared the HRQoL of children, aged 3 to 19 years, born in Hong Kong to mainland parents with second- and third-or-higher-generation children; and explores the mediating effects of residential instability and of social support on the association between generational status and HRQoL. A sample comprised 4807 reports on children (mean age = 7.47 years) in Hong Kong was analyzed. Significantly lower HRQoL related to physical functioning was observed among children in migrant families. Association between generational status and child HRQoL was mediated by commute time between home and school, frequency of moving home, and social support. Findings lend utility to addressing similar issues amongst other developmental immigrant populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Doxing: What Adolescents Look for and Their Intentions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020218 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1726
Abstract
Doxing is a form of cyberbullying in which personal information on others is sought and released, thereby violating their privacy and facilitating further harassment. This study examined adolescents’ doxing participation using a representative sample of 2120 Hong Kong secondary school students. Just over [...] Read more.
Doxing is a form of cyberbullying in which personal information on others is sought and released, thereby violating their privacy and facilitating further harassment. This study examined adolescents’ doxing participation using a representative sample of 2120 Hong Kong secondary school students. Just over one in 10 had engaged in doxing, and doxing behavior significantly increased the probability of disclosing personal information on others (odds ratio ranged between 2.705 and 5.181). Social and hostile doxing were the two most common forms of doxing. Girls were significantly more likely to conduct social doxing (χ2 = 11.84, p < 0.001), where their target was to obtain social information (χ2 = 4.79, p = 0.029), whereas boys were more likely to engage in hostile doxing aimed at obtaining personally identifiable information (χ2 = 4.31, p = 0.038) and information on others’ current living situations (χ2 = 4.17, p = 0.041). Students who had perpetrated doxing acts were more likely to have experienced information disclosure as victims, perpetrators, or bystanders. Future studies should examine doxing’s impacts and its relationship with other forms of cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Because doxing may lead to on- and off-line harassment, family, adolescents, schools, and communities must work together to develop effective approaches for combating it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Traditional Bullying and Discriminatory Bullying Around Special Educational Needs: Psychometric Properties of Two Instruments to Measure It
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010142 - 07 Jan 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2558
Abstract
Two important challenges in research on bullying are to have reliable tools to measure traditional bullying and discriminatory bullying related to special educational needs (SEN), and to learn more about their prevalence. We present the validations of two instruments to measure bullying (European [...] Read more.
Two important challenges in research on bullying are to have reliable tools to measure traditional bullying and discriminatory bullying related to special educational needs (SEN), and to learn more about their prevalence. We present the validations of two instruments to measure bullying (European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, EBIPQ) and discriminatory bullying with respect to SEN (EBIPQ–Special Education Needs Discrimination version, henceforth EBIPQ-SEND). A total of 17,309 teenagers from Ecuador took part in the study (M = 14.76, SD = 1.65; 49.9% male). The item response theory analyses evidenced accuracy and quality of the measures. The confirmatory factor analyses of the EBIPQ and the EBIPQ-SEND revealed the same two-factor structure—aggression and victimization—regardless of gender, showing optimal fit indexes. We present the results of the prevalence according to the roles of participation in traditional bullying and discriminatory bullying around SEN. Significant gender and age differences were observed for involvement in both phenomena. We also discuss the advantages of applying the EBIPQ and the EBIPQ-SEND to evaluate and diagnose harassment and discriminatory harassment around SEN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Doxing Victimization and Emotional Problems among Secondary School Students in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2665; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122665 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1917
Abstract
Doxing is the searching for and intentional disclosure of private information about a particular individual on the Internet without his or her consent, and is often used to exact punishment. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between doxing victimization [...] Read more.
