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Special Issue "Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Holly Blake
E-Mail Website
Leading Guest Editor
Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre, School of Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2HA, UK
Interests: workplace health; workplace wellness; health promotion; behaviour change; interventions; physical activity; self-management; digital
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Natalia Stanulewicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Applied Social Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK
Interests: workplace health; workplace wellness; health promotion; prosocial emotions; personality; interventions; behaviour change; health risk factors; health messaging and compliance
Ms. Maria Armaou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
Interests: workplace wellbeing; digital interventions; eHealth; mHealth; health promotion; organisational psychology; wellbeing and resilience

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An organisation’s greatest asset is its people, and there is a strong business case for investing in a healthy work culture. With the rise in sickness absenteeism and associated financial impacts on organisations and the economy, workplace health and wellbeing is a top priority. There is a focus on what organisations are doing to attract employees, promote attendance, and operate a healthy working environment. The workplace can provide a useful arena for reaching populations for health and lifestyle intervention. There are many contemporary threats to health and wellbeing in the workforce, particularly the ageing workforce; the increase in chronic disease and mental ill-health; work-related stress; presenteeism and leavism; as well as technological advances and issues of equality, diversity, and inclusion.

This Special Issue in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health follows on from a collection of 30 papers published in the successful "Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2019" issue. It will make a substantial contribution to the understanding of contemporary workplace health and wellbeing issues; the influence of health and wellbeing on individual and organisational outcomes; and the impact of workplace strategies, policies, and interventions on individuals and employers.

A wide range of topics will be included in this Issue, related to but not limited to the mental and physical wellbeing of employees and particular occupational groups; psychosocial risk factors; the implementation and effectiveness of workplace wellness programmes; the engagement of line managers in workplace health initiatives, promoting healthy lifestyles at work; health screening interventions in workplace settings; the prevention or management of chronic conditions at work; the impact of health on the capacity of employees to work (e.g., supporting people with disabilities, health conditions, and rehabilitation); studies around wellbeing and recruitment and/or retention; and the impact of workplace interventions on work engagement, work performance and/or productivity.

Prof. Dr. Holly Blake
Dr. Natalia Stanulewicz
Ms. Maria Armaou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • workforce
  • interventions
  • workplace wellness
  • health promotion
  • screening
  • occupational health
  • chronic diseases
  • mental health
  • return to work
  • retention

Published Papers (29 papers)

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Research

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Article
Premenstrual Symptoms and Work: Exploring Female Staff Experiences and Recommendations for Workplaces
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073647 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1105
Abstract
Most women experience some premenstrual symptoms during their reproductive years. Yet, this is an under-researched health issue, particularly in the context of work. This study aimed to: (i) understand the prevalence and severity of premenstrual symptoms experienced by working females, and their association [...] Read more.
Most women experience some premenstrual symptoms during their reproductive years. Yet, this is an under-researched health issue, particularly in the context of work. This study aimed to: (i) understand the prevalence and severity of premenstrual symptoms experienced by working females, and their association with key work outcomes; (ii) explore factors that may be influencing these symptoms and their severity; and (iii) examine how organizations might help staff with premenstrual symptoms that may be impacting their working lives. An online, anonymous survey collected quantitative and qualitative data from 125 working women in the UK. Over 90% of the sample reported some premenstrual symptoms; 40% experienced premenstrual symptoms moderately or severely. Higher symptom severity was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with poor presenteeism, intention to reduce working hours, and higher work absence (time off work, being late, leaving early). Moderate/severe symptoms were significantly associated with several individual-related variables: lower perceived general health, higher alcohol consumption, poorer sleep quality, anxiety, depression, hormonal contraception, and using fewer coping approaches towards premenstrual symptoms (avoiding harm, adjusting energy levels); and work-related variables: poorer work–life balance, lower levels of psychological resilience, higher perceived work demands, less control over work. Disclosure of premenstrual symptoms and sickness absence because of premenstrual symptoms was very low, typically because of perceptions of appropriateness as a reason for work absence, gender of line managers (male), and it being a personal or embarrassing topic. Staff with moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms were statistically more likely to disclose reason for absence than those with milder symptoms. Recommendations and suggestions for employers and line managers include the need to train staff to improve knowledge about women’s experience of premenstrual symptoms, to be able to communicate effectively with women and to provide tailored support and resources for those who need it. Implications for future research, policy and practice are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Communication
Development of a Chatbot Program for Follow-Up Management of Workers’ General Health Examinations in Korea: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042170 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
(1) Background: Follow-up management of workers’ general health examination (WGHE) is important, but it is not currently well done. Chatbot, a type of digital healthcare tool, is used in various medical fields but has never been developed for follow-up management of WGHE in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Follow-up management of workers’ general health examination (WGHE) is important, but it is not currently well done. Chatbot, a type of digital healthcare tool, is used in various medical fields but has never been developed for follow-up management of WGHE in Korea. (2) Methods: The database containing results and explanations related to WGHE was constructed. Then, the channel, which connects users with the database was created. A user survey regarding effectiveness was administered to 23 healthcare providers. Additionally, interviews on applicability for occupational health services were conducted with six nurses in the agency of occupational health management. (3) Results: Chatbot was implemented on a small scale on the Amazon cloud service (AWS) EC2 using KaKaoTalk and Web Chat as user channels. Regarding the effectiveness, 21 (91.30%) rated the need for chatbots as very high; however, 11 (47.83%) rated the usability as not high. Of the 23 participants, 14 (60.87%) expressed overall satisfaction. Nurses appreciated the chatbot program as a method for resolving accessibility and as an aid for explaining examination results and follow-up management. (4) Conclusions: The effectiveness of WGHE and the applicability in the occupational health service of the chatbot program for follow-up management can be confirmed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Perceptions and Experiences of the University of Nottingham Pilot SARS-CoV-2 Asymptomatic Testing Service: A Mixed-Methods Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010188 - 29 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
We aimed to explore student and staff perceptions and experiences of a pilot SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic testing service (P-ATS) in a UK university campus setting. This was a mixed-method study comprised of an online survey, and thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews and [...] Read more.
We aimed to explore student and staff perceptions and experiences of a pilot SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic testing service (P-ATS) in a UK university campus setting. This was a mixed-method study comprised of an online survey, and thematic analysis of qualitative data from interviews and focus groups conducted at the mid-point and end of the 12-week P-ATS programme. Ninety-nine students (84.8% female, 70% first year; 93.9% P-ATS participants) completed an online survey, 41 individuals attended interviews or focus groups, including 31 students (21 first year; 10 final year) and 10 staff. All types of testing and logistics were highly acceptable (virus: swab, saliva; antibody: finger prick) and 94.9% would participate again. Reported adherence to weekly virus testing was high (92.4% completed ≥6 tests; 70.8% submitted all 10 swabs; 89.2% completed ≥1 saliva sample) and 76.9% submitted ≥3 blood samples. Students tested to “keep campus safe”, “contribute to national efforts to control COVID-19”, and “protect others”. In total, 31.3% had high anxiety as measured by the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) (27.1% of first year). Students with lower levels of anxiety and greater satisfaction with university communications around P-ATS were more likely to adhere to virus and antibody tests. Increased adherence to testing was associated with higher perceived risk of COVID-19 to self and others. Qualitative findings revealed 5 themes and 13 sub-themes: “emotional responses to COVID-19”, “university life during COVID-19”, “influences on testing participation”, “testing physical and logistical factors” and “testing effects on mental wellbeing”. Asymptomatic COVID-19 testing (SARS-CoV-2 virus/antibodies) is highly acceptable to students and staff in a university campus setting. Clear communications and strategies to reduce anxiety are likely to be important for testing uptake and adherence. Strategies are needed to facilitate social connections and mitigate the mental health impacts of COVID-19 and self-isolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Eight-Year Health Risks Trend Analysis of a Comprehensive Workplace Health Promotion Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249426 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
Research has shown that workplace health promotion (WHP) efforts can positively affect employees’ health risk accumulation. However, earlier literature has provided insights of health risk changes in the short-term. This prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental study investigated trends in health risks of a comprehensive, eight-year [...] Read more.
Research has shown that workplace health promotion (WHP) efforts can positively affect employees’ health risk accumulation. However, earlier literature has provided insights of health risk changes in the short-term. This prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental study investigated trends in health risks of a comprehensive, eight-year WHP program (n = 523–651). Health risk data were collected from health risk assessments in 2010–2011, 2013–2014, and 2016–2017, applying both a questionnaire and biometric screenings. Health risk changes were investigated for three different time-periods, 2010–2013, 2014–2017, and 2010–2017, using descriptive analyses, t-tests, and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank and McNemar’s test, where appropriate. Overall health risk transitions were assessed according to low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories. Trend analyses observed 50–60% prevalence for low-, 30–35% for moderate-, and 9–11% high-risk levels across the eight years. In the overall health risk transitions of the three time-periods, 66–73% of participants stayed at the same risk level, 13–15% of participants improved, and 12–21% had deteriorated risk level across the three intervention periods. Our findings appear to indicate that the multiyear WHP program was effective in maintaining low and moderate risk levels, but fell short of reducing the total number of health risks at the population level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
COVID-Well: Evaluation of the Implementation of Supported Wellbeing Centres for Hospital Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249401 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2643
Abstract
Supported Wellbeing Centres have been set up in UK hospital trusts in an effort to mitigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, although the extent to which these are utilised and the barriers and facilitators to access are not known. The [...] Read more.
Supported Wellbeing Centres have been set up in UK hospital trusts in an effort to mitigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, although the extent to which these are utilised and the barriers and facilitators to access are not known. The aim of the study was to determine facility usage and gather insight into employee wellbeing and the views of employees towards this provision. The study included (i) 17-week service use monitoring, (ii) employee online survey with measures of wellbeing, job stressfulness, presenteeism, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and work engagement, as well as barriers and facilitators to accessing the Wellbeing Centres. Over 17 weeks, 14,934 facility visits were recorded across two sites (peak attendance in single week n = 2605). Facilities were highly valued, but the service model was resource intensive with 134 wellbeing buddies supporting the centres in pairs. 819 hospital employees completed an online survey (88% female; 37.7% working in COVID-19 high risk areas; 52.4% frontline workers; 55.2% had accessed a wellbeing centre). There was moderate-to-high job stress (62.9%), low wellbeing (26.1%), presenteeism (68%), and intentions to leave (31.6%). Wellbeing was higher in those that accessed a wellbeing centre. Work engagement and job satisfaction were high. Healthcare organisations are urged to mobilise access to high-quality rest spaces and psychological first aid, but this should be localised and diversified. Strategies to address presenteeism and staff retention should be prioritised, and the high dedication of healthcare workers should be recognised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Work Ability among Upper-Secondary School Teachers: Examining the Role of Burnout, Sense of Coherence, and Work-Related and Lifestyle Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249185 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Maintaining and promoting teachers’ work ability is essential for increasing productivity and preventing early exit from the teaching profession. This study aimed to identify the predictors of work ability among upper-secondary school teachers and examine the mediating role of burnout. A large and [...] Read more.