Doxing is the searching for and intentional disclosure of private information about a particular individual on the Internet without his or her consent, and is often used to exact punishment. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between doxing victimization and emotional problems in secondary school students, paying particular regard to the impacts of different types of doxed information, the relationship between the perpetrators and victims of doxing, and the nature of the online platforms where doxing occurs. A sample of 2120 Hong Kong secondary school students of differing socioeconomic backgrounds participated in the study. The results show that almost all types of disclosed personal information result in negative feelings in victims, including depression, anxiety, and stress. Girls were also found to be more likely than boys to be doxed. Significant associations were found between emotional problems and the disclosure of mobile phone numbers and personal photos and videos; doxing conducted by schoolmates and anxiety and depression, and doxing through Instant Messenger and anxiety. Further exploration of integrated cyber violence prevention programs and research on the details of doxing are recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
Open AccessArticle
Internet Risks: An Overview of Victimization in Cyberbullying, Cyber Dating Abuse, Sexting, Online Grooming and Problematic Internet Use
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112471 - 05 Nov 2018
Cited by 44 | Viewed by 6665
Abstract
The advance of digital media has created risks that affect the bio-psycho-social well-being of adolescents. Some of these risks are cyberbullying, cyber dating abuse, sexting, online grooming and problematic Internet use. These risks have been studied individually or through associations of some of [...] Read more.
The advance of digital media has created risks that affect the bio-psycho-social well-being of adolescents. Some of these risks are cyberbullying, cyber dating abuse, sexting, online grooming and problematic Internet use. These risks have been studied individually or through associations of some of them but they have not been explored conjointly. The main objective is to determine the comorbidity between the described Internet risks and to identify the profiles of victimized adolescents. An analytical and cross-sectional study with 3212 participants (46.3% males) from 22 Spanish schools was carried out. Mean age was 13.92 ± 1.44 years (range 11–21). Assessment tools with adequate standards of reliability and validity were used. The main results indicate that the most prevalent single risk is cyberbullying victimization (30.27%). The most prevalent two-risk associations are cyberbullying-online grooming (12.61%) and cyberbullying-sexting (5.79%). The three-risk combination of cyberbullying-sexting-grooming (7.12%) is highlighted, while 5.49% of the adolescents present all the risks. In addition, four profiles are distinguished, with the profile Sexualized risk behaviour standing out, with high scores in grooming and sexting and low scores in the rest of the risks. Determining the comorbidity of risks is useful for clinical and educational interventions, as it can provide information about additional risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Traditional Bullying, Cyberbullying and Mental Health in Early Adolescents: Forgiveness as a Protective Factor of Peer Victimisation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112389 - 28 Oct 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2930
Abstract
Traditional and online bullying are prevalent throughout adolescence. Given their negative consequences, it is necessary to seek protective factors to reduce or even prevent their detrimental effects in the mental health of adolescents before they become chronic. Previous studies have demonstrated the protective [...] Read more.
Traditional and online bullying are prevalent throughout adolescence. Given their negative consequences, it is necessary to seek protective factors to reduce or even prevent their detrimental effects in the mental health of adolescents before they become chronic. Previous studies have demonstrated the protective role of forgiveness in mental health after several transgressions. This study assessed whether forgiveness moderated the effects of bullying victimisation and cybervictimisation on mental health in a sample of 1044 early adolescents (527 females; M = 13.09 years; SD = 0.77). Participants completed a questionnaire battery that measures both forms of bullying victimisation, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, satisfaction with life, and forgiveness. Consistent with a growing body of research, results reveal that forgiveness is a protective factor against the detrimental effects of both forms of bullying. Among more victimised and cybervictimised adolescents, those with high levels of forgiveness were found to report significantly higher levels of satisfaction compared to those with low levels of forgiveness. Likewise, those reporting traditional victimisation and higher levels of forgiveness levels showed lower levels of suicidal risk. Our findings contribute to an emerging relationship between forgiveness after bullying and indicators of mental health, providing new areas for research and intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The Effectiveness of Parent Training Programs for Child Maltreatment and Their Components: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2404; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132404 - 06 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2069
Abstract
This is the first meta-analytic review investigating what components and techniques of parent training programs for preventing or reducing child maltreatment are associated with program effectiveness. A literature search yielded 51 studies (N = 6670) examining the effectiveness of parent training programs [...] Read more.