Maintaining and promoting teachers’ work ability is essential for increasing productivity and preventing early exit from the teaching profession. This study aimed to identify the predictors of work ability among upper-secondary school teachers and examine the mediating role of burnout. A large and diverse group of Czech upper-secondary school teachers was surveyed to address this goal. The sample comprised 531 upper-secondary school teachers (50.0 ± 9.94 years, 19.9 ± 10.62 in the teaching profession, 57.6% females). Relatively greater empirical support was found for the effects of burnout, sense of coherence, work–life balance, and perceived relationships in the school environment on work ability than for the impact of age, homeroom teacher duties, workload, and caring for elderly relatives. Furthermore, burnout served as an important mediator of the relationship between sense of coherence and work ability. Teachers with a higher sense of coherence are thus better able to cope with adverse work circumstances and identify and mobilize internal and external resources to prevent professional exhaustion and the subsequent decline in work ability. The study can guide interventions on the work ability of teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Interactions of Approach and Avoidance Job Crafting and Work Engagement: A Comparison between Employees Affected and Not Affected by Organizational Changes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9084; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239084 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Job crafting describes proactive employee behaviors to improve the design of their work and working conditions, and to adapt their job to better suit their abilities and needs. During organizational changes, employees may use job crafting to adjust to the changes in their [...] Read more.
Job crafting describes proactive employee behaviors to improve the design of their work and working conditions, and to adapt their job to better suit their abilities and needs. During organizational changes, employees may use job crafting to adjust to the changes in their work and protect their well-being and motivation, i.e., work engagement. However, research shows that although the effects of job crafting strategies that expand the design of work (approach job crafting) have been positive on work engagement, the effects of job crafting strategies that diminish the scope of work (avoidance job crafting) have often been negative. This study investigated the effects of the interactions between different job crafting strategies on work engagement, an aspect that has not thus far been studied. Specifically, we hypothesized that avoidance job crafting is not harmful for work engagement when it is conducted in combination with approach job crafting, particularly during times of organizational change. A two-wave, 18-month follow-up study was conducted among public sector workers who either experienced (n = 479) or did not experience (n = 412) changes in their work. Latent moderated structural equation modeling revealed that avoidance job crafting did not reduce work engagement when combined with approach job crafting behaviors. Moreover, job crafting best benefited work engagement when it was combined with these opposing strategies. However, job crafting was beneficial for work engagement only among employees who were affected by organizational changes, that is, among employees whose job design had changed. Practically, organizations implementing changes could encourage proactive job redesign approaches among their employees—particularly both approach and avoidance types of job crafting strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Theory-Based, Participatory Development of a Cross-Company Network Promoting Physical Activity in Germany: A Mixed-Methods Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238952 - 01 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
The untapped potential of workplace health promotion (WHP) in smaller companies and the promising approach to promote physical activity in the workplace requires application-oriented approaches. This study describes the participatory, theory-based development of a cross-company network with a multicomponent intervention for promoting physical [...] Read more.
The untapped potential of workplace health promotion (WHP) in smaller companies and the promising approach to promote physical activity in the workplace requires application-oriented approaches. This study describes the participatory, theory-based development of a cross-company network with a multicomponent intervention for promoting physical activity in smaller companies. The BIG-Manual (from the “Movement as an Investment for Health” project, German—BIG) was the theoretical framework for developing the cross-company network. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were used to identify the requests and requirements of stakeholders (employees on site, local exercise providers, company representatives and network partners) regarding measures promoting physical activity and the cross-company network. The methods applied included two workshops (n = 13; n = 15), individual semi-structured interviews (n = 8) and a survey (n = 285). The analysis revealed that a large number of stakeholders must be taken into consideration for physical activity promotion in cross-company networks. Many similarities between the requests of employees and further stakeholders concerning a multicomponent intervention for promoting physical activity could be identified. Present gender-specific and physical activity-related differences show the importance of target group-specific intervention planning in the context of WHP. This study makes an important contribution for the development of future cross-company networks promoting physical activity and yields valuable information for the design of a multicomponent intervention promoting physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Moral Sensitivity, Empathy and Prosocial Behavior: Implications for Humanization of Nursing Care
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238914 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Humanization of nursing is related to certain social and moral variables. Moral sensitivity, empathy, and prosocial behavior help understand a situation and make decisions that benefit the patient. The objective of this study is to find out how these variables are related, and [...] Read more.
Humanization of nursing is related to certain social and moral variables. Moral sensitivity, empathy, and prosocial behavior help understand a situation and make decisions that benefit the patient. The objective of this study is to find out how these variables are related, and define the differences in moral sensitivity, empathy, and prosocial behavior in humanization of nursing. We also analyzed the mediating role of empathy in the relationship between moral sensitivity and prosocial behavior. The sample was made up of 330 Spanish nurses aged 22 to 56, who completed the HUMAS Scale and adapted versions of the Basic Empathy Scale, the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and the Prosocial Behavior Scale. Descriptive analyses, bivariate correlations and multiple mediation models were calculated. The results found significantly different mean scores between all the groups in responsibility and moral strength, cognitive empathy, and prosocial behavior, and in moral burden, the differences were in the high-humanization-score group compared to the low-score group. Furthermore, the mediation models showed the mediating effect of cognitive empathy between the responsibility, strength, and moral burden factors on prosocial behavior, but not of affective empathy. The study concluded that humanization in nursing is closely related to moral sensitivity, cognitive empathy, and prosocial behavior. This facilitates a helping, caring, and understanding attitude toward patient needs, but without the affective flooding that affective empathy can lead to. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
[email protected] Texts: Mobile Phone Messaging to Increase Awareness of HIV and HIV Testing in UK Construction Employees during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7819; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217819 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports [...] Read more.
Background: HIV poses a threat to global health. With effective treatment options available, education and testing strategies are essential in preventing transmission. Text messaging is an effective tool for health promotion and can be used to target higher risk populations. This study reports on the design, delivery and testing of a mobile text messaging SMS intervention for HIV prevention and awareness, aimed at adults in the construction industry and delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Participants were recruited at [email protected] workplace health promotion events (21 sites, n = 464 employees), including health checks with HIV testing. Message development was based on a participatory design and included a focus group (n = 9) and message fidelity testing (n = 291) with assessment of intervention uptake, reach, acceptability, and engagement. Barriers to HIV testing were identified and mapped to the COM-B behavioural model. 23 one-way push SMS messages (19 included short web links) were generated and fidelity tested, then sent via automated SMS to two employee cohorts over a 10-week period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Engagement metrics measured were: opt-outs, SMS delivered/read, number of clicks per web link, four two-way pull messages exploring repeat HIV testing, learning new information, perceived usefulness and behaviour change. Results: 291 people participated (68.3% of eligible attendees). A total of 7726 messages were sent between March and June 2020, with 91.6% successfully delivered (100% read). 12.4% of participants opted out over 10 weeks. Of delivered messages, links were clicked an average of 14.4% times, max 24.1% for HIV related links. The number of clicks on web links declined over time (r = −6.24, p = 0.01). Response rate for two-way pull messages was 13.7% of participants. Since the workplace HIV test offer at recruitment, 21.6% reported having taken a further HIV test. Qualitative replies indicated behavioural influence of messaging on exercise, lifestyle behaviours and intention to HIV test. Conclusions: SMS messaging for HIV prevention and awareness is acceptable to adults in the construction industry, has high uptake, low attrition and good engagement with message content, when delivered during a global pandemic. Data collection methods may need refinement for audience, and effect of COVID-19 on results is yet to be understood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
WHIRL Study: Workplace Health Interprofessional Learning in the Construction Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6815; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186815 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1309
Abstract
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL (Workplace Health InteRprofessional Learning) was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged volunteer healthcare trainees (n = 20) in multi-professional teams to deliver health checks (n [...] Read more.
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL (Workplace Health InteRprofessional Learning) was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged volunteer healthcare trainees (n = 20) in multi-professional teams to deliver health checks (n = 464), including tailored advice and signposting, to employees in the UK construction industry (across 21 events, 16 sites, 10 organisations) as part of an ongoing research programme called [email protected] Volunteers undertook a four-part training and support package of trainer-led education, observations of practice, self-directed learning and clinical supervision, together with peer mentoring. In a one-group post-test only design, IPL outcomes were measured using the Inventory of Reflective Vignette-Interprofessional Learning (IRV-IPL), and the psychometric properties of the IRV-IPL tool were tested. WHIRL demonstrably improved healthcare trainees’ interprofessional skills in all five areas of collaboration, coordination, cooperation, communication, and commendation. The IRV-IPL tool was found to be a valid and reliable measure of interprofessional competencies across three scenarios; before and after health promotion activities, and as a predictor of future health promotion competence. This industry-based workplace IPL programme resulted in the attainment of health check competencies and bridged the gap between research, education and clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Heroes or Villains? The Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership and Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5546; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155546 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2385
Abstract
Although prior research has emphasized the disproportional contributions to organizations of charismatic leadership, an emerging line of research has started to examine the potentially negative consequences. In this paper, a theoretical framework was proposed for a study of unethical pro-organization behavior through psychological [...] Read more.
Although prior research has emphasized the disproportional contributions to organizations of charismatic leadership, an emerging line of research has started to examine the potentially negative consequences. In this paper, a theoretical framework was proposed for a study of unethical pro-organization behavior through psychological safety based on social information processing theory, which reveals the detrimental effect that charismatic leadership can have on workplace behavior. To explore this negative possibility, a time-lagged research design was applied for the hypotheses to be verified using 214 pieces of data collected from a service company in China. According to the results, unethical pro-organizational behavior was indirectly influenced by charismatic leadership through psychological safety. Moreover, when employees experienced high performance pressure, charismatic leadership was positively associated with unethical pro-organizational behavior through psychological safety. The implications of these findings were analyzed from the perspectives of charismatic leadership theory and organizational ethical activities to alter the unethical pro-organizational behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Comparison of Labor and Delivery Complications and Delivery Methods Between Physicians and White-Collar Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145212 - 19 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
To evaluate labor and delivery complications and delivery modes between physicians and white-collar workers in Taiwan, this retrospective population-based study used data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We compared 1530 physicians aged 25 to 50 years old who worked and had [...] Read more.
To evaluate labor and delivery complications and delivery modes between physicians and white-collar workers in Taiwan, this retrospective population-based study used data from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. We compared 1530 physicians aged 25 to 50 years old who worked and had singleton births between 2007 and 2013 with 3060 white-collar workers matched by age groups, groups of monthly insured payroll-related premiums, previous cesarean delivery, perinatal history anemia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. The logistic regression models were used to assess the labor and delivery complications between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that physicians had a significantly higher risk of placenta previa (odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.69) and other malpresentation (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.45–2.39) than white-collar workers, whereas they had a significantly lower risk of placental abruption (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40–0.71), preterm delivery (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61–0.92), and premature rupture of membranes (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59–0.88). Increased risks of some adverse labor and delivery complications were observed among physicians, when compared to white-collar workers. These findings suggest that working women should take preventative action to manage occupational risks during pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
An Exploration of Contextual Aspects that Influence Cardiovascular Disease Risks Perceived by Workers in a Small–Medium-Sized Workplace
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5155; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145155 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Contextual factors are associated with risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) perceived by personnel employed in small–medium-sized workplaces. In an ecological model, data collection and analysis were undertaken, stratified by intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational contexts of blue-collar workers. Data were collected in face-to-face ( [...] Read more.