This is the first meta-analytic review investigating what components and techniques of parent training programs for preventing or reducing child maltreatment are associated with program effectiveness. A literature search yielded 51 studies (N = 6670) examining the effectiveness of parent training programs for preventing or reducing child maltreatment. From these studies, 185 effect sizes were extracted and more than 40 program components and techniques were coded. A significant and small overall effect size was found (d = 0.416, 95% CI (0.334, 0.498), p < 0.001). No significant moderating effects were found for contextual factors and structural elements (i.e., program duration, delivery location, and delivery setting). Further, no significant moderating effects were found for most of the coded program components and techniques, indicating that these components are about equally effective. Only a few program components and techniques moderated program effectiveness, however these effects were negative. These results indicated that improving parental personal skills, improving problem solving skills, and stimulating children’s prosocial behavior should not be the main focus of parental training programs for preventing and reducing child maltreatment. This also holds for practicing new skills by rehearsal and giving direct feedback in program sessions. Further clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessReview
Trauma Informed Child Welfare Systems—A Rapid Evidence Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2365; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132365 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Trauma informed care (TIC) is a whole system organisational change process which emerged from the seminal Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, establishing a strong graded relationship between the number of childhood adversities experienced and a range of negative outcomes across multiple domains over [...] Read more.
Trauma informed care (TIC) is a whole system organisational change process which emerged from the seminal Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study, establishing a strong graded relationship between the number of childhood adversities experienced and a range of negative outcomes across multiple domains over the life course. To date, there has been no systematic review of organisation-wide implementation initiatives in the child welfare system. As part of a wider cross-system rapid evidence review of the trauma-informed implementation literature using systematic search, screening and review procedures, twenty-one papers reporting on trauma-informed implementation in the child welfare system at state/regional and organisational/agency levels were identified. This paper presents a narrative synthesis of the various implementation strategies and components used across child welfare initiatives, with associated evidence of effectiveness. Training was the TIC implementation component most frequently evaluated with all studies reporting positive impact on staff knowledge, skills and/or confidence. The development of trauma-informed screening processes, and evidence-based treatments/trauma focused services, where evaluated, all produced positive results. Whilst weaknesses in study design often limited generalisability, there was preliminary evidence for the efficacy of trauma-informed approaches in improving the mental and emotional well-being of children served by community-based child welfare services, as well as their potential for reducing caregiver stress and improving placement stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessReview
Sexting, Mental Health, and Victimization Among Adolescents: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132364 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
The practice of creating and sharing sexual images via technological devices, known as sexting, has received crescent attention in the past years, especially due to the increase of adolescent engagement in this behavior. Although consensual sexting is not prima facie a crime, as [...] Read more.
The practice of creating and sharing sexual images via technological devices, known as sexting, has received crescent attention in the past years, especially due to the increase of adolescent engagement in this behavior. Although consensual sexting is not prima facie a crime, as some research has shown, it has the potential to be a risky behavior, and a threshold to get exposure to dangerous kinds of victimization as sextortion, online grooming or cyberbullying. In this context, teenagers represent a vulnerable group due to their limited ability of self-regulation, their high susceptibility to peer pressure, their technophilia, and their growing sexual curiosity. The present paper aims to review the scientific literature to analyze the relationship between mental health and sexting as a potentially risky behavior and its association with online victimization. The results and implications will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of Polyvictimization among Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity or Autism Spectrum Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132280 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown an increased risk for violence and victimization. However, research on exposure to multiple forms of victimization in different contexts are scarce. Hence, the current aim is to review the [...] Read more.
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown an increased risk for violence and victimization. However, research on exposure to multiple forms of victimization in different contexts are scarce. Hence, the current aim is to review the evidence about polyvictimization among children with ASD or ADHD. PsycInfo, ERIC, ERC, Scopus, and PubMed databases were systematically searched until 12 March 2019 to identify empirical studies with reported prevalence rates of at least four forms of victimization among children with ASD or ADHD. A total of 6/1300 articles were included in the review, ranging in sample sizes from 92 to 4114. The reported prevalence rates for polyvictimization were 1.8% and 23.1% for children with ASD and 7.3% for children with ADHD. The results emphasize the high prevalence of violence and victimization, including polyvictimization, among children with ASD or ADHD. Polyvictimization among children with ASD or ADHD is a highly under researched area. Significant knowledge gaps and important methodological considerations that provide important implications for future research include lack of information on cyber bullying, frequency or intensity of victimization, and the failure to include children as informants and to report health outcomes associated with polyvictimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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