Contextual factors are associated with risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) perceived by personnel employed in small–medium-sized workplaces. In an ecological model, data collection and analysis were undertaken, stratified by intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational contexts of blue-collar workers. Data were collected in face-to-face (n = 36) and focus group (n = 4) interviews and subjected to qualitative content analysis, to generate three main themes, 10 generic categories and 18 sub-categories. At the intrapersonal level, “physical burden”, “burn out due to overtime work”, “no time to take care of health because of family responsibility”, and “lack of recognition and knowledge of CVD risks” were derived from the individual interviews. At the interpersonal level, “stress of possible job losses”, “dislike of stigmatization of unhealthy persons”, “smoking and drinking to reduce relationship stress”, and “unhealthy work environment” differed by level of risk perception. “Preferred economic value” and “lack of understanding about importance of CVD management of an employer” emerged at the organizational level. Factors that influence CVD risks among workers in small–medium-sized business were present at the multiple levels. Therefore, healthcare providers in the field of occupational health should consider CVD risks in the context of blue-collar workers and organizational level for health-promotion programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Burnout Syndrome and Work-Related Stress in Physical and Occupational Therapists Working in Different Types of Hospitals: Which Group Is the Most Vulnerable?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5001; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145001 - 11 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2099
Abstract
Because of the nature of their work, physical and occupational therapists are at high risk of burnout, which is associated with decreased job satisfaction, medical errors, and mental wellbeing in healthcare professionals. To well manage and minimize potential impact of burnout, risk factors [...] Read more.
Because of the nature of their work, physical and occupational therapists are at high risk of burnout, which is associated with decreased job satisfaction, medical errors, and mental wellbeing in healthcare professionals. To well manage and minimize potential impact of burnout, risk factors should be determined. This study examined burnout and job stress in physical and occupational therapists in various Korean hospital settings. Physical and occupational therapists from several rehabilitation facilities in South Korea completed a survey between March–May 2019. A set of questionnaires, including the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Job Content Questionnaire, were distributed to all participants. In total, 325 professionals (131 men and 194 women) were recruited. Burnout and work-related stress differed significantly according to several factors. Hospital size, gender, and age were the main contributory factors affecting at least two dimensions of the questionnaires. The more vulnerable group consisted of female therapists in their 20s at small- or medium-sized hospitals with low scores for quality of life. High levels of job stress and burnout were observed in female therapists in their 20s at small- or medium-sized hospitals. Hospitals and society should create suitable environments and understand the nature of therapists’ work to improve healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Advanced Clinical Practitioners in Primary Care in the UK: A Qualitative Study of Workforce Transformation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124500 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4304
Abstract
Escalating costs and changing population demographics are putting pressure on primary care systems to meet ever more complex healthcare needs. Non-medical ‘advanced clinical practitioner’ (ACP) roles are increasingly being introduced to support service transformation. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative evaluation [...] Read more.
Escalating costs and changing population demographics are putting pressure on primary care systems to meet ever more complex healthcare needs. Non-medical ‘advanced clinical practitioner’ (ACP) roles are increasingly being introduced to support service transformation. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative evaluation of nursing ACP roles across General Practices in one region of the UK. Data collection involved telephone interviews with 26 participants from 3 different stakeholder groups based in 9 practice sites: ACPs (n = 9), general practitioners (n = 8) and practice managers (n = 9). The data was analysed thematically. The study found a high degree of acceptance of the ACP role and affirmation of the important contribution of ACPs to patient care. However, significant variations in ACP education, skills and experience led to a bespoke approach to their deployment, impeding system-wide innovation and creating challenges for recruitment and ongoing professional development. In addition, a context of high workforce pressures and high service demand were causing stress and there was a need for greater mentorship and workplace support. System wide changes to ACP education and support are required to enable ACPs to realise their full potential in primary care in the UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Nurses in Geriatric Hospitals in South Korea: “If You Can’t Stand the Heat, Get Out of the Kitchen”
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124442 - 20 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1342
Abstract
Ethical conflicts among nurses can undermine nurses’ psychological comfort and compromise the quality of patient care. In the last decade, several empirical studies on the phenomena related to ethical conflicts, such as ethical dilemmas, issues, problems, difficulties, or challenges, have been reported; however, [...] Read more.
Ethical conflicts among nurses can undermine nurses’ psychological comfort and compromise the quality of patient care. In the last decade, several empirical studies on the phenomena related to ethical conflicts, such as ethical dilemmas, issues, problems, difficulties, or challenges, have been reported; however, they have not always deeply explored the meaning of ethical conflicts experienced by nurses in geriatric care. This study aims to understand the lived experiences of ethical conflict of nurses in geriatric hospitals in South Korea. A phenomenological study was conducted. In-depth, face-to-face interviews were performed with nine registered nurses who cared for elderly patients in geriatric hospitals in South Korea between August 2015 and January 2016. Three main themes emerged from the analysis: (1) confusing values for good nursing, (2) distress resulting from not taking required action despite knowing about a problem, and (3) avoiding ethical conflicts as a last resort. It was found that for geriatric nurses to cope with ethical conflicts successfully, clear ethical guidance, continuing ethics education to improve ethical knowledge and moral behaviors, and a supportive system or program to resolve ethical conflicts involving nurses should be established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Can Psychopathy Be Adaptive at Work? Development and Application of a Work Focused Self- and Other-Report Measure of the Triarchic Psychopathy Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3938; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113938 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Psychopathy may have both adaptive and maladaptive effects at work but research into workplace psychopathy is constrained by the lack of short, work-relevant measures that can be used for both self- and other-report. We adapt the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) for this purpose [...] Read more.
Psychopathy may have both adaptive and maladaptive effects at work but research into workplace psychopathy is constrained by the lack of short, work-relevant measures that can be used for both self- and other-report. We adapt the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) for this purpose and distinguish the (mal)adaptive effects of psychopathy at work in two time-lagged survey samples. Sample 1 consisted of managers reporting their psychopathic traits and work outcomes (well-being, engagement, burnout and job performance). Sample 2 reported on their managers’ psychopathic traits and leadership styles (servant and abusive supervision) and their own work outcomes. The TriPM (Work) is a reliable, valid, 21-item measure of triarchic psychopathy at work with self- and other-report forms. Using this measure, we demonstrate that the triarchic model’s boldness trait is related to servant leadership and predicts improved well-being and performance while meanness and disinhibition are related to abusive supervision and predict increased burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Factors Related to Presenteeism among South Korean Workers Exposed to Workplace Psychological Adverse Social Behavior
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103472 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1381
Abstract
Presenteeism negatively affects both individuals and society. This study identified factors of presenteeism among workers in South Korea, especially in relation to exposure to adverse social behaviors. Here, an adverse social behavior refers to any forms of workplace violence or intimidation. This study [...] Read more.
Presenteeism negatively affects both individuals and society. This study identified factors of presenteeism among workers in South Korea, especially in relation to exposure to adverse social behaviors. Here, an adverse social behavior refers to any forms of workplace violence or intimidation. This study used the data from 23,164 full-time salaried employees, who participated in the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey. This study attempted to predict presenteeism based on the exposure to adverse social behaviors and working conditions using logistic regression. Presenteeism was reported in 15.9% of the sample. Presenteeism was significantly higher among workers with the following characteristics: females, aged 40 years or older; middle school graduates; over 40 working hours a week; shift workers; no job-related safety information received; exposure to adverse social behavior and discrimination; and those with a high demand for quantitative work, low job autonomy, high emotional demands, and high job stress. The workers exposed to adverse social behavior showed a higher prevalence of presenteeism (41.2%), and low job autonomy was the most significant predictor of presenteeism. The findings of this study suggest that allowing enough autonomy in job-related roles may help alleviate presenteeism among those who have experienced adverse social behavior at work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Antecedents of Psychological Well-Being among Swedish Audit Firm Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103346 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The attractiveness of audit firms as employers appears to have decreased in recent years and the audit profession is currently experiencing high employee turnover. A shortage of personnel increases the risk of long-term stress and illness. This paper therefore proposes audit firm employees’ [...] Read more.
The attractiveness of audit firms as employers appears to have decreased in recent years and the audit profession is currently experiencing high employee turnover. A shortage of personnel increases the risk of long-term stress and illness. This paper therefore proposes audit firm employees’ well-being as an important research topic and explores the antecedents of well-being of Swedish audit firm employees in comparison with those of other business professionals. Based on a nationwide survey of members of the Swedish association of business professionals, with a focus on psychological well-being (measured through General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12)), the study shows that the psychological well-being of the professionals in this study generally aligns with the results from similar studies in a Swedish context. However, the findings indicate that audit industry respondents have the lowest psychological well-being and that employer change, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction were the strongest antecedents of their psychological well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Relevant Work Factors Associated with Voice Disorders in Early Childhood Teachers: A Comparison between Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers in Yancheng, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093081 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Background: Early childhood teachers consist of kindergarten and elementary school teachers in the lower grades. Young children at school may increase the vocal load of these teachers. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of voice disorders and the [...] Read more.
Background: Early childhood teachers consist of kindergarten and elementary school teachers in the lower grades. Young children at school may increase the vocal load of these teachers. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of voice disorders and the associated factors in early childhood teachers, and to determine if differences exist between kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Method: A cross-sectional survey was performed in July 2019 as a network questionnaire. Through cluster sampling, teachers (n = 414) from all five public kindergartens (n = 211) in the urban area of Yancheng, China, and four public elementary schools (n = 203) in the same school district participated in this study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the associations among the prevalence of voice disorders in the teachers, school type, and relevant factors. Results: Our results indicated, based on the Voice Handicap Index scale (VHI-10, China), that the prevalence of voice disorders in early childhood teachers was 59.7%, while that in elementary school teachers (65.5%) was significantly higher than that in kindergarten teachers (54.0%) during the previous semester. Contributing factors included daily class hours, classroom air humidity, and speaking loudly during teaching. Additionally, certain types of voice usage in teaching such as falsetto speak, speaking more than other teachers, not using vocal techniques, and habitual voice clearing, were significantly associated with voice disorders. Conclusion: Most early childhood teachers have voice disorders. Compared with the kindergarten teachers, the elementary school teachers experienced a significantly higher prevalence of voice disorders. Several factors among work organization, work environment, and types of voice usage in teaching were associated with the voice disorders in early childhood teachers. The finding suggests that voice training should be provided for early childhood teachers, classroom teaching time should be decreased, and the number of teachers in basic subjects should be increased in the lower grades of elementary schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Mitigating the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Workers: A Digital Learning Package
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 2997; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17092997 - 26 Apr 2020
Cited by 185 | Viewed by 25882
Abstract
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) will undoubtedly have psychological impacts for healthcare workers, which could be sustained; frontline workers will be particularly at risk. Actions are needed to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health by protecting and promoting the psychological wellbeing of [...] Read more.
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) will undoubtedly have psychological impacts for healthcare workers, which could be sustained; frontline workers will be particularly at risk. Actions are needed to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19 on mental health by protecting and promoting the psychological wellbeing of healthcare workers during and after the outbreak. We developed and evaluated a digital learning package using Agile methodology within the first three weeks of UK outbreak. This e-package includes evidence-based guidance, support and signposting relating to psychological wellbeing for all UK healthcare employees. A three-step rapid development process included public involvement activities (PPIs) (STEP 1), content and technical development with iterative peer review (STEP 2), and delivery and evaluation (STEP 3). The package outlines the actions that team leaders can take to provide psychologically safe spaces for staff, together with guidance on communication and reducing social stigma, peer and family support, signposting others through psychological first aid (PFA), self-care strategies (e.g., rest, work breaks, sleep, shift work, fatigue, healthy lifestyle behaviours), and managing emotions (e.g., moral injury, coping, guilt, grief, fear, anxiety, depression, preventing burnout and psychological trauma). The e-package includes advice from experts in mental wellbeing as well as those with direct pandemic experiences from the frontline, as well as signposting to public mental health guidance. Rapid delivery in STEP 3 was achieved via direct emails through professional networks and social media. Evaluation included assessment of fidelity and implementation qualities. Essential content was identified through PPIs (n = 97) and peer review (n = 10) in STEPS 1 and 2. The most important messages to convey were deemed to be normalisation of psychological responses during a crisis, and encouragement of self-care and help-seeking behaviour. Within 7 days of completion, the package had been accessed 17,633 times, and healthcare providers had confirmed immediate adoption within their health and wellbeing provisions. Evaluation (STEP 3, n = 55) indicated high user satisfaction with content, usability and utility. Assessment of implementation qualities indicated that the package was perceived to be usable, practical, low cost and low burden. Our digital support package on ‘psychological wellbeing for healthcare workers’ is free to use, has been positively evaluated and was highly accessed within one week of release. It is available here: Supplementary Materials. This package was deemed to be appropriate, meaningful and useful for the needs of UK healthcare workers. We recommend provision of this e-package to healthcare workers alongside wider strategies to support their psychological wellbeing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
Psychosocial Risk, Work-Related Stress, and Job Satisfaction among Domestic Waste Collectors in the Ho Municipality of Ghana: A Phenomenological Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2903; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082903 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
Domestic waste collectors play key roles in the collection and disposal of solid waste in Ghana. The work environment and conditions under which domestic waste collectors operate influence their job satisfaction ratings and health outcomes. This study investigated psychosocial risk factors, work-related stress [...] Read more.
Domestic waste collectors play key roles in the collection and disposal of solid waste in Ghana. The work environment and conditions under which domestic waste collectors operate influence their job satisfaction ratings and health outcomes. This study investigated psychosocial risk factors, work-related stress and job satisfaction needs among municipal solid waste collectors in the Ho Municipality of Ghana. A phenomenological design was applied to collect data among 64 domestic waste collectors, 12 managers, and 23 supervisors of two waste companies in Ho Municipality, Ghana. Data were collected from June–August 2018 using in-depth interview and focus group discussion guides. Interviews were supplemented by field observations. Data were analyzed using inductive and deductive content procedures to form themes based on the study aim. Four themes emerged from the study. The study results revealed that domestic waste collector’s poor attitudes and safety behaviors such as not wearing personal protective equipment, poor enforcement of safety standards by supervisors and managers, and work-related stress caused by poor working environments impact negatively on domestic waste collector’s health and safety. Other factors such as poor enforcement of standard company regulations, poor work relations, non-clear work roles, lack of social protection to meet medical needs, poor remuneration, negative community perceptions of domestic waste collectors job, work environments, and workloads of domestic waste collectors were reported to negatively impact on work stress and job satisfaction needs. In conclusion, the findings are important in informing the necessary waste management policies aimed at improving decent work environments, as well as improving the health and well-being of domestic waste collectors in both the formal and informal sectors in Ghana. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
Article
The Antecedents and Consequences of Psychological Safety in Airline Firms: Focusing on High-Quality Interpersonal Relationships
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072187 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
A comprehensive review of the literature on service creativity revealed the necessity to expand the line of creativity-based research in the service-driven industry. It also called for the creation of a survey instrument that entails high-quality interpersonal relationships, psychological safety, and learning from [...] Read more.
A comprehensive review of the literature on service creativity revealed the necessity to expand the line of creativity-based research in the service-driven industry. It also called for the creation of a survey instrument that entails high-quality interpersonal relationships, psychological safety, and learning from failures, by including two creativity-related constructs, namely, creative self-efficacy and employees’ creative work involvement to the model. The current study aimed; (a) to assess the validity and reliability of measurement models; and (b) to empirically examine the integrated proposed model consisting of salient constructs. A convenience sample of 341 airline employees responded to a self-report questionnaire that was developed using the steps of researchers’ in a comprehensive literature review and refined based on the feedback provided by a panel of five professionals who had worked in airline firms. The resultant data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), second-order CFA, and structural equation modeling (SEM) using version 23.0 of AMOS. The results showed that high-quality interpersonal relationships positively influenced psychological safety, which in turn, positively influenced learning from failures and creative self-efficacy. Further, learnings from failures positively influenced creative self-efficacy but not employees’ creative work involvement. Finally, both psychological safety and creative self-efficacy positively influenced employees’ creative work involvement. These findings have significant implications for human resource management practices that aim to promote the creative involvement of airline employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Article
Work–Life Balance: Weighing the Importance of Work–Family and Work–Health Balance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030907 - 01 Feb 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 8652
Abstract
To date, research directed at the work–life balance (WLB) has focused mainly on the work and family domains. However, the current labor force is heterogeneous, and workers may also value other nonworking domains besides the family. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
To date, research directed at the work–life balance (WLB) has focused mainly on the work and family domains. However, the current labor force is heterogeneous, and workers may also value other nonworking domains besides the family. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of other nonworking domains in the WLB with a particular focus on health. Moreover, the importance of the effects of the work–family balance (WFB) and the work–health balance (WHB) on job satisfaction was investigated. Finally, we explored how the effects of the WFB and the WHB on job satisfaction change according to worker characteristics (age, gender, parental status, and work ability). This study involved 318 workers who completed an online questionnaire. The importance of the nonworking domains was compared with a t-test. The effect of the WFB and the WHB on job satisfaction was investigated with multiple and moderated regression analyses. The results show that workers considered health as important as family in the WLB. The WHB explained more of the variance in job satisfaction than the WFB. Age, gender and parental status moderated the effect of the WFB on job satisfaction, and work ability moderated the effect of the WHB on job satisfaction. This study highlights the importance of the health domain in the WLB and stresses that it is crucial to consider the specificity of different groups of workers when considering the WLB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Review

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Review
Physical Exercise and Health-Related Quality of Life in Office Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073791 - 05 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1457
Abstract
Office workers are at high risk for many chronic diseases, lowering their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effects of physical exercise on HRQOL in office workers with and without health problems using data obtained [...] Read more.
Office workers are at high risk for many chronic diseases, lowering their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the effects of physical exercise on HRQOL in office workers with and without health problems using data obtained from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental, and observational studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and several grey literature databases, and identified 26 relevant studies for the synthesis. Overall, physical exercise significantly improved general (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66 to 1.44) and mental (SMD = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.66) HRQOL in office workers. Compared with healthy office workers, unhealthy office workers experienced greater improvements in general (unhealthy, SMD = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.63 to 3.89; healthy, SMD = 0.23; 95% CI: −0.09 to 0.56) and physical (unhealthy, SMD = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.58; healthy, SMD = −0.20; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.11) HRQOL. Unsupervised physical exercise significantly improved general and mental HRQOL, while directly supervised physical exercise significantly improved only general HRQOL. Although physical exercise, especially unsupervised physical exercise, should be encouraged to improve HRQOL in office workers, detailed recommendations could not be made because of the diverse exercise types with different intensities. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the optimal exercise for office workers with different health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Review
A Rapid Realist Review of Group Psychological First Aid for Humanitarian Workers and Volunteers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041452 - 04 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Humanitarian workers are at an elevated risk of occupational trauma exposure and its associated psychological consequences, and experience increased levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population. Psychological first aid (PFA) aims to prevent acute distress reactions [...] Read more.
Humanitarian workers are at an elevated risk of occupational trauma exposure and its associated psychological consequences, and experience increased levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to the general population. Psychological first aid (PFA) aims to prevent acute distress reactions from developing into long-term distress by instilling feelings of safety, calmness, self- and community efficacy, connectedness and hope. Group PFA (GPFA) delivers PFA in a group or team setting. This research sought to understand ‘What works, for whom, in what context, and why for group psychological first aid for humanitarian workers, including volunteers?’ A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted. Initial theories were generated to answer the question and were subsequently refined based on 15 documents identified through a systematic search of databases and grey literature, in addition to the inputs from a core reference panel and two external experts in GPFA. The findings generated seven programme theories that addressed the research question and offered consideration for the implementation of GPFA for the humanitarian workforce across contexts and age groups. GPFA enables individuals to understand their natural reactions, develop adaptive coping strategies, and build social connections that promote a sense of belonging and security. The integrated design of GPFA ensures that individuals are linked to additional supports and have their basic needs addressed. While the evidence is sparce on GPFA, its ability to provide support to humanitarian workers is promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Review
Group Positive Affect and Beyond: An Integrative Review and Future Research Agenda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207499 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Group positive affect is defined as homogeneous positive affect among group members that emerges when working together. Considering that previous research has shown a significant relationship between group positive affect and a wide variety of group outcomes (e.g., behaviors, wellbeing, and performance), it [...] Read more.
Group positive affect is defined as homogeneous positive affect among group members that emerges when working together. Considering that previous research has shown a significant relationship between group positive affect and a wide variety of group outcomes (e.g., behaviors, wellbeing, and performance), it is crucial to boost our knowledge about this construct in the work context. The main purpose is to review empirical research, to synthesize the findings and to provide research agenda about group positive affect, in order to better understand this construct. Through the PsycNET and Proquest Central databases, an integrative review was conducted to identify articles about group positive affect published between January 1990 and March 2019. A total of 44 articles were included and analyzed. Finding suggests that scholars have been more interested in understanding the outcomes of group positive affect and how to improve the productivity of groups than in knowing what the antecedents are. A summary conclusion is that group positive affect is related to leadership, job demands, job resources, diversity/similarity, group processes, and contextual factors, all of which influence the development of several outcomes and different types of wellbeing at the individual and group levels. However, with specific combinations of other conditions (e.g., group trust, negative affect, and interaction), high levels of group positive affect could cause harmful results. Conclusions shed light on group positive affect research and practice and might help Human Resources professionals to initiate empirically-based strategies related to recruitment, group design and leadership training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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Review
Environmental Factors that Impact the Workplace Participation of Transition-Aged Young Adults with Brain-Based Disabilities: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072378 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
Workplace participation of individuals with disabilities continues to be a challenge. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) places importance on the environment in explaining participation in different life domains, including work. A scoping review was conducted to investigate environmental facilitators [...] Read more.
Workplace participation of individuals with disabilities continues to be a challenge. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) places importance on the environment in explaining participation in different life domains, including work. A scoping review was conducted to investigate environmental facilitators and barriers relevant to workplace participation for transition-aged young adults aged 18–35 with brain-based disabilities. Studies published between 1995 and 2018 were screened by two reviewers. Findings were categorized into the ICF’s environmental domains: Products and technology/Natural environment and human-made changes to environment, Support and relationships, Attitudes, and Services, systems and policies. Out of 11,515 articles screened, 31 were retained. All environmental domains of the ICF influenced workplace participation. The majority of the studies (77%) highlighted factors in the Services, systems and policies domain such as inclusive and flexible systems, and well-defined policies exercised at the organizational level. Social support mainly from family, friends, employers and colleagues was reported as a facilitator (68%), followed by physical accessibility and finally, the availability of assistive technology (55%). Attitudes of colleagues and employers were mostly seen as a barrier to workplace participation (48%). Findings can inform the development of guidelines and processes for implementing and reinforcing policies, regulations and support at the organization level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Workplace Health and Wellbeing 2020)
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